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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539863/pulmonary-aspergillosis-as-opportunistic-mycoses-in-a-cohort-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-report-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-north-india
#1
Ravinder Kaur, Bhanu Mehra, Megh Singh Dhakad, Ritu Goyal, Richa Dewan
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of pulmonary aspergillosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons is rising. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary aspergillosis in a cohort of HIV-positive patients (n = 71) presenting with lower respiratory tract infection at a tertiary care medical center in India. METHODS: Sputum samples were collected, and potassium hydroxide mount, cultural characteristics, and lactophenol cotton blue preparations were employed to aid in the identification of Aspergillus species...
April 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506782/the-misleading-effect-of-serum-galactomannan-testing-in-high-risk-hematology-patients-receiving-prophylaxis-with-micafungin
#2
A Vena, E Bouza, A Álvarez-Uría, J Gayoso, P Martin-Rabadan, F Cajuste, J Guinea, J Gómez Castellá, R Alonso, P Munoz
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the performance of the routine serum galactomannan (sGM) assay in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in high-risk hematology patients receiving prophylaxis with micafungin. METHODS: Retrospective study including all hematological patients who received prophylaxis with micafungin during high-risk IA episodes (neutropenic patients after chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome; allogeneic HSCT during early neutropenic phase or graft-versus-host disease requiring high prednisone doses)...
May 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504318/antifungal-prophylaxis-in-newly-diagnosed-aml-patients-adherence-to-guidelines-and-feasibility-in-a-real-life-setting
#3
Sophie Berking, Daphne Doedens, Heidi Horns, Michael Fiegl, Helmut Ostermann, Christina T Rieger
Antifungal posaconazole prophylaxis for AML patients receiving induction chemotherapy has been routine at our centre since 2009. This retrospective study examined the feasibility and practicability of our prophylaxis guidelines in clinical practice. Data sets of 90 patients undergoing induction-chemotherapy for AML between 2011 and 2014 were evaluated regarding adherence to local guidelines for the administration of antifungal prophylaxis with posaconazole. 75.5% of the 90 patients received posaconazole prophylaxis...
May 15, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487045/pentraxin-3-levels-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-of-lung-transplant-recipients-with-invasive-aspergillosis
#4
Dima Kabbani, Archana Bhaskaran, Lianne G Singer, Alyajahan Bhimji, Coleman Rotstein, Shaf Keshavjee, W Conrad Liles, Shahid Husain
BACKGROUND: Invasive aspergillosis is the most common invasive fungal infection in lung transplant recipients. The use of galactomannan testing in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid has improved diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis; however, false-positive results can lead to overdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment. The use of proinflammatory markers such as pentraxin 3 (PTX3) may help differentiate between Aspergillus colonization and disease. METHODS: BAL PTX3 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 151 lung transplant recipients and 9 healthy control subjects...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485322/role-of-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cell-1-expression-in-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-modulation-of-cd8-t-cell-differentiation-during-the-immune-response-to-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#5
Na Cui, Hao Wang, Long-Xiang Su, Jia-Hui Zhang, Yun Long, Da-Wei Liu
BACKGROUND: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-1 (TREM-1) may play a vital role in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) modulation of CD8+ T-cell differentiation through the transcription factors T-box expressed in T-cells and eomesodermin during the immune response to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). This study aimed to investigate whether the mTOR signaling pathway modulates the proliferation and differentiation of CD8+ T-cells during the immune response to IPA and the role TREM-1 plays in this process...
May 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479043/characterization-of-a-thermostable-glycoside-hydrolase-family-36-%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-caldicellulosiruptor-bescii
#6
Areum Lee, Kyoung-Hwa Choi, Dahye Yoon, Suhkmann Kim, Jaeho Cha
The putative gene cluster involved in the degradation of the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) was identified in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii. Within the cluster, the gene encoding a putative α-galactosidase (CbAga36) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Size exclusion chromatography of the purified rCbAga36 indicated that the native form was a tetramer. Its primary sequence was similar to the family of glycoside hydrolase 36. The purified recombinant CbAga36 (rCbAga36) was optimally active at pH 5...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472247/pharmacodynamics-of-isavuconazole-for-invasive-mold-disease-role-of-galactomannan-for-real-time-monitoring-of-therapeutic-response
#7
Laura L Kovanda, Ruwanthi Kolamunnage-Dona, Michael Neely, Johan Maertens, Misun Lee, William W Hope
Background.: The ability to make early therapeutic decisions when treating invasive aspergillosis using changes in biomarkers as a surrogate for therapeutic response could significantly improve patient outcome. Methods.: Cox proportional hazards model and logistic regression were used to correlate early changes in galactomannan index (GMI) to mortality and overall response, respectively, from patients with positive baseline GMI (≥0.5) and serial GMI during treatment from a phase 3 clinical trial for the treatment of invasive mold disease...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446576/diagnostic-value-of-the-galactomannan-antigen-test-in-serum-and-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-samples-from-patients-with-non-neutropenic-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#8
Wei Zhou, Hongxing Li, Yan Zhang, Mei Huang, Qian He, Pei Li, Fang Zhang, Yi Shi, Xin Su
Objective: To compare the diagnostic value of galactomannan (GM) detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum samples from non-neutropenic patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), and determine the optimal BALF GM cut-off value for pulmonary aspergillosis.Methods: GM detection in BALF and serum samples was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 128 patients with clinically suspected non-neutropenic pulmonary aspergillosis between June 2014 and June 2016. On the basis of the clinical and pathological diagnoses, 8 patients were excluded because their diagnosis was uncertain...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433769/healing-activity-evaluation-of-the-galactomannan-film-obtained-from-cassia-grandis-seeds-with-immobilized-cratylia-mollis-seed-lectin
#9
Priscilla B S Albuquerque, Paulo A G Soares, Adelmo C Aragão-Neto, Giwellington S Albuquerque, Luís C N Silva, Maria H M Lima-Ribeiro, Jacinto C Silva Neto, Luana C B B Coelho, Maria T S Correia, José A C Teixeira, Maria G Carneiro-da-Cunha
Galactomannan films from Cassia grandis seeds, associated or not with Cramoll 1,4, were used on topical wounds of rats for the evaluation of the healing process during 14days. All of the films were evaluated by cytotoxic assay, FTIR and lectin hemagglutinating activity (HA). Forty-five male rats were submitted to aseptic dermal wounds (Ø=0.8cm) and divided in groups (n=15): control, test 1, and test 2, treated respectively with saline, galactomannan film and film with immobilized Cramoll 1,4. Macroscopic evaluations were performed by clinical observations and area measurements, and microscopic analysis by histological criteria...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431001/invasive-aspergillosis-in-patients-with-underlying-liver-cirrhosis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Juergen Prattes, Martin Hoenigl, Robert Krause, Walter Buzina, Thomas Valentin, Frederike Reischies, Christoph Koidl, Ines Zollner-Schwetz
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with liver cirrhosis and the performance of serum galactomannan (GM) screening. Patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and patients with compensated liver cirrhosis presenting with fever and/or respiratory symptoms were prospectively enrolled. All patients were screened by serum GM twice weekly irrespective of clinical signs and symptoms. Positive serum GM triggered work-up consisting of chest computed tomography and in case of pathological findings bronchoscopy...
April 20, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407752/detection-of-high-serum-levels-of-%C3%AE-d-glucan-in-disseminated-nocardial-infection-a-case-report
#11
Toyomitsu Sawai, Takumi Nakao, Shota Yamaguchi, Sumako Yoshioka, Nobuko Matsuo, Naofumi Suyama, Katsunori Yanagihara, Hiroshi Mukae
BACKGROUND: β-D-glucan (BDG) is a helpful diagnostic marker for many invasive fungal infections, but not for nocardiosis. Here, we reported the first case of nocardial infection with high serum level of BDG. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old man was hospitalized because of fever, headache, and appetite loss after 10 months of steroid and immunosuppressive therapy for cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. With a diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia, treatment with ampicillin/sulbactam was initiated...
April 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397833/safety-and-efficacy-of-short-term-oral-immunotherapy-with-cry-j-1-galactomannan-conjugate-for-japanese-cedar-pollinosis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Daisuke Murakami, Motohiro Sawatsubashi, Hirofumi Omori, Akira Saito, Akio Kato, Shizuo Komune, Takashi Nakagawa
Current allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) for pollinosis requires long-term treatment with potentially severe side effects. Therefore, development of an AIT that is safe and more convenient with a shorter regimen is needed. This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial randomized 55 participants with Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) to active or placebo groups to test the safety and efficacy of short-term oral immunotherapy (OIT) with Cry j 1-galactomannan conjugate for JCP. Mean symptom-medication score as the primary outcome in the active group improved 27...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395406/-expression-and-differential-diagnostic-value-of-serum-microrna-for-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#13
Z N Wen, Z G Ling, Y Huang, X Li
Objective: To explore the expression and the clinical diagnostic value of serum miR-21 for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Methods: Outpatients and inpatients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University were included in the study during June 2014 to September 2015. The IPA group had 40 patients, male 22, female 18, aged 55-68 years (mean 60 ), while the control groups included 50 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis [male 23, female 27, aged 50-62 years (mean 55 )], 50 patients with lung cancer [male 30, female 20, aged 55-70 years (mean 62)], and 50 healthy controls [male 25, female 25, aged 50-67 years (mean 60) ]...
April 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384860/fungal-opportunistic-pneumonias-in-hiv-aids-patients-an-indian-tertiary-care-experience
#14
Ravinder Kaur, Bhanu Mehra, Megh Singh Dhakad, Ritu Goyal, Preena Bhalla, Richa Dewan
INTRODUCTION: Opportunistic pneumonias are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) reactive patients. Despite the significant role that fungi play in causation of this opportunistic mycoses, very few Indian studies have attempted to investigate the burden and aetiological spectrum of HIV/AIDS-associated fungal pneumonias. AIM: To document the prevalence of fungal aetiology in HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic pneumonias in an Indian setting; and to elucidate the various fungal opportunists responsible for the same...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384600/a-prospective-study-of-fungal-biomarkers-to-improve-management-of-invasive-fungal-diseases-in-a-mixed-specialty-critical-care-unit
#15
Alida Fe Talento, Katie Dunne, Eimear Ann Joyce, Michael Palmer, Elizabeth Johnson, P Lewis White, Jan Springer, Juergen Loeffler, Thomas Ryan, Daniel Collins, Thomas R Rogers
PURPOSE: The diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFD) in critical care patients (CrCP) is difficult. The study investigated the performance of a set of biomarkers for diagnosis of IFD in a mixed specialty critical care unit (CrCU). METHODS: A prospective observational study in patients receiving critical care for ≥7days was performed. Serum samples were tested for the presence of: (1-3) - β-d-glucan (BDG), galactomannan (GM), and Aspergillus fumigatus DNA...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381925/molecular-insights-into-pathogenesis-and-infection-with-aspergillus-fumigatus
#16
REVIEW
Ciamak Ghazaei
The virulence of fungi is dependent on multiple factors, including the immune status of patients and biological features of fungi. In particular, the virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus is due to the complex interaction among various molecules involved in thermotolerance (such as ribosomal biogenesis proteins, α-mannosyltransferase and heat shock proteins), pigment production (DHN-melanin), immune evasion (like melanin and hydrophobin) and nutrient uptake (such as siderophores and zinc transporters). Other molecules also play important roles in the virulence of A...
March 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381606/liquillizer%C3%A2-does-not-interfere-with-galactomannan-antigen-detection-in-contrast-to-dithiothreitol-and-n-acetyl-l-cysteine
#17
Michaela Simon, Ingeborg Held, Lukas Teichmann, Josef Köstler, André Gessner, Barbara Schmidt, Jonathan Jantsch
To improve the recovery rate of fungal culture it is recommended to liquefy viscous lower respiratory tract secretions with reducing agents like dithiothreitol (DTT) or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) (1).….
April 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378982/early-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-invasive-aspergillosis-as-a-main-determinant-of-outcome-review-of-literature-according-to-the-presented-case-report
#18
Michał Borys, Paweł Piwowarczyk, Justyna Sysiak, Mirosław Czuczwar, Andrzej Prystupa
Although. Aspergillus spp infection is not the major cause of morbidity in Intensive Care Units (ICUs), mortality among patients treated for it is tremendous. Moreover, invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an independent risk factor of hospital costs and length of stay. The prevalence of this disease is inversely correlated with the immunocompetence of individuals; for instance, the incidence of IA among patients with leukemia is estimated as high as 12.7%. Although there is a significant improvement in the antifungal armamentarium, the appropriate treatment is still being given too late, mostly because of late diagnosis...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369326/gfsa-is-a-%C3%AE-1-5-galactofuranosyltransferase-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-the-galactofuran-side-chain-of-fungal-type-galactomannan-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#19
Yukako Katafuchi, Qiushi Li, Yutaka Tanaka, Saki Shinozuka, Yohei Kawamitsu, Minoru Izumi, Keisuke Ekino, Keiji Mizuki, Kaoru Takegawa, Nobuyuki Shibata, Masatoshi Goto, Yoshiyuki Nomura, Kazuyoshi Ohta, Takuji Oka
Previously, we reported that GfsA is a novel galactofuranosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of O-glycan, the proper maintenance of fungal morphology, the formation of conidia and anti-fungal resistance in Aspergillus nidulans and A. fumigatus (Komachi Y et al., 2013. GfsA encodes a novel galactofuranosyltransferase involved in biosynthesis of galactofuranose antigen of O-glycan in Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mol. Microbiol. 90:1054-1073). In the present paper, to gain an in depth-understanding of the enzymatic functions of GfsA in A...
June 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359894/characterisation-and-solution-properties-of-a-galactomannan-from-bauhinia-monandra-seeds
#20
Louis M Nwokocha, Chandra Senan, Peter A Williams, Madhav P Yadav
This study reports on the chemical and physicochemical properties of the polysaccharide isolated from Bauhinia monandra seeds. The seeds were found to contain 17.8% polysaccharide which consisted predominantly of galactose and mannose. The Man/Gal ratio was found to be approximately 4:1and the average molar mass was 2.54×10(5)g/mol. The extracted material was also found to contain a small amount of protein (5.35%). The galactomannan produced highly viscous solution; the viscosity-shear rate profile was best described by the Williamson model...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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