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Galactomannans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767770/%C3%AE-1-6-linked-galactofuranose-rich-peptidogalactomannan-of-fusarium-oxysporum-is-important-in-the-activation-of-macrophage-mechanisms-and-as-a-potential-diagnostic-antigen
#1
Nathalia Ferreira de Oliveira, Gustavo R C Santos, Mariana Ingrid D S Xisto, Giulia Maria Pires Dos Santos, Marcio Nucci, Rosa Maria T Haido, Eliana Barreto-Bergter
A peptidogalactomannan (PGM) from Fusarium oxysporum was structurally characterized by a combination of chemical and spectroscopic methods, including one and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D and 2D NMR). The galactomannan component consists of a main chain containing (1→6)-linked β-D-galactofuranose residues with side chains containing (1→2)-linked α-D-Glcp, (1→2)-linked -β-D-Manp (1→2) and β-D-Manp terminal nonreducing end units and differs from that of Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium resinae that present a main chain containing (1→6)-linked α-D-Manp residues presenting β-D-Galf as side chains of 3-4 units that are (1→5)-interlinked...
May 15, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754210/invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-current-diagnostic-methodologies-and-a-new-molecular-approach
#2
REVIEW
S Moura, L Cerqueira, A Almeida
The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the main pathogenic agent responsible for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Immunocompromised patients are more likely to develop this pathology due to a decrease in the immune system's defense capacity. Despite of the low occurrence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, this pathology presents high rates of mortality, mostly due to late and unspecific diagnosis. Currently, the diagnostic methods used to detect this fungal infection are conventional mycological examination (direct microscopic examination, histological examination, and culture), imaging, non-culture-based tests for the detection of galactomannan, β(1,3)-glucan and an extracellular glycoprotein, and molecular tests based on PCR...
May 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740403/overview-of-commercially-available-pcr-assays-for-the-detection-of-aspergillus-spp-dna-in-patient-samples
#3
REVIEW
Peter-Michael Rath, Joerg Steinmann
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients. Early diagnosis is essential to improve survival. Since the 1990s, attempts for PCR-based diagnosis of IA were made. Progress in the standardization of methods enabled the development of commercially available Aspergillus PCR assays in the last few years. Up to now, the clinical value of only a few commercial assays was investigated more extensively in large cohort studies. Most often, respiratory secretions such as bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were investigated, but some studies also included serum samples from high-risk patients...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738315/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-histoplasmosis-in-solid-organ-transplant-patients
#4
Kiran Gajurel, Reshika Dhakal, Stan Deresinski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Unlike immunocompetent hosts, solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with posttransplant histoplasmosis (PTH) often present with disseminated disease and have an attributable mortality of approximately 10%. In this review, we discuss currently available diagnostic tests and treatment strategies in PTH. RECENT FINDINGS: None of the available tests have a 100% diagnostic accuracy. Histoplasma antigen assays are the most sensitive commercially available tests...
May 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737102/-galactomannan-tests-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-for-diagnosing-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#5
Jin Deng, Si-Ying Wu, Ya Liu, Ying Ma, Yi Xie, Zhi-Xing Chen, Zhong-Qiu Dai, Jie-Lun Deng, Mei Kang
OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of galactomannan (GM) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for diagnosing invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. METHODS: According to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer / Invasive Fungal Infection Group (EORTC / IFICG) and the American Mycosis Research Group (MSG),and the American College of Infectious Diseases (IDSA) guidelines,295 patients with pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and high risk of invasive infections were divided into four groups: IPA group (42 cases),clinically diagnosed group (68 cases),suspected group (61 cases),and non-IPA group (124 cases)...
January 2018: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719438/adherence-to-and-outcomes-of-a-galactomannan-screening-protocol-in-high-risk-hematology-patients
#6
S Harricharan, K Biederman, A M Bombassaro, A Lazo-Langner, S Elsayed, A Fulford, J A Delport, A Xenocostas
Background: A twice-weekly galactomannan (gm) screening protocol was implemented in high-risk hematology inpatients. Study objectives were to determine adherence to the protocol, use of selected resources, and patient outcomes. Methods: This retrospective cohort study compared outcomes of interest before and after implementation of gm screening. Adults undergoing matched related allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation or induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia were eligible...
April 2018: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700569/enzyme-oxidation-of-plant-galactomannans-yielding-biomaterials-with-novel-properties-and-applications-including-as-delivery-systems
#7
REVIEW
Yves M Galante, Luca Merlini, Tiziana Silvetti, Paola Campia, Bianca Rossi, Fiorenza Viani, Milena Brasca
New biomaterials from renewable sources and the development of "functionalized biopolymers" are fields of growing industrial interest. Plant polysaccharides represent a valid alternative to traditional synthetic polymers, which are obtained from monomers of fossil, non-renewable origin. Several polysaccharides, either in their natural or chemically/biochemically modified forms, are currently employed in the biomedical, food and feed, and industrial fields, including packaging. Sustainable biochemical reactions, such as enzyme modifications of polysaccharides, open further possibilities for new product and process innovation...
April 26, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693758/performance-of-serum-1-3-%C3%A3-d-glucan-screening-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-neutropenic-patients-with-haematological-malignancies
#8
Elisa Furfaro, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Valerio Del Bono, Alessio Signori, Fabio Guolo, Paola Minetto, Marino Clavio, Filippo Ballerini, Marco Gobbi, Claudio Viscoli, Malgorzata Mikulska
OBJECTIVES: To report our experience with the use of (1,3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG) screening for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. METHODS: The performance of BDG screening was assessed retrospectively through per patient and per sample analyses. RESULTS: Overall, 20 among 167 patients developed IA (12%). In the per patient analysis, BDG showed 60% sensitivity and 78% specificity when the criterion for positivity was the presence of at least one BDG value ≥80 pg/ml...
April 25, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684106/urine-antigen-detection-as-an-aid-to-diagnose-invasive-aspergillosis
#9
Kieren A Marr, Kausik Datta, Seema Mehta, Darin B Ostrander, Michelle Rock, Jesse Francis, Marta Feldmesser
Background: Establishing rapid diagnoses of invasive aspergillosis (IA) is priority, given poor outcomes of late therapy. Non-culture based tests that detect galactomannan and β-D glucan are available, but are technically cumbersome and rely on invasive sampling (blood or bronchoalveolar lavage). Methods: We optimized a lateral flow dipstick assay using the galactofuranose -specific monoclonal antibody (mAb476), which was previously shown to recognize urine antigens after Aspergillus fumigatus pulmonary infection in an`imals...
April 19, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684057/serum-galactomannan-antigen-as-a-prognostic-and-diagnostic-marker-for-invasive-aspergillosis-in-heterogeneous-medicine-icu-patient-population
#10
Yubhisha Dabas, Anant Mohan, Immaculata Xess
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to get a complete clinical and mycological picture of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in respiratory medicine ICU of a tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: From the cohort of 235 patients only one had proven IA. Based on AspICU algorithm, 21 had putative IA (8.9%), 12 were colonised (5.1%). RESULTS: Adjusting the confounding factors, significant risk factors for IA were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), temperature of ≥38°C, pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674318/nicotiana-benthamiana-%C3%AE-galactosidase-a1-1-can-functionally-complement-human-%C3%AE-galactosidase-a-deficiency-associated-with-fabry-disease
#11
Kassiani Kytidou, Jules Beekwilder, Marta Artola, Eline van Meel, Ruud H P Wilbers, Geri F Moolenaar, Nora Goosen, Maria J Ferraz, Rebecca Katzy, Patrick Voskamp, Bogdan I Florea, Cornelis H Hokke, Herman S Overkleeft, Arjen Schots, Dirk Bosch, Navraj Pannu, Johannes M F G Aerts
α-Galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.22) are retaining glycosidases that cleave terminal α-linked galactose residues from glycoconjugate substrates. α-Galactosidases take part in the turnover of cell wall-associated galactomannans in plants and in the lysosomal degradation of glycosphingolipids in animals. Deficiency of human α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A) causes Fabry disease (FD), a heritable, X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, characterized by accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and globotriaosylsphingosine (lysoGb3)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670608/galactomannan-a-surrogate-marker-for-outcome-in-invasive-aspergillosis-finally-coming-of-age
#12
REVIEW
Toine Mercier, Ellen Guldentops, Katrien Lagrou, Johan Maertens
Detection of galactomannan has become widely available for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis. The test characteristics, using the Platelia™ enzyme-immunoassay, have been well described. This assay could potentially also be useful for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antifungal therapy and for predicting the outcome in terms of response and survival. In this systematic review, we assessed the available evidence for the use of serum galactomannan at baseline as a prognostic marker, and the predictive value of serum galactomannan kinetics after initiation of antifungal therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668068/epidemiology-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-in-the-swiss-transplant-cohort-study
#13
D Neofytos, O Chatzis, D Nasioudis, E Boely Janke, T Doco Lecompte, C Garzoni, C Berger, A Cussini, K Boggian, N Khanna, O Manuel, N J Mueller, C van Delden
BACKGROUND: There is lack of recent multicenter epidemiological data on invasive aspergillosis (IA) among solid organ transplant recipient (SOTr) in the mold-acting antifungal era. We describe the epidemiology and outcomes of IA in a contemporary cohort of SOTr using the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study. METHODS: All consecutive SOTr with proven or probable IA between 01.05.2008 and 31.12.2014 were included. A case-control study to identify IA predictors was performed: 1-case was matched with 3-controls based on SOT type, transplant center, and time post-SOT...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661323/carboxymethyl-guar-gum-synthesis-in-homogeneous-phase-and-macroporous-3d-scaffolds-design-for-tissue-engineering
#14
Sonia Kundu, Aatrayee Das, Aalok Basu, Debjani Ghosh, Pallab Datta, Arup Mukherjee
Guar gum (GG) is a galactomannan obtained directly from the Cyamopsis tetragonoloba seeds pericarb. The biopolymer hydrates hugely in three chain associated coil formations. Chaotropic Hofmeister ion like lithium interacts at the hydrogen bonding sites and render GG homogenization in polar solvents like dimethyl sulfoxide. This phenomenon was used for the first time for galactomannan derivatisations in homogeneous phase. Higher degree of substitution (DS) that was hereto unattainable in GG was achieved due to Hofmeister ion assisted assembly deformations...
July 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655492/isolated-acute-appendicitis-caused-by-aspergillus-in-a-patient-who-underwent-lung-transplantation-a-case-report
#15
H S Kim, H J Yeo, D H Shin, W H Cho, D Kim
Invasive aspergillosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who have undergone lung transplantation. Aspergillus infections usually involve the respiratory tract, with vascular invasion and subsequent dissemination. However, acute appendicitis associated with localized aspergillosis is rare, especially among patients who have undergone prophylaxis with voriconazole. We present a case of primary Aspergillus appendicitis diagnosed by histologic examination in a patient who underwent lung transplantation...
April 11, 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648596/unraveling-synthesis-of-the-cryptococcal-cell-wall-and-capsule
#16
Zhuo A Wang, Lucy X Li, Tamara L Doering
Fungal pathogens cause devastating infections in millions of individuals each year, representing a huge but underappreciated burden on human health. One of these, the opportunistic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, kills hundreds of thousands of patients annually, disproportionately affecting people in resource-limited areas. This yeast is distinguished from other pathogenic fungi by a polysaccharide capsule that is displayed on the cell surface. The capsule consists of two complex polysaccharide polymers: a mannan substituted with xylose and glucuronic acid, and a galactan with galactomannan side chains that bear variable amounts of glucuronic acid and xylose...
April 10, 2018: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629702/galactomannan-antigen-test-for-early-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillus-infection-in-pediatric-febrile-neutropenia
#17
LETTER
Jogender Kumar, Amitabh Singh, Rachna Seth, Immaculata Xess, Sushil Kumar Kabra
Invasive aspergillosis is a major concern in neutropenic patients. We studied the utility of Galactomannan antigen detection test in serum using ELISA technique for early detection of invasive aspergillosis. Diagnostic accuracy of Galactomannan index (GMI) test was maximum at a cut-off of > 1.5 with a negative predictive value of more than 95%.
March 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624684/the-ectomycorrhizal-basidiomycete-laccaria-bicolor-releases-a-secreted-%C3%AE-1-4-endoglucanase-that-plays-a-key-role-in-symbiosis-development
#18
Feng Zhang, George E Anasontzis, Aurore Labourel, Charlotte Champion, Mireille Haon, Minna Kemppainen, Carine Commun, Aurélie Deveau, Alejandro Pardo, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, Annegret Kohler, Marie-Noëlle Rosso, Bernard Henrissat, Jean-Guy Berrin, Francis Martin
In ectomycorrhiza, root ingress and colonization of the apoplast by colonizing hyphae is thought to rely mainly on the mechanical force that results from hyphal tip growth, but this could be enhanced by secretion of cell-wall-degrading enzymes, which have not yet been identified. The sole cellulose-binding module (CBM1) encoded in the genome of the ectomycorrhizal Laccaria bicolor is linked to a glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) endoglucanase, LbGH5-CBM1. Here, we characterize LbGH5-CBM1 gene expression and the biochemical properties of its protein product...
April 6, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614368/serum-galactomannan-for-diagnosing-invasive-aspergillosis-in-pediatric-patients-a-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Tong Tong, Jilu Shen, Yuanhong Xu
BACKGROUND: The serum galactomannan (GM) assay is used to diagnose invasive aspergillosis (IA). We conducted a systematic review and analysis to estimate the overall accuracy of the serum GM test for diagnosing pediatric IA. METHOD: A systematic literature review was conducted of all relevant studies published in PubMed and EMbase databases up to March 10, 2017. We selected and assessed articles that reported diagnostic data related to serum GM for diagnosis of pediatric IA...
March 31, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606773/rheological-properties-of-kuzu-starch-pastes-with-galactomannans
#20
Bertrand Jóźwiak, Magdalena Orczykowska, Marek Dziubiński
The paper describes the effects of galactomannans on viscoelastic properties of commercial Japanese white kuzu starch pastes. The study included morphological, thermal and rheological analyses of the biopolymer. The results obtained in the form of storage modulus G '( ω ) and loss modulus G ″( ω ) were described by the modified fractional Kelvin-Voigt model with two springpot-type elements, created on the basis of differential calculus of fractional order and Fourier transform. It allowed to determine 17 material parameters providing a lot of additional information about structure and viscoelastic properties of the biopolymer in comparison to the classical analysis of oscillatory and creep tests...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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