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Galactomannans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915301/assessing-the-risk-of-false-positive-serum-galactomannan-among-patients-receiving-piperacillin-tazobactam-for-febrile-neutropenia
#1
Hayati Demiraslan, M Altay Atalay, Esma Eren, Koray Demir, Leylagul Kaynar, A Nedret Koc, Mehmet Doganay
Galactomannan (GM) assay is commonly used as an early diagnostic tool for invasive fungal infection (IFI) in high-risk hematology patients. False positivity is frequently observed in GM with the use of piperacillin/tazobactam. The usage of generic drugs over the original brand has a significant cost advantage. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of GM test among patients receiving original and generic piperacillin/tazobactam formulations. The study included 85 adult patients; 62.4% were male with hematological malignancy currently receiving piperacillin/tazobactam...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913978/case-series-study-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#2
Ana I Aller-García, Carmen Castro-Méndez, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Elena M Marín-Martínez, Ismail Zakariya-Yousef Breval, Carmen Couto-Caro, Juan C López-Marín, Nicolás Peña-Griñán, Maite Ruiz de Pipaon, Ana M Romero-Mejías, Estrella Martín-Mazuelos
Diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is challenging. The objective of the study was to assess the value of microbiological tests to the diagnosis of IPA in the absence of non-specific radiological data. A retrospective study of 23 patients with suspicion of IPA and positivity of some microbiological diagnostic tests was performed. These tests included conventional microbiological culture, detection of Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) antigen and in some patients (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan (BDG) and Aspergillus fumigatus DNA using the LightCycler(®) SeptiFast test...
December 2, 2016: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880667/the-current-treatment-landscape-other-fungal-diseases-cryptococcosis-fusariosis-and-mucormycosis
#3
Olivier Lortholary, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, John R Perfect
Compared with major invasive mycoses such as aspergillosis and candidiasis, the antifungal stewardship management strategies of other fungal diseases have different opportunities and considerations. Cryptococcosis, fusariosis and mucormycosis are globally prevalent invasive fungal diseases (IFDs), but are not currently included in antifungal prophylaxis guidelines for immunocompromised hosts. Since the implementation of biomarkers as part of diagnostic screening strategies, the concept of pre-emptive antifungal therapy has emerged for these IFDs...
November 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880666/the-current-management-landscape-aspergillosis
#4
Johan A Maertens, Ola Blennow, Rafael F Duarte, Patricia Muñoz
Diagnosing invasive aspergillosis (IA) has long been challenging due to the inability to culture the causal Aspergillus agent from blood or other body fluids. This shortcoming has fuelled an interest in non-culture-based diagnostic techniques such as the detection of galactomannan (GM) in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the detection of 1,3-β-d-glucan (BDG) in blood and the detection of Aspergillus DNA by PCR-based techniques. Past decades have witnessed important improvements in our understanding of the strengths and limitations of antigen assays and in the standardization of PCR-based DNA techniques...
November 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872187/galactomannan-catabolism-conferred-by-a-polysaccharide-utilisation-locus-of-bacteroides-ovatus-enzyme-synergy-and-crystal-structure-of-a-%C3%AE-mannanase
#5
Viktoria Bågenholm, Sumitha K Reddy, Hanene Bouraoui, Johan Morrill, Evelina Kulcinskaja, Constance M Bahr, Oskar Aurelius, Theresa Rogers, Yao Xiao, Derek T Logan, Eric C Martens, Nicole M Koropatkin, Henrik Stålbrand
A recently identified polysaccharide utilisation locus (PUL) from Bacteroides ovatus ATCC8483 is transcriptionally upregulated during growth on galacto- and glucomannans. It encodes two putative glycoside hydrolase family 26 (GH26) β-mannanases, BoMan26A and BoMan26B, and a GH36 α-galactosidase, BoGal36A. The PUL also includes two glycan binding proteins, confirmed by β-mannan affinity electrophoresis. When this PUL was deleted, B. ovatus was no longer able to grow on locust bean galactomannan. BoMan26A primarily formed mannobiose from mannan polysaccharides...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862370/comparative-evaluation-of-pan-fungal-real-time-pcr-galactomannan-and-1-3-%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-for-invasive-fungal-infection-in-paediatric-cancer-patients
#6
Prashant Gupta, Abrar Ahmad, Vineeta Khare, Archana Kumar, Gopa Banerjee, Nitya Verma, Mastan Singh
Limited specific data and investigations are available for the diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Infection (IFI) in paediatrics cancer patients. Three non-invasive tests; Platelia Aspergillus EIA for galactomannan (GM), β-D-glucan (BDG) assay and pan-fungal real-time PCR for fungal DNA in blood were evaluated. One hundred twenty-five paediatrics cancer patients at the high risk of IFI were enrolled. Single blood and serum samples were evaluated by all the three methods. Patients were classified into 10 proven, 52 probable and 63 no IFI cases in accordance with EORTC MSG 2008 revised guidelines...
November 16, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837510/genus-and-species-specific-pcr-detection-methods
#7
Jan Springer, Jürgen Löffler
PCR-based detection of fungal pathogens offers a sensitive and specific tool for the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections. A large variety of different clinical specimen types can be used as original material. However, certain precautions, in addition to the published MIQE guidelines [1], need to be taken to prevent contaminations from airborne fungal spores and PCR reagents. In addition, the European Aspergillus PCR Initiative (EAPCRI) recently defined standards for Aspergillus PCR [2, 3], following these recommendations leads to superior sensitivity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837506/serological-approaches
#8
Barbora Weinbergerova, Iva Kocmanova, Zdenek Racil, Jiri Mayer
The diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFD) based on clinical, radiological, and conventional microbiological findings is not reliable and is often delayed. Non-culture-based methods with higher sensitivity and specificity may reduce diagnostic time and result in decreased IFD morbidity and mortality. These methods are now increasingly used to manage patients at risk of IFD. Among available biomarkers, fungal antigens have been investigated as an aid to early diagnosis and are predominantly used as screening tests to prompt antifungal treatment mainly in patients with hematological malignancies...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837498/current-algorithms-in-fungal-diagnosis-in-the-immunocompromised-host
#9
Thomas Lehrnbecher, Karsten Becker, Andreas H Groll
Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients such as patients with hematological malignancies or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Whereas the definite diagnosis of IFD requires invasive diagnostic procedures, imaging and noninvasive diagnostic assays may help in decision making with regard to the institution and the choice of antifungal agents, the duration of therapy, surgical intervention, and monitoring of fungal manifestations...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837496/current-challenges-in-the-diagnosis-of-fungal-infections
#10
Cornelia Lass-Flörl
Diagnosing fungal infections is a challenge, particularly in the immunocompromised host. Signs and symptoms are nonspecific, colonization is difficult to distinguish from invasive disease, blood cultures are commonly negative, and patients are often unable to undergo invasive diagnostic procedures. Culture and microscopic examination remain the "gold standard" but are insensitive. Antigen assays such as the galactomannan and glucan detection systems are frequently used, yet these tests vary in sensitivity and specificity, depending on the patient population involved...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826887/diagnosis-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#11
E Swoboda-Kopeć, M Sikora, K Piskorska, M Gołaś, I Netsvyetayeva, D Przybyłowska, E Mierzwińska-Nastalska
Culturing strains from clinical samples is the main method to diagnose invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Detecting the galactomannan antigen in serum samples is an auxiliary examination. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency with which Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured in clinical samples taken from patients hospitalized in the the Infant Jesus Teaching Hospital in Warsaw, Poland, in the period of 2013-2014. Specimens from the respiratory tract and blood were cultured for mycological and serological assessments...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822173/preclinical-safety-evaluation-of-low-molecular-weight-galactomannans-based-standardized-fenugreek-seeds-extract
#12
Pallavi Deshpande, Vishwaraman Mohan, Prasad Thakurdesai
The objective of the present study was to evaluate acute oral toxicity, subchronic toxicity, and mutagenic potential of low molecular weight galactomannans based standardized fenugreek seeds extract (LMWGAL-TF) in laboratory animals rats as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. For the acute toxicity (AOT) study, LMWGAL-TF was orally administered to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at a dose of 2000 mg/kg with vehicle control (VC) group (n = 5 per sex per group) as per OECD guideline no...
2016: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819257/preemptive-antifungal-therapy-for-febrile-neutropenic-hematological-malignancy-patients-in-china
#13
Wei Yuan, Jinhai Ren, Xiaonan Guo, Xiaoling Guo, Shengxin Cai
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency, adverse effects, and pharmacoeconomic impact of empirical and preemptive antifungal therapy for febrile neutropenic hematological malignancy patients in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients with febrile neutropenia during hematological malignancy were randomly divided into an empirical group and a preemptive group. The preemptive antifungal treatment was initiated if patient status was confirmed by clinical manifestation, imaging diagnosis, 1-3-β-D glucan(G) testing, and galactomannan (GM) test...
November 7, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815226/utility-of-the-serum-galactomannan-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#14
Gulhadiye Avcu, Deniz Yilmaz Karapinar, Ayse Burcu Akinci, Zuhal Onder Sivis, Akkiz Sahin, Zumrut Sahbudak Bal, Suleyha Hilmioglu Polat, Dilek Yesim Metin, Fadil Vardar, Yesim Aydinok
OBJECTIVES: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children with hematological malignancies. The monitoring of serum galactomannan (GM) antigen is considered useful in the diagnosis of IA . The aim of this study was to determine the utility of serum GM monitoring in the early diagnosis of IA and the role of positive antigenemia in the management of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). METHODS: The cases of 141 children who were being treated for ALL in the Division of Pediatric Hematology of the Medical School of Ege University between January 2006 and February 2015 were reviewed retrospectively...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797367/serum-galactomannan-surveillance-may-be-safely-withdrawn-from-antifungal-management-of-hematology-patients-on-effective-antimold-prophylaxis-a-pilot-single-center-study
#15
R F Duarte, I Sánchez-Ortega, M Arnan, B Patiño, J Ayats, A Sureda, M Cuenca-Estrella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2016: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795339/prospective-biomarker-screening-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-high-risk-paediatric-patients
#16
Juergen Loeffler, Julia Hafner, Carlo Mengoli, Clemens Wirth, Claus Peter Heussel, Claudia Löffler, P Lewis White, Andrew J Ullmann, Denise Michel, Verena Wiegering, Matthias Wölfl, Paul Gerhardt Schlegel, Hermann Einsele, Jan Springer, Matthias Eyrich
Combined biomarker screening is increasingly used to diagnose invasive aspergillosis (IA) in high-risk patients. In adults, the combination of galactomannan (GM) and fungal DNA detection has proven to be beneficial in the diagnosis of IA. Data in purely paediatric cohorts is scarce. Here, we monitored 39 children shortly before and after allogeneic stem cell transplantation twice weekly using a commercial GM ELISA and a PCR assay based on amplification of the pan-Aspergillus ITS1/5.8S ribosomal operon. In addition, clinical data were recorded and classification of IA was performed according to EORTC/MSG criteria...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780955/enzymatic-characteristics-of-a-highly-thermostable-%C3%AE-1-4-glucanase-from-fervidobacterium-islandicum-aw-1-kctc-4680
#17
Woo Soo Jeong, Dong Ho Seo, Jong Hyun Jung, Dong Hyun Jung, Dong-Woo Lee, Young-Seo Park, Cheonseok Park
A highly thermostable β-(1-4)-glucanase (NA23_08975) gene (fig) from Fervidobacterium islandicum AW-1, a native-feather degrading thermophilic eubacterium, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant FiG (rFiG) protein showed strong activity toward β-D-glucan from barley (367.0 IU/mg), galactomannan (174.0 IU/mg), and 4-nitrophenyl-cellobioside (pNPC, 66.1 IU/mg), but relatively weak activity was observed with hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC, 5.3 IU/mg), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, 2.4 IU/mg), and xylan from oat spelt (1...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761457/the-role-of-galactomannan-testing-to-diagnose-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-critically-ill-patients
#18
COMMENT
Maya Hites, Eduardo Wilfrido Goicoechea Turcott, Fabio Silvio Taccone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759393/the-use-of-pyranoside-into-furanoside-rearrangement-and-controlled-o-5-%C3%A2-o-6-benzoyl-migration-as-the-basis-of-a-synthetic-strategy-to-assemble-1%C3%A2-5-and-1%C3%A2-6-linked-galactofuranosyl-chains
#19
Dmitry A Argunov, Vadim B Krylov, Nikolay E Nifantiev
A new pyranoside-into-furanoside (PIF) rearrangement of selectively protected galactopyranosides, followed by controlled O(5) → O(6) benzoate migration, gives either 5-OH or 6-OH products. It has been applied for the synthesis of four oligosaccharides related to the galactomannan from Aspergillus fumigatus. The assembly of target oligosaccharides containing both (1→5) and (1→6) linkages between galactofuranosyl residues was performed by applying terminal mannoside and digalactofuranoside blocks, forming a versatile approach toward fungal and bacterial carbohydrate antigens containing both 5-O- and 6-O-substituted galactofuranoside residues...
October 19, 2016: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751781/epico-3-0-empirical-antifungal-therapy-in-critically-ill-hematology-patients
#20
Pedro Llinares, Isabel Ruiz, Rafael Zaragoza, Ricard Ferrer, Alejandro H Rodríguez, Emilio Maseda, Santiago Grau
BACKGROUND: Although in the past decade the management of invasive fungal infections has improved, a number of controversies persist regarding empirical antifungal treatment in critically-ill hematology patients. AIMS: To identify key clinical knowledge to elaborate a set of recommendations, with a high level of consensus, necessary for the approach to fungal infections in critically-ill hematology patients. METHODS: A Spanish prospective questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was anonymously answered and e-mailed by 30 multidisciplinary national experts, all specialists in fungal invasive infections from six scientific national societies; intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases...
October 14, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
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