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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923417/mechanisms-of-memory-dysfunction-during-high-altitude-hypoxia-training-in-military-aircrew
#1
Daniel A Nation, Mark W Bondi, Ellis Gayles, Dean C Delis
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction from high altitude exposure is a major cause of civilian and military air disasters. Pilot training improves recognition of the early symptoms of altitude exposure so that countermeasures may be taken before loss of consciousness. Little is known regarding the nature of cognitive impairments manifesting within this critical window when life-saving measures may still be taken. Prior studies evaluating cognition during high altitude simulation have predominantly focused on measures of reaction time and other basic attention or motor processes...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886995/cosmic-radiation-exposure-of-future-hypersonic-flight-missions
#2
L Koops
Cosmic radiation exposure in air traffic grows with flight altitude, geographical latitude and flight time. For future high-speed intercontinental point-to-point travel, the trade-off between reduced flight time and enhanced dose rate at higher flight altitudes is investigated. Various representative (partly) hypersonic cruise missions are considered and in dependence on solar activity the integral route dose is calculated for envisaged flight profiles and trajectories. Our results are compared to those for corresponding air connections served by present day subsonic airliners...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849510/g-induced-visual-symptoms-in-a-military-helicopter-pilot
#3
Terry W McMahon, David G Newman
INTRODUCTION: Military helicopters are increasingly agile and capable of producing significant G forces experienced in the longitudinal (z) axis of the body in a head-to-foot direction (+Gz). Dehydration and fatigue can adversely affect a pilot's +Gz tolerance, leading to +Gz-induced symptomatology occurring at lower +Gz levels than expected. The potential for adverse consequences of +Gz exposure to affect flight safety in military helicopter operations needs to be recognized. This case report describes a helicopter pilot who experienced +Gz-induced visual impairment during low-level flight...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798410/comparison-of-the-effective-dose-rate-to-aircrew-members-using-hybrid-computational-phantoms-in-standing-and-sitting-postures
#4
M C Alves, D C Galeano, W S Santos, Choonsik Lee, Wesley E Bolch, John G Hunt, A X da Silva, A B Carvalho
Aircraft crew members are occupationally exposed to considerable levels of cosmic radiation at flight altitudes. Since aircrew (pilots and passengers) are in the sitting posture for most of the time during flight, and up to now there has been no data on the effective dose rate calculated for aircrew dosimetry in flight altitude using a sitting phantom, we therefore calculated the effective dose rate using a phantom in the sitting and standing postures in order to compare the influence of the posture on the radiation protection of aircrew members...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683875/subjective-health-complaints-work-related-stress-and-self-efficacy-in-norwegian-aircrew
#5
M L Omholt, T H Tveito, C Ihlebæk
BACKGROUND: The European civilian aviation industry has undergone major changes in the last decade. Despite this, there is little knowledge about work-related stress and subjective health complaints (SHCs) affecting Norwegian aircrew. AIMS: To investigate the relationships between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs in commercial aircrew in Norway and to explore differences between cockpit and cabin crew. METHODS: Aircrew members from the three major airlines operating from Norway completed an electronically distributed questionnaire...
September 28, 2016: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651568/radiological-risk-assessment-of-cosmic-radiation-at-aviation-altitudes-a-trip-from-houston-intercontinental-airport-to-lagos-international-airport
#6
Paschal Ikenna Enyinna
Radiological risk parameters associated with aircrew members traveling from Houston Intercontinental Airport to Lagos International Airport have been computed using computer software called EPCARD (version 3.2). The mean annual effective dose of radiation was computed to be 2.94 mSv/year. This result is above the standard permissible limit of 1 mSv/year set for the public and pregnant aircrew members but below the limit set for occupationally exposed workers. The Risk of cancer mortality and excess career time cancer risk computed ranged from 3...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634698/metabolic-syndrome-in-military-aircrew-using-a-candidate-definition
#7
Sanjiv Sharma, A M Chandrashekar, Vishal Singh
INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Indian population varies from 31.6 to 41.1%. Indians, without being conventionally obese, but inherently insulin resistant, have higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Since military aircrew, belonging to the same ethnic pool, may reflect similar prevalence of MetS as the general Indian populace, this study was undertaken to find the prevalence of MetS among Indian military aircrew using one candidate definition...
September 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634610/recurrence-of-neurological-deficits-in-an-f-a-18d-pilot-following-loss-of-cabin-pressure-at-altitude
#8
Tom Robinson, Jose S Evangelista, Emi Latham, Samir T Mukherjee, Andrew Pilmanis
INTRODUCTION: Supersonic, high altitude aviation places its pilots and aircrew in complex environments, which may lead to injury that is not easily diagnosed or simply treated. Decompression illness (either venous or arterial) and environmental conditions (e.g., abnormal gases and pressure) are the most likely adverse effects aircrew often face. Though symptomatic aircrew personnel may occasionally require hyperbaric oxygen treatment, it is rare to require more than one treatment before returning to baseline function...
August 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599281/current-concepts-of-oral-and-maxillofacial-rehabilitation-and-treatment-in-aviation
#9
Esra Yuce, Gulperi Koçer, Turan Atila Çini
Aerospace medicine is the medical discipline responsible for assessing and conserving the health, safety, and performance of individuals involved in air and space travel. With the upward trend in airline travel, flight-related oral conditions requiring treatment have become a source of concern for aircrew members. Awareness and treatment of any potential physiological problems for these aircrews have always been critical components of aviation safety. In a flight situation, oral and maxillofacial problems may in fact become life-threatening clinical conditions...
September 2016: General Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443753/military-jet-pilots-have-higher-p-wave-dispersions-compared-to-the-transport-aircraft-aircrew
#10
Mustafa Çakar, Süleyman Metin, Şevket Balta, Cengiz Öztürk, Sait Demirkol, Tolga Çakmak, Satılmış İnal, Turgay Çelik, Atilla İyisoy, Murat Ünlü, Ahmet Şen
OBJECTIVES: For the purpose of flight safety military aircrew must be healthy. P-wave dispersion (PWD) is the p-wave length difference in an electrocardiographic (ECG) examination and represents the risk of developing atrial fibrillation. In the study we aimed at investigating PWD in healthy military aircrew who reported for periodical examinations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-five asymptomatic military aircrew were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent physical, radiologic and biochemical examinations, and a 12-lead electrocardiography...
2016: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184412/mortality-from-neurodegenerative-diseases-in-a-cohort-of-us-flight-attendants
#11
Lynne E Pinkerton, Misty J Hein, Barbara Grajewski, Freya Kamel
BACKGROUND: Concern exists about the potential chronic neurological effects among aircrew of exposure to chemical contaminants from engine oil in aircraft cabin air. We evaluated mortality from neurodegenerative diseases among 11,311 former US flight attendants. METHODS: Vital status was ascertained through 2007, and life table analyses were conducted to obtain standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). RESULTS: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mortality was over twice as high in the cohort as in the US general population, based on nine observed ALS deaths...
July 2016: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27181256/electroencephalographic-findings-in-schizophreniform-and-affective-disorders
#12
Dominique Endres, Evgeniy Perlov, Bernd Feige, Max Fleck, Susanne Bartels, Dirk-Matthias Altenmüller, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
OBJECTIVE: Pathological findings in electroencephalography (EEG) are discussed as a possible marker of organic mental disorders and a therapeutic response to anticonvulsive medication under these conditions. METHODS: We compared the prevalence of EEG abnormalities in 100 patients with schizophrenia, 100 patients with schizoaffective disorder, 51 patients with acute polymorphic psychotic disorder, 100 patients with bipolar disorder, 100 patients with unipolar major depression and 76 healthy control subjects with the findings of a previous study using well-diagnosed, large control samples (13,658 pilots and aircrew personnel)...
September 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150515/characterization-of-a-thin-silicon-sensor-for-active-neutron-personal-dosemeters
#13
M Takada, T Nunomiya, T Nakamura, T Matsumoto, A Masuda
A thin silicon sensor has been developed for active neutron personal dosemeters for use by aircrews and first responders. This thin silicon sensor is not affected by the funneling effect, which causes detection of cosmic protons and over-response to cosmic neutrons. There are several advantages to the thin silicon sensor: a decrease in sensitivity to gamma rays, an improvement of the energy detection limit for neutrons down to 0.8 MeV and an increase in the sensitivity to fast neutrons. Neutron response functions were experimentally obtained using 2...
September 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103651/hyperoxia-and-hypergravity-are-independent-risk-factors-of-atelectasis-in-healthy-sitting-humans-a-pulmonary-ultrasound-and-spect-ct-study
#14
C Dussault, E Gontier, C Verret, M Soret, A Boussuges, G Hedenstierna, S Montmerle-Borgdorff
Aeroatelectasis has developed in aircrew flying routine peacetime flights on the latest generation high-performance aircraft, when undergoing excessive oxygen supply. To single out the effects of hyperoxia and hypergravity on lung tissue compression, and on ventilation and perfusion, eight subjects were studied before and after 1 h 15 min exposure to +1 to +3.5 Gz in a human centrifuge. They performed the protocol three times, breathing air, 44.5% O2, or 100% O2 and underwent functional and topographical imaging of the whole lung by ultrasound and single-photon emission computed tomography combined with computed tomography (SPECT/CT)...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26821462/-stages-of-development-of-flight-medical-expertise-in-russia
#15
A L Chaplyuk, V S Vovkodav, Yu K Churilov, A N Klepikov
Flight medical expertise (FME) in military aviation is one of the most important areas of medical support of flight crews manning, maintaining of aircrew health and flight safety. The authors analyse the main stages of development of this area of medical practice. The priority in creation of FME system belongs to our country. Domestic scientists, prominent organizers of military medicine and a large group of aviation physicians developed organizational and methodological basis for studying different impacts of flight factors on the health of flight personnel, development of criteria for admission to flight operations, principles of organization of the examination, implementation of effective methods of disease diagnosis...
July 2015: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26802377/gastrointestinal-disease-in-pilots-2001-2013
#16
Patrick R Storms, Mark J Kinchen
INTRODUCTION: The frequency and distribution of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in the population of active duty Air Force pilots is poorly understood, even though GI illness can temporarily or permanently lead to disqualification from flying duties. Better understanding of GI disease within this population could yield considerable operational risk and human performance insight and provide data to use in assessing the effectiveness of current medical standards related to flight training and flying duties...
February 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26735233/posture-and-helmet-load-influences-on-neck-muscle-activation
#17
Michael F Harrison, Kelsey A Forde, Wayne J Albert, James C Croll, J Patrick Neary
INTRODUCTION: Night vision goggles (NVG) are linked to increased neck muscle activation and pain. Counterweights (NVGcw) are hypothesized to mitigate these effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the muscular response to varying helmet loads and postures. METHODS: Volunteering from a representative squadron were 16 male helicopter aviators (pilots, N = 9; flight engineers, N = 7). Subjects performed head movements to assume nine different postures (three directions: left, center, and right, at three different levels: down, level, and up) with four different head loads (no helmet; helmet only; NVG; and NVGcw) in randomized order...
January 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26735231/occupational-ocular-uv-exposure-in-civilian-aircrew
#18
Adrian C Chorley, Katarzyna A Baczynska, Martin J Benwell, Bruce J W Evans, Michael P Higlett, Marina Khazova, John B O'Hagan
INTRODUCTION: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) increases with altitude; however, there are a number of other factors which may influence ocular exposure during flight. The aim of this study was to assess ocular UVR exposure of pilots in airline and off-shore helicopter operations on different aircraft types and to compare with exposure in a typical office environment. METHOD: In-flight data were captured on equipment including a CCD array spectroradiometer on five return sector European airline flights and one transatlantic flight from London Gatwick in addition to four helicopter flights from Aberdeen Dyce airport...
January 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26681126/prevalence-of-intraventricular-conduction-disturbances-in-a-large-french-population
#19
Jonathan Monin, Sébastien Bisconte, Aurore Nicaise, Anne-Pia Hornez, Olivier Manen, Eric Perrier
BACKGROUND: Recommendations for the interpretation of electrocardiogram have been published in 2009. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of intraventricular conduction disturbances (ICoDs) in a large population, using these recommendations. METHODS: From 01/31/1996 to 09/22/2010, an electrocardiogram was performed at each visit for all aircrew members examined for fitness assessment in an aeromedical center. The prevalence of left bundle branch block (LBBB), right bundle branch block (RBBB), incomplete LBBB, incomplete RBBB, nonspecific intraventricular disturbance (NIVCD), left anterior fascicular block (LAFB), and left posterior fascicular block (LPFB) was measured and compared by age and gender...
September 2016: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26641522/pollutant-exposures-and-health-symptoms-in-aircrew-and-office-workers-is-there-a-link
#20
REVIEW
Peder Wolkoff, Derrick R Crump, Paul T C Harrison
Sensory effects in eyes and airways are common symptoms reported by aircraft crew and office workers. Neurological symptoms, such as headache, have also been reported. To assess the commonality and differences in exposures and health symptoms, a literature search of aircraft cabin and office air concentrations of non-reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ozone-initiated terpene reaction products were compiled and assessed. Data for tricresyl phosphates, in particular tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (ToCP), were also compiled, as well as information on other risk factors such as low relative humidity...
February 2016: Environment International
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