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A J Ullmann, J M Aguado, S Arikan-Akdagli, D W Denning, A H Groll, K Lagrou, C Lass-Flörl, R E Lewis, P Munoz, P E Verweij, A Warris, F Ader, M Akova, M C Arendrup, R A Barnes, C Beigelman-Aubry, S Blot, E Bouza, R J M Brüggemann, D Buchheidt, J Cadranel, E Castagnola, A Chakrabarti, M Cuenca-Estrella, G Dimopoulos, J Fortun, J-P Gangneux, J Garbino, W J Heinz, R Herbrecht, C P Heussel, C C Kibbler, N Klimko, B J Kullberg, C Lange, T Lehrnbecher, J Löffler, O Lortholary, J Maertens, O Marchetti, J F Meis, L Pagano, P Ribaud, M Richardson, E Roilides, M Ruhnke, M Sanguinetti, D C Sheppard, J Sinkó, A Skiada, M J G T Vehreschild, C Viscoli, O A Cornely
The European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, the European Confederation of Medical Mycology and the European Respiratory Society Joint Clinical Guidelines focus on diagnosis and management of aspergillosis. Of the numerous recommendations, a few are summarized here. Chest computed tomography as well as bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with suspicion of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis (IA) are strongly recommended. For diagnosis, direct microscopy, preferably using optical brighteners, histopathology and culture are strongly recommended...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Jurairat Rungruangsaphakun, Suttipun Keawsompong
Copra meal is a good source of galactomannan and it s mannooligosaccharides have prebiotic properties. However, limited data are available concerning the ideal requirements for mannan hydrolysis. Thus, optimum hydrolysis conditions for the production of oligosaccharides from copra meal hydrolysate were investigated using response surface methodology. Model validation provided good agreement between experimental results and predicted responses. Maximum oligosaccharide of 14.41 ± 0.09 mg/ml (20 ml) was obtained at an enzyme concentration of 16...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Hiroyasu Kaya, Jun Ozaki, Hirokazu Okumura
Objective This study retrospectively evaluated fungal dissemination due to hospital reconstruction and explored effective methods of predicting an outbreak. Methods Patients suspected of having invasive aspergillosis were tested for Aspergillus galactomannan antigen before and after reconstruction, and the mean values of three months of testing for positive patients were determined. The characteristics of patients with aspergillosis during this period were also assessed. Results Forty-five patients were positive for Aspergillus antigen (>0...
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Xiu-Jing Han, Dan-Hong Su, Jian-Yun Yi, Ya-Wei Zou, Yu-Ling Shi
BACKGROUND: The typical manifestations of Penicillium marneffei (nowadays Talaromyces marneffei) infection in children without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain unclear. The current work presents the case of a child without an underlying disease who was infected with P. marneffei comorbid with eosinophilia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 2-year-old male was infected with P. marneffei. A physical examination revealed a high-grade fever, ulcerated lesions in the oral mucosa, anemia, pruritic erythematous papules on the sac and thigh and watery diarrhea...
March 9, 2018: Mycopathologia
Andrey L Matveev, Vadim B Krylov, Ljudmila A Emelyanova, Arsenii S Solovev, Yana A Khlusevich, Ivan K Baykov, Thierry Fontaine, Jean-Paul Latgé, Nina V Tikunova, Nikolay E Nifantiev
A panel of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against synthetic pentasaccharide β-D-Galf-(1→5)-[β-D-Galf-(1→5)]3-α-D-Manp, structurally related to Aspergillus fumigatus galactomannan, was generated using mice immunized with synthetic pentasaccharide-BSA conjugate and by hybridoma technology. Two selected mAbs, 7B8 and 8G4, could bind with the initial pentasaccharide with affinity constants of approximately 5.3 nM and 6.4 nM, respectively, based on surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor assay. The glycoarray, built from a series of synthetic oligosaccharide derivatives representing different galactomannan fragments, demonstrated that mAb 8G4 could effectively recognize the parental pentasaccharide while mAb 7B8 recognizes its constituting trisaccharide parts...
2018: PloS One
Anna Grancini, Anna Orlandi, Giovanna Lunghi, Dario Consonni, Cristina Pozzi, Valeria Rossetti, Alessandro Palleschi, Nicola Fracchiolla, Ernesto Melada, Monica Savioli, Milena Arghittu, Rita Maiavacca, Anna Prigitano
The present study investigated the improvement in the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) adding a molecular test on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) to the routine diagnostic approach including microscopy, culture and galactomannan (GM) immunoassay. A total of 133 BAL samples were retrospectively tested for the Aspergillus DNA: 112 samples were from immunocompromised patients at risk of invasive fungal infection and 21 were from patients not at risk and without clinical evidence of IPA. The latter samples were used to identify the cut-off of positivity for the molecular test...
January 2018: New Microbiologica
Majid Hussain, Tahir Zahoor, Saeed Akhtar, Amir Ismail, Aneela Hameed
The purpose of current study was to purify and partially depolymerize guar gum by β-mannanase, HCl, Ba(OH)2 actions and subjected to inspect compositional, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and haemolytic activity. Chemical composition revealed mannose and galactose ratio remained un-altered even after process of purification and hydrolysis. TGA thermograms affirmed initial and final decomposition temperature in various zones. Major decomposition stages apparently revealed partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) exhibited better heat stable properties having more zones of degradation than crude one...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
E Blanchard, F Gabriel, C Jeanne-Leroyer, V Servant, P-Y Dumas
INTRODUCTION: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in a wide range of patients. Early recognition and diagnosis have become a major focus in improving the management and outcomes of this life-threatening disease. BACKGROUND: IPA typically occurs during a period of severe and prolonged neutropenia. However, solid organ transplant recipients, patients under immunosuppressive therapy or hospitalized in intensive care units are also at risk...
February 22, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Barbara Zartl, Karina Silberbauer, Renate Loeppert, Helmut Viernstein, Werner Praznik, Monika Mueller
Due to their prebiotic potential indigestible oligosaccharides became a major focus of research interest. In this study the growth of selected probiotic strains including lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus, Pediococcus ssp. and Enterococcus faecium with the, raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) raffinose, stachyose and verbascose and galactomannan from guar bean Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (total guar carbohydrates, oligosaccharides (dp 2-4) and polysaccharides (dp > 5), obtained by size exclusion chromatography) were tested by means of turbidity measurements...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
Melisa M Shah, Eric I Hsiao, Carl M Kirsch, Amit Gohil, Supriya Narasimhan, David A Stevens
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is classically considered an illness of severely immunocompromised patients with limited host defenses. However, IPA has been reported in immunocompetent but critically ill patients. This report describes two fatal cases of pathologically confirmed IPA in patients with influenza in the intensive care unit. One patient had influenza B infection, whereas the other had influenza A H1N1. Both patients died despite broad-spectrum antimicrobials, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor support...
February 2, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Jade Couchepin, Anne-Sophie Brunel, Katia Jaton, Pascal Meylan, Pierre-Yves Bochud, Frédéric Lamoth
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection affecting hematologic cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The diagnosis of IA often relies on the detection of galactomannan (GM) in serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). Bi-weekly serum GM screening has been proposed for a preemptive therapeutic approach of IA in patients not receiving mold-active prophylaxis. We have analyzed all IA cases among patients with hematologic malignancies and prolonged chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (>14 days) in our institution over a 10-year period (2007-2017)...
February 17, 2018: Mycoses
Nayereh Ghods, Mehraban Falahati, Maryam Roudbary, Shirin Farahyar, Masoud Shamaei, Mahin Pourabdollah, Farhad Seif
The virulence genes in invasive aspergillosis (IA) have not been analyzed adequately. The present study was designed to evaluate the expression of gpaB and sidA genes, which are important virulence genes in Aspergillus spp. from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. Direct examination and culture on Czapek Agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar media were performed for 600 BAL specimens isolated from patients with possible aspergillosis. A Galactomannan ELISA assay was also carried out. The expression levels of the gpaB and sidA genes in isolates were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
February 3, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Stephanie Everaerts, Katrien Lagrou, Kristina Vermeersch, Lieven J Dupont, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Wim Janssens
The role of Aspergillus fumigatus in the airways of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with bronchiectasis is currently unclear. We searched for a sensitive and noninvasive method for A. fumigatus detection in the sputum of COPD patients and addressed potential risk factors for its presence. Induced sputum samples of 18 COPD patients and 17 COPD patients with bronchiectasis were analyzed for the presence of A. fumigatus by culture, galactomannan detection, and PCR. Of the patients with COPD-bronchiectasis overlap, 23...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Martina Aulitto, Francesca Anna Fusco, Gabriella Fiorentino, Simonetta Bartolucci, Patrizia Contursi, Danila Limauro
The full utilization of hemicellulose sugars (pentose and exose) present in lignocellulosic material, is required for an efficient bio-based fuels and chemicals production. Two recombinant thermophilic enzymes, an endo-1,4-β-mannanase from Dictyoglomus turgidum (DturCelB) and an α-galactosidase from Thermus thermophilus (TtGalA), were assayed at 80 °C, to assess their heterosynergystic association on galactomannans degradation, particularly abundant in hemicellulose. The enzymes were tested under various combinations simultaneously and sequentially, in order to estimate the optimal conditions for the release of reducing sugars...
April 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Sarah Sze Wah Wong, Manjusha Rani, Eswari Dodagatta-Marri, Oumaima Ibrahim-Granet, Uday Kishore, Jagadeesh Bayry, Jean-Paul Latgé, Arvind Sahu, Taruna Madan, Vishukumar Aimanianda
Surfactant protein D (SP-D), a C-type lectin and pattern-recognition soluble factor, plays an important role in immune surveillance to detect and eliminate human pulmonary pathogens. SPD has been shown to protect against infections with the most ubiquitous airborne fungal pathogen, <em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em>, but the fungal surface component(s) interacting with SP-D is unknown. Here, we show that SP-D binds to melanin pigment on the surface of <em>A. fumigatus</em> dormant spores (conidia)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Deepak Mudgil, Sheweta Barak, Ami Patel, Nihir Shah
Guar galactomannan was enzymatically hydrolyzed to obtain partially hydrolyzed guar gum which can be utilized as prebiotic source. In present study, growth of probiotics (Lactic Acid Bacteria strains) were studied with glucose, partially hydrolyzed guar gum and native guar gum. All the six strains were galactose &/or mannose positive using the API CHl 50 test. Almost all these strains showed an ability to assimilate partially hydrolyzed guar gum with respect to increase in optical density and viable cell count with concomitant decrease in the pH of the growth medium...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jizhou Li, Isabelle Mouyna, Christine Henry, Frédérique Moyrand, Christian Malosse, Julia Chamot-Rooke, Guilhem Janbon, Jean-Paul Latgé, Thierry Fontaine
Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are lipid anchors allowing the exposure of proteins at the outer layer of the plasma membrane. In fungi, a number of GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are involved in the remodeling of the cell wall polymers. GPIs follow a specific biosynthetic pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum. After the transfer of the protein onto the GPI-anchor, a lipid remodeling occurs to substitute the diacylglycerol moiety by a ceramide. In addition to GPI-APs, A. fumigatus produces a GPI-anchored polysaccharide, the galactomannan (GM), that remains unique in the fungal kingdom...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Yake Yao, Hua Zhou, Yihong Shen, Qing Yang, Jian Ye, Guohua Lu, Yiqi Fu, Haiyan Lou, Yunsong Yu, Jianying Zhou
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a common fungal infection with high mortality rates in immunocompromised patients. Early diagnosis of IPA is still challenging because of its nonspecific clinical symptoms and radiological presentations.To evaluate the clinical value of a commercial Aspergillus fumigates-specific IgM antibody assay in diagnosis of IPA, a multicenter prospective study was performed in 12 hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China, from January 1 to December 31, 2016.A total of 59 patients were enrolled in this study, including 30 IPA and 29 non-IPA patients...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yang Wang, Deyuan Li, Lina Qiao, Fumin Zhao
RATIONALE: Central nervous system (CNS) aspergillosis has the characteristics of multifocality, polymorphism, and coexistence of pathological types, and missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis frequently occur at the initial stage. The thesis reports a rare case of infant infection of CNS aspergillosis with the first-episode of intracranial hemorrhage. PATIENT CONCERNS: An 11-month-old female infant suffered convulsion and coma two days after the onset of fever and emesis...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Pirudee Tuntrakool, Suttipun Keawsompong
Endo-1,4-β-mannanase is an enzyme that can catalyze the random hydrolysis of β-1,4-mannosidic linkages in the main chain of mannans, glucomannans and galactomannans and offers many applications in different biotechnology industries. Purification and kinetic properties of the endo-1,4-β-mannanase from recombinant Escherichia coli strain KMAN-3 were examined. Recombinant β-mannanase (KMAN-3) was purified 50.5 fold using Ni-NTA Agarose resin and specific activity of 11900 U/mg protein was obtained. Purified KMAN-3 showed a single band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight of 43 kDa...
January 26, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
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