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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919660/a-comparison-of-vasodilation-mode-among-selexipag-ns-304-2-4-5-6-diphenylpyrazin-2-yl-isopropyl-amino-butoxy-n-methylsulfonyl-acetamide-its-active-metabolite-mre-269-and-various-prostacyclin-receptor-agonists-in-rat-porcine-and-human-pulmonary-arteries
#1
Chiaki Fuchikami, Kohji Murakami, Koyuki Tajima, Junko Homan, Keiji Kosugi, Kazuya Kuramoto, Michiko Oka, Keiichi Kuwano
Selexipag (NS-304; [2-{4-[(5,6-diphenylpyrazin-2-yl)(isopropyl)amino]butoxy}-N- (methylsulfonyl)acetamide]) is a novel, orally available non-prostanoid prostacyclin receptor (IP receptor) agonist that has recently been approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We examined the effect of the active metabolite of selexipag, MRE-269, and IP receptor agonists that are currently available as PAH therapeutic drugs on the relaxation of rat, porcine and human pulmonary artery. cAMP formation in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells was induced by all test compounds (MRE-269, epoprostenol, iloprost, treprostinil and beraprost sodium) and suppressed by IP receptor antagonists (CAY10441 and 2-[4-(1H-indol-4-yloxymethyl)-benzyloxycarbonylamino]-3-phenyl-propionic acid)...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916893/the-interaction-between-dietary-fiber-and-fat-and-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-in-the-women-s-health-initiative
#2
Sandi L Navarro, Marian L Neuhouser, Ting-Yuan David Cheng, Lesley F Tinker, James M Shikany, Linda Snetselaar, Jessica A Martinez, Ikuko Kato, Shirley A A Beresford, Robert S Chapkin, Johanna W Lampe
Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically) and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), specifically) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the Women's Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017). During a mean 11.7 years (1993-2010), 1952 incident CRC cases were identified...
November 30, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916863/lipid-composition-of-oil-extracted-from-wasted-norway-lobster-nephrops-norvegicus-heads-and-comparison-with-oil-extracted-from-antarctic-krill-euphasia-superba
#3
Amaya Albalat, Lauren E Nadler, Nicholas Foo, James R Dick, Andrew J R Watts, Heather Philp, Douglas M Neil, Oscar Monroig
In the UK, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) supports its most important shellfish fishery. Nephrops are sold either whole, or as "tails-only" for the scampi trade. In the "tailing" process, the "head" (cephalothorax) is discarded as waste. A smaller crustacean species, the Antarctic krill Euphasia superba, represents an economically valuable industry, as its extractable oil is sold as a human dietary supplement. The aim of this study was to determine the amount and composition of the oil contained in discarded Nephrops heads and to compare its composition to the oil extracted from krill...
December 1, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916115/highly-sensitive-and-specific-derivatization-strategy-to-profile-and-quantitate-eicosanoids-by-uplc-ms-ms
#4
Ting Hu, Cai Tie, Zhe Wang, Jin-Lan Zhang
Eicosanoids are signaling molecules mainly oxidized from arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). They have attracted increasing attention from the scientists attributing to their essential physiological functions. However, their quantification have long been challenged by the low abundance, high structure similarity, poor stability and limited ionization efficiency. In this paper, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatograph coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) strategy was developed for the comprehensive profiling of more than 60 eicosanoids based on an efficient derivatization reagent 2,4-bis(diethylamino)-6-hydrazino-1,3,5-triazine (T3) and general multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) parameters...
January 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914515/measurement-of-red-blood-cell-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-levels-in-a-randomised-trial-of-epa-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-liver-metastases
#5
Henry Watson, Andrew J Cockbain, Jade Spencer, Amanda Race, Milene Volpato, Paul M Loadman, Giles J Toogood, Mark A Hull
We investigated red blood cell (RBC) PUFA profiles, and the predictive value of RBC EPA content for tumour EPA exposure and clinical outcomes, in the EMT study, a randomised trial of EPA in patients awaiting colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastasis surgery (Cockbain et al., 2014) [8]. There was a significant increase in RBC EPA in the EPA group (n=43; median intervention 30 days; mean absolute 1.26[±0.14]% increase; P<0.001), but not in the placebo arm (n=45). EPA incorporation varied widely in EPA users and was not explained by treatment duration or compliance...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914514/protective-effects-of-fish-oil-and-pioglitazone-on-pancreatic-tissue-in-obese-kk-mice-with-type-2-diabetes
#6
Yuzuru Iizuka, Hyounju Kim, Takuya Izawa, Koji Sakurai, Satoshi Hirako, Masahiro Wada, Akiyo Matsumoto
n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have protective effects against the pancreatic β-cell dysfunction through several mechanisms. Thiazolidines are insulin sensitizers and are used in treating patients with type 2 diabetes. Our previous study demonstrated that a combination of fish oil, which is rich with EPA and DHA, and pioglitazone exerts beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes through their actions on the liver and adipose tissue. However, it remains largely unknown whether such combination therapy affects the pancreas...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914509/effects-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-supplementation-on-pufa-levels-in-red-blood-cells-and-plasma
#7
Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Annika I Ostermann, Lisa Stork, Laura Kutzner, Heike Kohrs, Theresa Greupner, Andreas Hahn, Nils Helge Schebb
INTRODUCTION: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are metabolized in a complex network of elongation, desaturation and beta oxidation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The short (1 and 3 wk), and long term (6 and 12 wk) effect of 1076mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, free of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) on (absolute) PUFA concentrations in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) of 12 healthy men (mean age 25.1±1.5 years) was investigated. RESULTS: RBC DHA concentrations significantly (p<0...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913872/treatment-for-6%C3%A2-months-with-fish-oil-derived-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-has-neutral-effects-on-glycemic-control-but-improves-dyslipidemia-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-abdominal-obesity-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#8
Feng Wang, Yanyan Wang, Yan Zhu, Xiaosong Liu, Hui Xia, Xian Yang, Guiju Sun
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effects of fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA on glycemic control and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients with abdominal obesity. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 100 type 2 diabetic patients with abdominal obesity were randomized into two groups including 4 g/day of fish oil (2.4 g n-3 PUFA) or placebo (corn oil) for 6 months. Serum fatty acid, body composition, as well as markers of glucose regulation and lipid parameters were measured before and after intervention...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913275/dietary-fish-oil-replacement-by-linseed-oil-effect-on-growth-nutrient-utilization-tissue-fatty-acid-composition-and-desaturase-gene-expression-in-silver-barb-puntius-gonionotus-fingerlings
#9
Madhusmita Nayak, Ashis Saha, Avinash Pradhan, Mrinal Samanta, Shiba Shankar Giri
Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. This study in silver barb was carried out to evaluate the effects of total or partial substitution of dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, nutrient utilization, whole-body composition, muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Fish (12.1±0.4g of initial body weight) were fed for 60days with five experimental iso-proteinous, iso-lipidic and iso-caloric diets in which FO (control diet) was replaced by 33...
November 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908382/water-soluble-and-organic-extracts-of-airborne-particulate-matter-induce-micronuclei-in-human-lung-epithelial-a549-cells
#10
Isabel C Palacio, Silvia B M Barros, Deborah A Roubicek
The in vitro genotoxic effects of organic and water-soluble fractions of airborne particulate matter (PM10) with the cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) test in human alveolar carcinoma cells A549 were investigated. Samples were collected in three different sites of São Paulo State, Brazil, and fifteen soluble metals and the sixteen EPÁs priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were chemically determined. PAHs prevailing were fluoranthene and benzo(ghi)perylene. In the water-soluble extracts, highest concentration of metals was found for zinc, iron, and copper in all places of collection...
December 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908372/the-nontransecting-approach-to-bulbar-urethroplasty
#11
REVIEW
Stella Ivaz, Simon Bugeja, Anastasia Frost, Daniela Andrich, Anthony R Mundy
The standard treatment of bulbar urethral strictures of appropriate length is excision and primary anastomosis (EPA), irrespective of the cause of the stricture. This involves transection of the corpus spongiosum (CS) and disruption of the blood flow within the CS as a consequence. The success rate of EPA in curing these strictures is very high, but there is a considerable body of evidence and of opinion to suggest that there is a significant risk of sexual dysfunction and, potentially, of other adverse consequences that occur because of transection of the CS...
February 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905700/use-of-ozone-depleting-substances-direct-final-rule
#12
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) is amending its regulation on uses of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), to remove the designation for certain products as "essential uses" under the Clean Air Act. Essential-use products are exempt from the ban by FDA on the use of CFCs and other ODS propellants in FDA-regulated products and from the ban by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the use of ODSs in pressurized dispensers. The products that will no longer constitute an essential use are: Sterile aerosol talc administered intrapleurally by thoracoscopy for human use and metered-dose atropine sulfate aerosol human drugs administered by oral inhalation...
October 26, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902774/intravenous-treatment-with-a-long-chain-omega-3-lipid-emulsion-provides-neuroprotection-in-a-murine-model-of-ischemic-stroke-a-pilot-study
#13
Dirk Berressem, Konrad Koch, Nicole Franke, Jochen Klein, Gunter P Eckert
Single long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) are known for their neuroprotective properties associated with ischemic stroke. This pilot study aimed to test the effectiveness of an acute treatment with a long-chain omega-3 lipid emulsion (Omegaven 10%®, OGV) that contains fish oil (DHA 18 mg/ml; EPA 21 mg/ml) and α-tocopherol (0.2 mg/ml) in a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemic stroke in mice. For this purpose, female CD-1 mice were anesthetized and subjected to 90 minutes of MCAO...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902432/self-replicating-shuttle-vectors-based-on-pans-a-small-endogenous-plasmid-of-the-unicellular-cyanobacterium-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942
#14
You Chen, Arnaud Taton, Michaela Go, Ross E London, Lindsey M Pieper, Susan S Golden, James W Golden
To facilitate development of synthetic biology tools for genetic engineering of cyanobacterial strains, we constructed pANS-derived self-replicating shuttle vectors that are based on the minimal replication element of the Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942 plasmid pANS. To remove the possibility of homologous recombination events between the shuttle plasmids and the native pANS plasmid, the endogenous pANS was cured through plasmid incompatibility-mediated spontaneous loss. A heterologous toxin-antitoxin cassette was incorporated into the shuttle vectors for stable plasmid maintenance in the absence of antibiotic selection...
October 14, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895698/combinations-of-bio-active-dietary-constituents-affect-human-white-adipocyte-function-in-vitro
#15
Ines Warnke, Johan W E Jocken, Rotraut Schoop, Christine Toepfer, Regina Goralczyk, Joseph Schwager
BACKGROUND: Specific bio-active dietary compounds modulate numerous metabolic processes in adipose tissue (AT), including pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. AT dysfunction, rather than an increased fat mass per se, is strongly associated with the development of insulin resistance and is characterized by impaired adipogenesis, hypertrophic adipocytes, inflammation, and impairments in substrate metabolism. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying AT dysfunction may provide new strategies for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic diseases...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895203/a-palmitic-acid-elongase-affects-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-plastidal-monogalactosyldiacylglcerol-levels-in-nannochloropsis
#16
Lina Juana Dolch, Camille Rak, Giorgio Perin, Guillaume Tourcier, Richard Broughton, Marina Leterrier, Tomas Morosinotto, Frédérique Tellier, Jean-Denis Faure, Denis Falconet, Juliette Jouhet, Olga Sayanova, Frederic Beaudoin, Eric Marechal
Nannochloropsis species are oleaginous eukaryotes containing a plastid limited by four membranes, deriving from a secondary endosymbiosis. In Nannochloropsis, thylakoid lipids including monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) are enriched in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The need for EPA in MGDG is not understood. Fatty acids are de novo synthesized in the stroma, then converted into very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids at the ER. The production of MGDG relies therefore on an EPA supply from the ER to the plastid, following an unknown process...
November 28, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887602/combination-of-aspirin-with-essential-fatty-acids-is-superior-to-aspirin-alone-to-prevent-or-ameliorate-sepsis-or-ards
#17
EDITORIAL
Undurti N Das
It has been suggested that aspirin may be of benefit in treating sepsis and ARDS in view of its ability to block cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 activities; inhibit nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB); enhance the production of endothelial nitric oxide (eNO) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4). Our previous studies revealed that plasma phospholipid content of arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is low in patients with sepsis. This implies that beneficial actions of aspirin in sepsis and ARDS is unlikely to be obtained in view of deficiency of AA and EPA, the precursors of LXA4 and resolvins respectively that are potent anti-inflammatory compounds and enhancers of eNO generation...
November 25, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886988/lifetime-lung-cancer-risks-associated-with-indoor-radon-exposure-based-on-various-radon-risk-models-for-canadian-population
#18
Jing Chen
This study calculates and compares the lifetime lung cancer risks associated with indoor radon exposure based on well-known risk models in the literature; two risk models are from joint studies among miners and the other three models were developed from pooling studies on residential radon exposure from China, Europe and North America respectively. The aim of this article is to make clear that the various models are mathematical descriptions of epidemiologically observed real risks in different environmental settings...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886528/neighborhood-social-stressors-fine-particulate-matter-air-pollution-and-cognitive-function-among-older-u-s-adults
#19
Jennifer Ailshire, Amelia Karraker, Philippa Clarke
A growing number of studies have found a link between outdoor air pollution and cognitive function among older adults. Psychosocial stress is considered an important factor determining differential susceptibility to environmental hazards and older adults living in stressful neighborhoods may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse health effects of exposure to hazards such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to determine if neighborhood social stress amplifies the association between fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2...
November 14, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886439/efficacy-of-accelerated-hydrogen-peroxide-%C3%A2-disinfectant-on-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-swine-vesicular-disease-virus-and-senecavirus-a
#20
Kate Hole, Faraz Ahmadpour, Jay Krishnan, Carol Stansfield, John Copps, Charles Nfon
AIMS: In a laboratory disinfectants used to inactivate pathogens on contaminated surfaces and prevent spread of diseases often have adverse side effects on personnel and the environment. It is therefore essential to find safer, fast-acting and yet effective disinfectants. The objective of this study was to evaluate an accelerated hydrogen peroxide(®) (AHP(®) ) - based disinfectant against high consequence foreign animal disease pathogens such as foot-and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), as well as Senencavirus A (SVA), which causes similar lesions as FMDV and SVDV...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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