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Galactomannans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330887/usefulness-of-two-aspergillus-pcr-assays-and-aspergillus-galactomannan-and-%C3%AE-d-glucan-testing-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-for-diagnosis-of-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#1
Naohisa Urabe, Susumu Sakamoto, Go Sano, Junko Suzuki, Akira Hebisawa, Yasuhiko Nakamura, Kazuya Koyama, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kazuhiro Tateda, Sakae Homma
We evaluated the usefulness of an Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) test, a β-D-glucan (βDG) test, and two different Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples for diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). BALF samples from 28 patients with and 120 patients without CPA were collected. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio for each test individually and in combination with other tests...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327806/invasive-fungal-infection-in-patients-with-hematologic-disorders-in-a-brazilian-tertiary-care-hospital
#2
Milton Camplesi, Hildene Meneses Silva, Adriano Moraes Arantes, Carolina Rodrigues Costa, Fábio Silvestre Ataides, Thaisa Cristina Silva, Maysa de Paula Costa Dos Reis, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva
INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an important complication in immunocompromised individuals, particularly neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies. In this study, we aimed to verify the epidemiology and diagnosis of IFIs in patients with hematologic problems at a tertiary hospital in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. METHODS: Data from 117 patients, involving 19 cases of IFIs, were collected. The collected data included diagnosis methods, demographics, clinical characteristics, and in vitro susceptibility to different antifungal agents...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317475/characterization-of-a-pa14-domain-containing-galactofuranose-specific-%C3%AE-d-galactofuranosidase-from-streptomyces-sp
#3
Emiko Matsunaga, Yujiro Higuchi, Kazuki Mori, Nao Yairo, Saki Toyota, Takuji Oka, Kosuke Tashiro, Kaoru Takegawa
As a constituent of polysaccharides and glycoconjugates, β-d-galactofuranose (Galf) exists in several pathogenic microorganisms. Although we recently identified a β-d-galactofuranosidase (Galf-ase) gene, ORF1110, in the Streptomyces strain JHA19, very little is known about the Galf-ase gene. Here, we characterized a strain, named JHA26, in the culture supernatant of which exhibited Galf-ase activity for 4-nitrophenyl β-d-galactofuranoside (pNP-β-d-Galf) as a substrate. Draft genome sequencing of the JHA26 strain revealed a putative gene, termed ORF0643, that encodes Galf-ase containing a PA14 domain, which is thought to function in substrate recognition...
March 20, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317006/proteomic-data-on-enzyme-secretion-and-activity-in-the-bacterium-chitinophaga-pinensis
#4
Johan Larsbrink, Tina R Tuveng, Phillip B Pope, Vincent Bulone, Vincent G H Eijsink, Harry Brumer, Lauren S McKee
The secretion of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes by a bacterium sourced from a softwood forest environment has been investigated by mass spectrometry. The findings are discussed in full in the research article "Proteomic insights into mannan degradation and protein secretion by the forest floor bacterium Chitinophaga pinensis" in Journal of Proteomics by Larsbrink et al. ([1], doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2017.01.003). The bacterium was grown on three carbon sources (glucose, glucomannan, and galactomannan) which are likely to be nutrient sources or carbohydrate degradation products found in its natural habitat...
April 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303817/screening-of-invasive-fungal-infections-by-a-real-time-panfungal-pan-acf-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancy
#5
Malini Rajinder Capoor, Shikha Puri, Hitesh Raheja, Ritin Mohindra, Dinesh Kumar Gupta, Pradeep Kumar Verma, Ranadeep Chowdhary
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a fatal infection in haematology patients. There is an urgent need for reliable screening methods facilitating timely diagnosis and treatment. A real-time panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on TaqMan technology targeting 18S ribosomal RNA gene was used to screen whole blood specimen obtained from series of Haematology malignancy patients for IFIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The panfungal (Pan-ACF) assay was employed to investigate specimen from 133 patients in duplicate with suspected IFI...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299183/challenges-in-microbiological-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillus-infections
#6
REVIEW
Alexandre Alanio, Stéphane Bretagne
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) has been increasingly reported in populations other than the historical hematology patients and there are new questions about the performance of microbiological tools. Microscopy and culture have been completed by biomarkers, either antigens or DNA, and in blood or respiratory specimens or both. First studied in hematology, the antigen galactomannan performance in serum is low in other patient populations where the pathophysiology of the infection can be different and the prevalence of IA is much lower...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274415/characterization-of-maillard-type-lysozyme-galactomannan-conjugate-having-immune-enhancing-effects
#7
Jae-Eon Yang, Su-Hyun Chun, Ha Hyung Kim, Hee-Don Choi, Kwang-Won Lee
In the present study, lysozyme-galactomannan conjugate (LGC) was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography, the immune activity of the fractions was confirmed, and a structural analysis of the glycoprotein was performed. A high-molecular-weight fraction of LGC (H-LGC), was characterized by using a method using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. The glycated site of H-LGC was determined to be the lysine (Lys)115 residue. In addition, about 1mol of galactomannan (G) was linked to 1mol of lysozyme (L) in LGC based on the binding weight ratio...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270451/validation-of-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-invasive-aspergillosis-following-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#8
Cynthia E Fisher, Tobias M Hohl, Wenhong Fan, Barry E Storer, David M Levine, Lu Ping Zhao, Paul J Martin, Edus H Warren, Michael Boeckh, John A Hansen
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Previous studies have reported an association between IA development and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but many have not been replicated in a separate cohort. The presence of a positive serum galactomannan assay (SGM+) has also been associated with a worse prognosis in patients with IA, and genetic determinants in this subset of patients have not been systematically studied...
March 7, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262990/qualitative-profile-of-degummed-guar-cyamopsis-tetragonoloba-l-seeds-grown-in-a-mediterranean-area-for-use-as-animal-feed
#9
B Chiofalo, V Lo Presti, A D'Agata, R Rao, G Ceravolo, F Gresta
Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) is an interesting summer legume multipurpose crop used for the extraction of seed gum, due to its galactomannan content, and the high-protein by-product, (germ and hull) used for animal feed. The aim of this study was to assess qualitative traits of degummed seeds, named guar meal, of six guar varieties from India, South Africa and USA, grown in a Mediterranean environment (Sicily, Southern Italy), in order to explore their suitability for livestock, and comparing them with the marketed Indian products of guar meals, Churi and Korma...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260471/culture-positive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-infection-clinical-and-laboratory-features-of-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#10
Balam Er Dedekarginoglu, Serife Savas Bozbas, Gaye Ulubay, Fusun Oner Eyuboglu, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Aspergillosis is a common fungal infection among solid-organ transplant recipients. Even after awareness of this infection occurs, there are still gaps in nonculture diagnostic tests, which can delay treatment initiation. Here, we aimed to define the common traits of pulmonary aspergillosis infection among solid-organ transplant recipients, thus shedding light on prevention and early diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a database search of patients at Baskent University who had a positive aspergillosis culture between January 2010 and March 2016...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250652/cosmeceutical-effects-of-galactomannan-fraction-from-arenga-pinnata-fruits-in-vitro
#11
Yanti, Madriena, Soegianto Ali
BACKGROUND: Cosmeceuticals refer to natural cosmetics with medical-like benefits due to their bioactive contents. Sugar palm fruit (Arenga pinnata) extract has been claimed for its anti-aging effect in vitro. However, its active compounds for cosmeceuticals is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to extract galactomannan from A. pinnata fruits and test its efficacy for tyrosinase inhibition, antioxidant, and anti-photoaging activities in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Galactomannan from A...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220352/purification-characterization-and-overexpression-of-an-endo-1-4-%C3%AE-mannanase-from-thermotolerant-bacillus-sp-swu60
#12
Weeranuch Seesom, Polphet Thongket, Tomohiro Yamamoto, Shigeo Takenaka, Tatsuji Sakamoto, Wasana Sukhumsirichart
Endo-β-1,4-mannanases are important catalytic agents in several industries. The enzymes randomly cleave the β-1,4-linkage in the mannan backbone and release short β-1,4-mannooligosaccharides and mannose. In the present study, mannanase (ManS2) from thermotolerant Bacillus sp. SWU60 was purified, characterized, and its gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. ManS2 was purified from culture filtrate (300 ml) by using hydrophobic, ion-exchange, and size-exclusive liquid chromatography. The apparent molecular mass was 38 kDa...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207190/diaporthe-soft-tissue-infection-in-a-heart-transplant-patient
#13
Robert M Rakita, Kevin D O'Brien, Lori Bourassa
Infections caused by Diaporthe species are very uncommon. We describe a heart transplant recipient 14 years post transplant who developed a soft tissue fungal infection due to a Diaporthe species that responded well to surgical excision and posaconazole therapy. The Aspergillus galactomannan index was markedly elevated, and returned to normal following treatment. Solid organ transplant patients remain at risk of infection long after transplant and should be counseled about risk avoidance. This article is protected by copyright...
February 16, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194062/performance-of-galactomannan-antigen-beta-d-glucan-and-aspergillus-lateral-flow-device-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis
#14
Gökhan Metan, Muzaffer Keklik, Gökçen Dinç, Çiğdem Pala, Afra Yıldırım, Berkay Saraymen, Mustafa Yavuz Köker, Leylagül Kaynar, Bülent Eser, Mustafa Çetin
Aspergillus lateral-flow device (LFD) was recently introduced as a practical tool for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA). We investigated the performance of Aspergillus-LFD as a point-of-care test for the diagnosis of IA. Serum samples were collected twice weekly from patients who received intensive chemotherapy for acute leukemia, or recepients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) antigen, 1,3-beta-d-glucan and Aspergillus-LFD tests were carried out according to manufacturers' recommendations...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181136/prognostic-value-of-galactomannan-current-evidence-for-monitoring-response-to-antifungal-therapy-in-patients-with-invasive-aspergillosis
#15
REVIEW
Laura L Kovanda, Amit V Desai, William W Hope
Galactomannan (GM) is a polysaccharide present in the cell wall of Aspergillus spp. that is released during growth of the organism. It has been successfully used to aide in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis allowing for earlier recognition of disease compared to conventional methods. Since its implementation in the clinic as a diagnostic tool, GM has been used in experimental models to measure therapeutic response. Several clinical studies describe the prognostic value of GM. Herein, we review the evidence supporting the utilization of GM antigen as a biomarker to measure response to systemic antifungal therapy...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138379/non-invasive-methods-to-diagnose-fungal-infections-in-pediatric-patients-with-hematologic-disorders
#16
Parisa Badiee, Zahra Hashemizadeh, Mani Ramzi, Mohammad Karimi, Rasoul Mohammadi
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infection (IFIs) is a major infectious complication in immunocompromised patients. Early diagnosis and initiation of antifungal therapy is important to achieve the best outcome. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate the incidence of IFIs and evaluate the diagnostic performance of non-invasive laboratory tests: serologic (β-D-glucan, galactomannan) and molecular (nested polymerase chain reaction) tests to diagnose fungal infections in hematologic pediatric patients...
November 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131991/is-a-biomarker-based-diagnostic-strategy-for-invasive-aspergillosis-cost-effective-in-high-risk-haematology-patients
#17
N Macesic, C O Morrissey, D Liew, M A Bohensky, S C-A Chen, N M Gilroy, S T Milliken, J Szer, M A Slavin
Empirical antifungal therapy is frequently used in hematology patients at high risk of invasive aspergillosis (IA), with substantial cost and toxicity. Biomarkers for IA aim for earlier and more accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, data on the cost-effectiveness of a biomarker-based diagnostic strategy (BDS) are limited. We evaluated the cost effectiveness of BDS using results from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and individual patient costing data. Data inputs derived from a published RCT were used to construct a decision-analytic model to compare BDS (Aspergillus galactomannan and PCR on blood) with standard diagnostic strategy (SDS) of culture and histology in terms of total costs, length of stay, IA incidence, mortality, and years of life saved...
January 27, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115858/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-combination-antifungal-therapy-with-voriconazole-and-anidulafungin-versus-voriconazole-monotherapy-for-primary-treatment-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-spain
#18
Santiago Grau, Jose Ramon Azanza, Isabel Ruiz, Carlos Vallejo, Josep Mensa, Johan Maertens, Werner J Heinz, Jon Andoni Barrueta, Carmen Peral, Francisco Jesús Mesa, Miguel Barrado, Claudie Charbonneau, Darío Rubio-Rodríguez, Carlos Rubio-Terrés
OBJECTIVE: According to a recent randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing the combination of voriconazole and anidulafungin (VOR+ANI) with VOR monotherapy for invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with hematologic disease or with hematopoietic stem cell transplant, mortality was lower after 6 weeks with VOR+ANI than with VOR monotherapy in a post hoc analysis of patients with galactomannan-based IA. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of VOR+ANI with VOR, from the perspective of hospitals in the Spanish National Health System...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105485/biochemical-characterization-of-thermostable-%C3%AE-1-4-mannanase-belonging-to-the-glycoside-hydrolase-family-134-from-aspergillus-oryzae
#19
Kiyota Sakai, Mai Mochizuki, Miyuki Yamada, Yuta Shinzawa, Miho Minezawa, Saran Kimoto, Shunsuke Murata, Yuhei Kaneko, Saaya Ishihara, Sadanari Jindou, Tetsuo Kobayashi, Masashi Kato, Motoyuki Shimizu
A β-1,4-mannanase, termed AoMan134A, that belongs to the GH 134 family was identified in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae. Recombinant AoMan134A was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and the purified enzyme produced mannobiose, mannotriose, mannotetraose, and mannopentaose from galactose-free β-mannan, with mannotriose being the predominant reaction product. The catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m ) of AoMan134A was 6.8-fold higher toward galactomannan from locust bean gum, than toward galactomannan from guar gum, but similar toward galactomannan from locust bean gum and glucomannan from konjac flour...
January 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063302/metabonomics-study-of-the-therapeutic-mechanism-of-fenugreek-galactomannan-on-diabetic-hyperglycemia-in-rats-by-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#20
Wenyue Jiang, Lu Gao, Pengdong Li, Hong Kan, Jiale Qu, Lihui Men, Zhiqiang Liu, Zhongying Liu
Fenugreek is a traditional plant for the treatment of diabetes. Galactomannan, an active major component in fenugreek seeds, has shown hypoglycemic activity. The present study was performed to investigate the therapeutic mechanism underlying fenugreek galactomannan (F-GAL) in treating diabetes, using a metabonomics approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS). The F-GAL used for study was highly purified, and its yield, purity, and galactose/mannose ratio were characterized by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and a modified phenol-sulfuric acid method...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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