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Estrous cycle

Marilena Marraudino, Mariangela Martini, Sara Trova, Alice Farinetti, Giovanna Ponti, Stefano Gotti, GianCarlo Panzica
The kisspeptin system is clustered in two main groups of cell bodies (the periventricular region, RP3V and the arcuate nucleus, ARC) that send fibers mainly to the GnRH neurons and in a few other locations, including the paraventricular nucleus, PVN. In physiological conditions, gonadal hormones modulate the kisspeptin system with expression changes according to different phases of the estrous cycle: the highest being in estrus phase in RP3V and PVN (positive feedback), and in ARC during the diestrus phase (negative feedback)...
March 16, 2018: Brain Research
P S Baruselli, R M Ferreira, M F Sá Filho, G A Bó
The aim of this review is to compare the performance of different reproductive programs using natural service, estrus synchronization treatment before natural service (timed natural breeding (TNB)), artificial insemination (AI) following estrus detection and timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef herds. It is well known that after parturition the beef cow undergoes a period of anestrous, when they do not exhibit estrus, eliminating the opportunity to become pregnant in the early postpartum by natural mating or by AI after detection of estrus...
March 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
P Kurowska, J Chmielinska, A Ptak, A Rak
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of transcription factors which are involved in the regulation of different processes such as lipid metabolism, inflammation, angiogenesis, tissue remodeling and steroidogenesis. Our previous data described the ovarian expression of PPAR isoforms (-α, -γ and -β), and the increase of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ in porcine ovarian follicles during the estrous cycle. The current studies were undertaken to test the hypothesis that gonadotropin and steroid hormones can regulate the expression of PPAR isoforms in the ovary...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
P A Stapleton, C R McBride, J Yi, A B Abukabda, T R Nurkiewicz
Preconceptive health encompasses male and female reproductive capability. In females, this takes into account each of the stages of the estrous cycle. Microvascular reactivity varies throughout the estrous cycle in response to hormonal changes and in preparation for pregnancy. Microvascular alterations in response to engineered nanomaterial (ENM) exposure have been described within 24-hours of inhalation; however, the impact upon the uterine vasculature at differing estrous stages and at late-stage pregnancy is unclear...
March 12, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Julie Lamy, Perrine Nogues, Lucie Combes-Soia, Guillaume Tsikis, Valérie Labas, Pascal Mermillod, Xavier Druart, Marie Saint-Dizier
The interactions between oviductal fluid (OF) proteins and spermatozoa play major roles in sperm selection, storage and capacitation before fertilization. However, only a few sperm-interacting proteins in the OF has been identified and very little is known about the regulation of sperm-oviduct interactions across the estrous cycle. Samples of bovine frozen-thawed sperm from three bulls were incubated with OF at pre-, post-ovulatory stages (Pre/Post-ov) or luteal phase (LP) of the estrous cycle (7 mg/ml proteins, treated groups), or with a protein-free media (control)...
March 14, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Yomna I Mahmoud, Asmaa A Mahmoud, Faten S Abo-Zeid, Nagui H Fares
BACKGROUND: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a weak androgen and a crucial precursor of sex steroids. Exogenous supplementation of DHEA is now being commonly used to augment ovarian stimulation in women with diminished ovarian reserve. However, the effects of DHEA are controversial. AIMS: This study verifies the effects of pharmacologic doses of DHEA on the ovarian reserve variables, follicular development, reproductive function, and pregnancy outcomes of perimenopausal rats...
March 8, 2018: Life Sciences
Vivian T Almeida, Ricardo A R Uscategui, Antônio A Camacho, Marlos G Sousa, Victor J C Santos, Marjury C Maronezi, Wilter R R Vicente, Marcus A R Feliciano
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the consequences of the estrous cycle and gestation on the cardiovascular system of bitches evaluated through echocardiographic assessment. Fifteen healthy pregnant bitches aged 2 to 6 years and weighing 8.8 ± 2.5 kg were included in the study. Heart rate and blood pressure were clinically evaluated. M-mode, spectral, and tissue Doppler-echocardiography assessments were performed during the anestrous and estrous stages, every 15 days during pregnancy (15, 30, 45, and 60 days), and 45 days postpartum...
March 1, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Kwonho Hong, Youngsok Choi
In humans, hormonal regulation is crucial for the preparation of uterine environment leading to either successful implantation or menstrual cycle. Estrogen is a pivotal female steroid hormone that regulates the uterine dynamics along with progesterone in the estrous and menstrual cycles in humans. Estrogen signals act via nuclear estrogen receptor or membrane-bound receptor. The membrane-bound estrogen receptor plays a crucial role in the rapid response of estrogen in the uterine epithelium. Recently, RASD1 has received attention as a novel signal transducer of estrogen in various systems including female reproductive organs...
March 9, 2018: BMB Reports
Josué O Suárez-Ortiz, Felipe Cortés-Salazar, Ariadna L Malagón-Carrillo, Verónica E López-Alonso, Juan M Mancilla-Díaz, Juan G Tejas-Juárez, Rodrigo E Escartín-Pérez
Overeating is one of the most relevant clinical features in Binge Eating Disorder and in some obesity patients. According to several studies, alterations in the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission produced by non-homeostatic feeding behavior may be associated with changes in the reward system similar to those produced by drugs of abuse. Although it is known that binge-eating is related with changes in dopaminergic transmission mediated by D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS), it has not been determined whether these receptors may be a potential target for the treatment of eating pathology with binge-eating...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Valesca B Luz, Ivana Cristina N Gadelha, Luiz Augusto V Cordeiro, Marília M Melo, Benito Soto-Blanco
Gossypol interferes with reproduction, causing damage to sperm, disrupting the estrous cycle and resulting in embryonic lethality. In females, gossypol administration promotes degeneration of ovarian follicles, but it is unknown whether this effect is direct or indirect. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine whether gossypol interferes with folliculogenesis in vitro in rats, mice and goats. Ovaries from rats and mice and fragments of goat ovaries were grown in cell culture for 24 h or 7 days. Four groups were tested: 0 (control), 5, 10 and 20 μg gossypol/ml...
February 28, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Yi-Xuan Guo, Hai-Tao Nie, Chen-Jie Xu, Guo-Min Zhang, Ling-Wei Sun, Ting-Ting Zhang, Zhen Wang, Xu Feng, Pei-Hua You, Feng Wang
The aim of this study was to determine whether nutrient restriction and arginine treatment affect energy metabolism changes and oxidative stress through the mitochondrial pathway in the ovarian tissue of ewes during the luteal phase. On days 6-15 of the estrous cycle, 24 multiparous Hu sheep (BW = 43.56 ± 1.53 kg) were randomly assigned to three groups: control group (CG; n = 6), restriction group (RG; n = 9), and l-arginine group (AG; n = 9) administered Arg treatment (or vehicle) three times per day...
February 22, 2018: Theriogenology
S García-Martínez, M A Sánchez-Hurtado, H Gutiérrez, F M Sánchez-Margallo, R Romar, R Latorre, P Coy, O López-Albors
STUDY QUESTION: Is O2 tension in the pig oviduct and uterus affected by the estrous cycle stage and the animal's age, and can the outcome of in vitro embryo development be improved by mimicking these physiological values? SUMMARY ANSWER: O2 tension within the pig reproductive organs is affected by the animal's age, and values close to those measured in vivo have a positive impact on embryo development and quality when used during IVF and embryo culture (EC). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: To obtain a healthy embryo in vitro, it is necessary to adopt a culture microenvironment that approximates physiological conditions...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Abdulla A Albishtue, Nurhusien Yimer, Md Zuki A Zakaria, Abd Wahid Haron, Rosnina Yusoff, Mohammed A Assi, Bahaa H Almhanawi
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of edible bird's nest (EBN) supplementation on the uteri of rats based on analyses of the morphological and histomorphometric changes, and expressions of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (REGF) genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and steroid receptors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four: Sprague Dawley rats were equally distributed into the following four groups: G1 (control), G2, G3, and G4 represented the groups treated with EBN at graded concentrations of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg/kg body weight (BW) per day for 8 weeks, respectively...
January 2018: Veterinary World
H Mirzaei-Alamouti, Z Mohammadi, M H Shahir, M Vazirigohar, M Mansouryar
The effects of dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (FAs) in pre-mating diets on reproductive performances and metabolic status of ewes have not been well investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of supplementing different source of FAs on different aspects of reproductive performance of fat-tailed Iranian Afshari ewes. Thirty-two cycling, multiparous Afshari ewes were divided into four groups and fed one of the isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with Sunflower oil (SFO), Fish oil (FO), calcium salt of palm oil (CaPO) and/or an equal mixture of SFO + FO (SFOFO)...
February 15, 2018: Theriogenology
Genevieve E Ryan, Shaddy Malik, Pamela L Mellon
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries. Although its etiology is unknown, excess androgens are thought to be a critical factor driving the pathology of PCOS. We previously demonstrated that continuous exposure to the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (LET) in mice produces many hallmarks of PCOS, including elevated testosterone (T) and luteinizing hormone, anovulation, and obesity. In the current study, we sought to determine whether androgen receptor (AR) actions are responsible for any of the phenotypes observed in LET mice...
April 1, 2018: Endocrinology
Ignacio M Helbling, Carlos A Busatto, Silvana A Fioramonti, Juan I Pesoa, Liliana Santiago, Diana A Estenoz, Julio A Luna
PURPOSE: Planned reproduction in cattle involves regulation of estrous cycle and the use of artificial insemination. Cycle control includes the administration of exogenous progesterone during 5-8 days in a controlled manner allowing females to synchronize their ovulation. Several progesterone delivery systems are commercially available but they have several drawbacks. The aim of the present contribution was to evaluate chitosan microparticles entrapping progesterone as an alternative system...
February 20, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Jan A Mennigen, Lindsay M Thompson, Mandee Bell, Marlen Tellez Santos, Andrea C Gore
BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic environmental contaminants and known endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Previous studies demonstrated that developmental exposure to the weakly estrogenic PCB mixture Aroclor 1221 (A1221) in Sprague-Dawley rats altered sexual development, adult reproductive physiology and body weight. The current study tested the hypothesis that prenatal A1221 exposure not only disrupts these endpoints within an exposed individual's (F1 generation) lifespan, but may also affect subsequent generations (F2 -F3 )...
February 20, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
He Lin, Zhongying Liu, Zifeng Pi, Lihui Men, Weijia Chen, Zhiqiang Liu
Estrogens are biologically active steroid hormones mainly released from the ovary by ovarian secretion of estrogen into the circulating blood to regulate or function at the distal target. Estrogens play an important role in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and immune system, especially for post-menopausal women. Panax ginseng Mayer has been reported to relieve women's menopausal symptoms and affect estrogen activities. However, the mechanism of its estrogen regulation has not yet been clearly investigated...
February 19, 2018: Food & Function
Maria Rosa Rebordão, Ana Amaral, Karolina Lukasik, Anna Szóstek-Mioduchowska, Pedro Pinto-Bravo, António Galvão, Dariusz J Skarzynski, Graça Ferreira-Dias
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are DNA complexes carrying nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, such as elastase (ELA), cathepsin-G (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Mare endometrosis is a chronic degenerative process characterized by excessive collagen in endometrium. While NETs fight bacteria that cause endometritis, they may trigger endometrial fibrogenesis. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro effect of some NETs components on mare endometrial fibrogenesis and determine its relationship with histopathology or estrous cycle...
February 7, 2018: Theriogenology
Valentina Vernocchi, Maria Giorgia Morselli, Massimo Faustini, Gianfranco Gabai, Laura Da Dalt, Gaia Cecilia Luvoni
The present study evaluated changes of fecal sexual steroids in two female cheetahs (Geijsha and Duchessa) in Northern Italy throughout one year. Wet feces were collected daily from two sibling animals of the same age, housed with conspecific males and managed in the same conditions, and estrogens and progestogens concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Evidence of ovarian activity based on regular fluctuation in estrogen excretion was demonstrated in both females. None of the animals was continuously cycling, as follicular activity was interrupted by anestrous periods, during the spring and early winter...
February 2, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
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