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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731979/long-term-predictive-models-of-risk-factors-for-early-chronic-kidney-disease-a-longitudinal-study
#1
Wen-Chih Wu, Po-Chien Hsieh, Fu-Kang Hu, Jen-Chun Kuan, Chi-Ming Chu, Chien-An Sun, Tsan Yang, Sui-Lung Su, Yu-Ching Chou
Background: The high incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Taiwan have produced tremendous burdens on health care resources. The work environment of air force special operations personnel engenders high psychological stress, and the resulting increased blood pressure can lead to glomerular hypertension and accelerated glomerular injury in the long term. The aim of the study was to establish the predictive models to define the predictors of CKD. Results: The results indicated that the prevalence of CKD over 4 consecutive years was 3...
April 13, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723267/the-maximum-evaporative-potential-of-constant-wear-immersion-suits-influences-the-risk-of-excessive-heat-strain-for-helicopter-aircrew
#2
Andrew P Hunt
The heat exchange properties of aircrew clothing including a Constant Wear Immersion Suit (CWIS), and the environmental conditions in which heat strain would impair operational performance, were investigated. The maximum evaporative potential (im/clo) of six clothing ensembles (three with a flight suit (FLY) and three with a CWIS) of varying undergarment layers were measured with a heated sweating manikin. Biophysical modelling estimated the environmental conditions in which body core temperature would elevate above 38...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705399/mollie-lentaigne-the-nurse-who-drew-mcindoe-s-guinea-pigs-exploring-the-role-of-a-medical-artist-at-the-queen-victoria-hospital-1940-1945
#3
Alexander J Baldwin
Mollie Lentaigne was a medical artist who worked at the Queen Victoria Hospital in East Grinstead during the Second World War alongside Archibald McIndoe and his dedicated team. She drew hundreds of medical illustrations for McIndoe and his fellow surgeons during the years between 1940 and 1945. Her illustrations depict the plastic surgery that was carried out in that hospital on the badly burnt RAF servicemen injured during the war that took place in the skies over Europe, which included many aircrew injured during the Battle of Britain...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685555/prevalence-of-benign-epileptiform-variants-during-initial-eeg-examination-in-french-military-aircrew
#4
Jonathan Monin, Estelle Pruvost-Robieux, Nicolas Huiban, Angela Marchi, Benoit Crepon, Dominique Dubourdieu, Eric Perrier, Martine Gavaret
INTRODUCTION: In France, a systematic EEG is performed during initial examination in military aircrew applicants, which may provide an estimation of the prevalence of benign epileptiform variants in healthy adults. METHODS: We analyzed standard EEG (21 scalp electrodes, 20minutes, 400Hz sampling rate) of military aircrew applicants examined in the French Main Aeromedical Center in 2016. EEGs were analyzed using both bipolar and referential montages. The collected data were EEG abnormalities and benign epileptiform variants...
April 20, 2018: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673430/hypobaric-conditions-and-retention-of-dental-crowns-luted-with-manually-or-automixed-dental-cements
#5
Andrej M Kielbassa, Johannes A G Müller
BACKGROUND: There is only scant information on the influence of the hypobaric environment on luting agents and their efficacy on dental crown cementation. The objective of this study was to provide data on the retentive characters of two cements commonly used on implant abutment surfaces both under normal and under hypobaric conditions. METHODS: There were 56 implant abutments supplied with CAD/CAM milled zirconia oxide crowns. 1) A zinc phosphate cement (ZP), and 2) a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI), each mixed either A) manually or B) by means of automix capsules, were used for cementation...
May 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562972/zolpidem-as-a-sleep-aid-for-military-aviators
#6
Guan Sen Kew, Brian See
INTRODUCTION: Zolpidem is a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic that has been approved by the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) for aircrew sleep management since 2005. Prior to consuming zolpidem for operational reasons, each RSAF aircrew member is required to undergo a ground test to exclude operationally relevant adverse drug effects. This study describes the RSAF's zolpidem ground testing outcomes over a 12.5-yr period. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of 578 RSAF aircrew members who underwent zolpidem test dosing from 1 January 2005 to 30 June 2017...
April 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562968/epidemiology-of-airmen-treated-with-immunosuppressive-drugs-and-vaccination-concerns
#7
Gaetan Guiu, Jonathan Monin, Anne-Pia Hamm-Hornez, Olivier Manen, Eric Perrier
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive treatments are increasingly prescribed in a variety of diseases. This issue concerns airmen. METHODS: To assess the problem, we conducted an observational retrospective study in the aircrew population examined in 2014 at the Aeromedical Center of Percy Military Hospital. RESULTS: Airmen treated with immunosuppressive drugs accounted for 0.5% of the total population (N = 13,326). Rheumatic and digestive diseases were the main etiologies, respectively 43% and 35% of cases...
April 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463353/aviator-s-fluid-balance-during-military-flight
#8
Anna Levkovsky, Sivan Abot-Barkan, Leah Chapnik, Omer Doron, Yuval Levy, Yuval Heled, Barak Gordon
INTRODUCTION: A loss of 1% or more of bodyweight due to dehydration has a negative effect on cognitive performance, which could critically affect flight safety. There is no mention in the literature concerning the amounts of military pilots' fluid loss during flight. The aim of this study was to quantify fluid loss of pilots during military flight. METHODS: There were 48 aviators (mean age 23.9) from the Israeli Air Force who participated in the study, which included 104 training flights in various flight platforms...
February 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386715/aeromedical-solutions-for-aerospace-safety
#9
Pawan Kapoor, Deepak Gaur
All facets of activity in the speciality of Aviation Medicine are essentially aimed at enhancing aerospace safety. This paper highlights some innovative changes brought about by Aerospace Medicine in the three major fields of the speciality namely, medical evaluation, aeromedical training and research. Based on lab and field studies, military aircrew are now permitted flying with Modifinil as 'Go' Pill and Zolpidem as 'No-Go' Pill during sustained operations. Several other drugs for disabilities like Hypertension and CAD are now permitted for aviators...
October 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365191/vape-and-aviate-electronic-cigarette-use-and-misuse-in-naval-aviation
#10
Matthew T Hall, Ryan P Austin, Tai A Do, Andrea McGlynn
Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (EC) are an emerging form of nicotine replacement that has had a discernible increase in prevalence in the general population. Little is known regarding EC use among different military demographic groups or the extent of influence that social determinants of health may have on the behavior. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of EC use in a select population of active duty U.S. Naval personnel. This study is unique in that it allows for EC behavior comparison between a traditionally healthy demographic (aviators, a subset of aircrew) and a representative general military population sample...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233244/modeling-predictors-of-duties-not-including-flying-status
#11
Anthony P Tvaryanas, Converse Griffith
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to reuse available datasets to conduct an analysis of potential predictors of U.S. Air Force aircrew nonavailability in terms of being in "duties not to include flying" (DNIF) status. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort analysis of U.S. Air Force aircrew on active duty during the period from 2003-2012. Predictor variables included age, Air Force Specialty Code (AFSC), clinic location, diagnosis, gender, pay grade, and service component...
January 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136055/skin-cancer-in-military-pilots-a-special-population-with-special-risk-factors
#12
Bart D Wilkison, Emily B Wong
Military pilots may be at greater risk for skin cancer, particularly melanoma. Military-specific studies are limited, but skin cancer rates in civilian pilots and aircrews have previously been examined. Risk factors for all pilots may include exposure to UV radiation (UVR) at higher altitudes, cosmic radiation, and electromagnetic energy from cockpit instruments, as well as altered sleep-wake cycles. The study of aviation-specific risk factors for skin cancer is relevant to all pilots and dermatologists who care for them...
October 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046180/aircrew-and-handheld-laser-exposure
#13
Kevin C Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Laser devices are ubiquitous in everyday operations. These devices pose a hazard to the eye and numerous injuries have been documented. However, there lies a misunderstanding in the propensity to damage aircrews' eyes during an exposure. Patient encounters and article review is presented in hopes to raise awareness that aircrew laser exposure at altitude, outside of critical phases of flight, is a distraction and not a threat. Also, to propose a change to Air Force policy regarding such exposures and further educating flight surgeons...
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046172/readability-of-new-aviation-chart-symbology-in-day-and-nvg-reading-conditions
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Anthony S Wagstaff, Terje Larsen
BACKGROUND: The Swedish Air Force (SwAF) conducted a study in 2010 to harmonize portrayal of aeronautical info (AI) on SwAF charts with NATO standards. A mismatch was found concerning vertical obstructions (VO). Norway regarded Sweden's existing symbology as a way to solve the problem of overcrowded air charts and the two countries started to cooperate. The result of this development was a new set of symbology for obstacles. The aim of this study was to test the readability of the new obstacle and power line symbols compared to the old symbols...
November 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040454/to-fly-as-a-pilot-after-cardiac-surgery
#15
Thomas Syburra, Ed Nicol, Stuart Mitchell, Denis Bron, Ulrich Rosendahl, John Pepper
Aircrew are responsible for safe and reliable aircraft operations. Cardiovascular disease accounts for 50% of all pilot licences declined or withdrawn for medical reasons in Western Europe and is the most common cases of sudden incapacitation in flight. Aircrew retirement age is increasing (up to age 65) in a growing number of airlines and the burden of subclinical, but potentially significant, coronary atherosclerosis is unknown in qualified pilots above age 40. Safety considerations are paramount in aviation medicine, and the most dreaded cardiovascular complications are thromboembolic events and rhythm disturbances due to their potential for sudden incapacitation...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036712/comparison-of-cosmic-ray-environments-on-earth-moon-mars-and-in-spacecarft-using-phits
#16
Tatsuhiko Sato, Aiko Nagamatsu, Haruka Ueno, Ryuho Kataoka, Shoko Miyake, Kazuo Takeda, Koji Niita
Estimation of cosmic-ray doses is of great importance not only in aircrew and astronaut dosimetry but also in evaluation of background radiation exposure to public. We therefore calculated the cosmic-ray doses on Earth, Moon and Mars as well as inside spacecraft, using Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System PHITS. The same cosmic-ray models and dose conversion coefficients were employed in the calculation to properly compare between the simulation results for different environments. It is quantitatively confirmed that the thickness of physical shielding including the atmosphere and soil of the planets is the most important parameter to determine the cosmic-ray doses and their dominant contributors...
September 29, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036445/development-validation-and-demonstration-of-the-nthu-flight-dose-calculator
#17
An-Lun Li, Wei-Fan Pan, Rong-Jiun Sheu
Galactic cosmic-ray-induced air showers constitute the largest source of radiation exposure for aircrew and passengers. To facilitate the evaluation of effective doses received by this population, a database containing dose rates of various radiation components in the atmosphere was established; the parameterization accounted for altitude, geomagnetic rigidity and solar modulation. Energy spectra of secondary cosmic rays and effective dose rates were calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. An auxiliary MATLAB program with a graphical user interface was developed to estimate the aviation route dose through interpolation and integration...
September 23, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930297/estimated-radiation-exposure-of-german-commercial-airline-cabin-crew-in-the-years-1960-2003-modeled-using-dose-registry-data-for-2004-2015
#18
Daniel Wollschläger, Gaël Paul Hammer, Thomas Schafft, Steffen Dreger, Maria Blettner, Hajo Zeeb
Exposure to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin is an occupational risk factor in commercial aircrew. In a historic cohort of 26,774 German aircrew, radiation exposure was previously estimated only for cockpit crew using a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Here, a new method for retrospectively estimating cabin crew dose is developed. The German Federal Radiation Registry (SSR) documents individual monthly effective doses for all aircrew. SSR-provided doses on 12,941 aircrew from 2004 to 2015 were used to model cabin crew dose as a function of age, sex, job category, solar activity, and male pilots' dose; the mean annual effective dose was 2...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923147/idiopathic-syringomyelia-in-a-military-helicopter-pilot
#19
Anthony Schiemer
BACKGROUND: A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord. They can lead to a variety of symptoms, including limb weakness and back pain. Incidental finding of syringomyelia provides a challenge for clinicians due to the wide variety of possible symptoms. In military aviation, neurological findings in pilots can result in extensive investigation that can lead to potentially invasive management. Conversely, the potential for chronic progression of a spinal syrinx and subsequent neurological deterioration makes early identification critical...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923145/pulmonary-effects-from-a-simulated-long-duration-mission-in-a-confined-cockpit
#20
Jeremy Beer, Todd S Dart, Joseph Fischer, James Kisner
INTRODUCTION: A recent U-2 fatigue study, in which 10 subjects completed 2 simulated long-duration missions breathing either 100% oxygen or air in a hypobaric chamber, offered an opportunity to compare subjects' pulmonary function before and after remaining seated in a confined cockpit for 12 h. METHODS: In one U-2 mission configuration, the subject wore a full pressure suit and breathed aviator's breathing oxygen while chamber pressure was maintained at 4572 m (15,000 ft) above mean sea level...
October 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
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