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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733410/radioactive-labeling-and-fractionation-of-fission-yeast-walls
#1
Pilar Pérez, Juan C Ribas
Fungal cells contain an essential structure external to the cell, made of polysaccharides and proteins, termed the cell wall. Polysaccharides represent ∼96% of the cell wall on a dry-weight basis. They are complex insoluble polymers connected to each other by covalent linkages and hydrogen bonds with specific localizations in the cell wall and septum. Fission yeast contains three β-glucans (a major branched β(1,3)-glucan, a minor linear β(1,3)-glucan, and a minor branched β(1,6)-glucan), two α-glucans (a major α(1,3)-glucan and a minor α(1,4)-glucan), and a minor amount of galactomannan-linked glycoproteins...
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732911/toxicity-of-native-and-oxovanadium-iv-v-galactomannan-complexes-on-hepg2-cells-is-related-to-impairment-of-mitochondrial-functions
#2
Monique Meyenberg Cunha-de Padua, Silvia Maria Suter Correia Cadena, Carmen Lucia de Oliveira Petkowicz, Glaucia Regina Martinez, Maria Eliane Merlin Rocha, Ana Lucia Ramalho Mercê, Guilhermina Rodrigues Noleto
Polysaccharides and vanadium compounds have been studied due to their antitumor potential. In this study, the cytotoxic effects of galactomannan preparations on HepG2 cells were investigated. Native galactomannan from S. amazonicum (SAGM) and its modified form (MSAGM) were complexed with oxovanadium resulting in SAGM:VO and MSAGM:VO, respectively. The complexation was confirmed by NMR, FTIR, and AAS. SAGM and MSAGM:VO (250μg/mL) after 72h decreased viability by 51% and 58%, respectively, while the inhibition of the HepG2 cell proliferation was of ∼27% and ∼46%, respectively...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732846/physicochemical-study-of-mixed-systems-composed-by-bovine-caseinate-and-the-galactomannan-from-gleditsia-amorphoides
#3
Débora N López, Micaela Galante, Estela M Alvarez, Patricia H Risso, Valeria Boeris
Model systems formed by sodium caseinate (NaCAS) and espina corona gum (ECG) were studied. There was no evidence of attractive interactions between NaCAS and ECG macromolecules. Aqueous mixtures of NaCAS and ECG phase-separate segregatively over a wide range of concentrations. According to the images obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy, NaCAS particles form larger protein aggregates when ECG is present in the system. An increase in the hydrodynamic diameter of NaCAS particles, as a result of ECG addition, was also observed by light scattering in diluted systems...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712957/secretory-expression-of-%C3%AE-mannanase-from-bacillus-circulans-nt-6-7-in-lactobacillus-plantarum
#4
Kwankanit Intaratrukul, Sunee Nitisinprasert, Thu-Ha Nguyen, Dietmar Haltrich, Suttipun Keawsompong
The β-mannanase gene of Bacillus circulans NT 6.7 was successfully cloned in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 using the pSIP403 expression vector and secreted to the supernatant rather than accumulated in the cells. The highest activity was achieved by controlling the pH at 6 during cultivation. Maximum mannanase activities detected in the supernatant and cell-free extract of 200 ml MRS broth were 8.2 and 0.86 U/ml, respectively. Enzyme activity in the supernatant increased to 27 U/ml by fermentation in a 5-L bioreactor with automatic pH control...
July 13, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712819/clinical-characteristics-radiologic-findings-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-serum-galactomannan-negative-invasive-pulmonary%C3%A2-aspergillosis
#5
Jiwon Jung, Mi Young Kim, Yong Pil Chong, Sang-Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung-Han Kim
BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of galactomannan (GM) assay is suboptimal for detecting invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in serum samples. However, the clinical characteristics, radiologic findings, and outcomes in patients with GM-negative IPA have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Over a 7-year period, adult patients with proven or probable IPA by the EORTC/MSG definition were retrospectively enrolled. Patients with negative GM results and positive Aspergillus spp...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702426/the-chemical-characteristics-and-immune-modulating-activity-of-polysaccharides-isolated-from-cold-brew-coffee
#6
Kwang-Soon Shin
To elucidate new biological ingredients in cold-brew coffee extracted with cold water, crude polysaccharide (CCP-0) was isolated by ethanol precipitation, and its immune-stimulating activities were assayed. CCP-0 mainly comprised galactose (53.6%), mannose (15.7%), arabinose (11.9%), and uronic acid (12.4%), suggesting that it might exist as a mixture of galactomannan and arabinogalactan. CCP-0 significantly increased cell proliferation on both murine peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes in a dose dependent manner...
June 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702318/aspergillus-nodules-in-chronic-granulomatous-disease-attributable-to-aspergillus-ochraceus
#7
Samihah Moazam, David W Denning
Aspergillus ochraceus is a rare pulmonary pathogen. A 39 year old male with COPD and chronic granulomatous disease presented with severe breathlessness and recurrent infections. CT scan demonstrated multiple pulmonary nodules diagnosed as chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. The patient's sputum grew Aspergillus ochraceus thrice over 6 months, alongside positive Aspergillus IgG and serum galactomannan. Despite treatment with itraconazole, the patient continued to be symptomatic. We present the first case associating A...
September 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699245/effects-of-intranasally-dosed-posaconazole-on-fungal-load-and-biomarkers-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-infected-immunocompromised-mice
#8
Genki Kimura, Takahiro Nakaoki, Yuki Nishimoto, Yuto Suzuki, Garth Rapeport, Pete Strong, Kazuhiro Ito, Yasuo Kizawa
Although anti-fungal triazoles are dosed orally or systemically for Aspergillus fumigatus infection, systemic adverse events and limited exposure of the lung cavity would make a topical treatment for the lung an attractive option. In this study, we examined the effects of intranasally dosed posaconazole on survival rates and biomarkers in A. fumigatus (itraconazole susceptible: ATCC13073 [Af]; or resistant: NCPF7100 [AfR]) infected, temporarily neutropenic A/J mice. Once daily treatment produced a dose-dependent improvement of survival of Af-infected mice (ED50 : 0...
July 11, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696236/combination-therapy-with-isavuconazole-and-micafungin-for-treatment-of-experimental-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#9
Vidmantas Petraitis, Ruta Petraitiene, Matthew W McCarthy, Laura L Kovanda, Myo H Zaw, Kaiser Hussain, Naima Shaikh, Bo Bo W Maung, Navjot K Sekhon, William W Hope, Thomas J Walsh
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. We hypothesized that simultaneous inhibition of biosynthesis of ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane and (1→3)-β-D-glucan in the cell wall, respectively, by the antifungal triazole isavuconazole and the echinocandin micafungin, may result in improved outcome in experimental IPA in persistently neutropenic rabbits. Treatment groups included isavuconazole (ISA) at 20 (ISA20), 40 (ISA40), and 60 (ISA60) mg/kg/day, micafungin at 2 mg/kg/day (MFG2), or combinations of (ISA20+MFG2), (ISA40+MFG2), (ISA60+MFG2), and untreated rabbits (UC)...
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693685/effect-of-involved-aspergillus-species-on-galactomannan-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-of-patients-with-invasive-aspergillosis
#10
Mojtaba Taghizadeh-Armaki, Mohammad T Hedayati, Vahid Moqarabzadeh, Saham Ansari, Saeed Mahdavi Omran, Hossein Zarrinfar, Sasan Saber, Paul E Verweij, David W Denning, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
PURPOSE: The detection of galactomannan (GM) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is an important surrogate marker for the early diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of invasive aspergillosis (IA), regardless of the involved species of Aspergillus. Here, we utilized the Platelia Aspergillus GM enzyme immunoassay (Bio-Rad) to evaluate the GM index in BAL fluid samples from patients with proven, probable or putative IA due to Aspergillusflavus versus Aspergillusfumigatus. METHODOLOGY: In a prospective study between 2009 and 2015, 116 BAL samples were collected from suspected IA patients referred to two university hospitals in Tehran, Iran...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681812/evaluation-of-serum-galactomannan-enzyme-immunoassay-at-two-different-cut-offs-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-patients-with-febrile-neutropenia
#11
Ritin Mohindra, Malini R Capoor, Shikha Puri, Hitesh Raheja, Dinesh K Gupta, B Gupta, Ranadip Chowdhury
BACKGROUND: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an increasingly common and fatal opportunistic fungal infection in patients with haematological diseases. Early diagnosis is difficult as mycological culture techniques have low sensitivity and the radiological tools have low specificity. Galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GEI) detects galactomannan in the human serum with a reported sensitivity and specificity between 30% and 100%. AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyse the role of GEI in diagnosis of IA in patients with febrile neutropenia and to evaluate the role of GEI in the diagnosis of IA as per the revised (2008) European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Mycoses Study Group (EORTC-MSG) criteria at two different optical density (OD) cut-offs of 0...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680526/lateral-flow-assays-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-current-status
#12
REVIEW
Sven Heldt, Martin Hoenigl
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diagnosis during early stages of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and targeted antifungal treatment has the potential to improve survival significantly. Despite advances in the diagnostic arsenal, invasive mold infections remain difficult to diagnose-especially at early stages before typical radiological signs develop. Varying availability and time-to-results are important limitations of current approved biomarkers and molecular assays for diagnosis of IA. Here, we will give an update on the Aspergillus-specific lateral-flow device (LFD) test...
2017: Current Fungal Infection Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680525/progress-in-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-disease-in-children
#13
REVIEW
Adilia Warris, Thomas Lehrnbecher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the fungal diagnostic measures currently available for use in paediatric patients at high risk for developing invasive fungal disease (IFD) and those suspected of having an IFD. The clinical utility of each test is described based on reported performances of individual tests in specific paediatric populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Available studies in the paediatric population are scarce and are characterized by a huge heterogeneity in underlying diseases (e...
2017: Current Fungal Infection Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647219/higher-mortality-of-severe-influenza-patients-with-probable-aspergillosis-than-those-with-and-without-other-coinfections
#14
Yee-Huang Ku, Khee-Siang Chan, Chun-Chieh Yang, Che-Kim Tan, Yin-Ching Chuang, Wen-Liang Yu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Aspergillus-associated infection might comprise up to 23-29% of severe influenza patients from the community throughout stay in an intensive care unit (ICU). In Taiwan, cases of severe influenza with aspergillosis are increasingly reported. Therefore, we describe the relative risk of mortality among severe influenza patients with aspergillosis and other coinfections compared to severe influenza patients without Aspergillus coinfections. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 124 adult patients with severe influenza in a tertiary medical center in southern Taiwan from January 2015 through March 2016...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645480/comparative-performance-of-aspergillus-galactomannan-elisa-and-pcr-in-sputum-from-patients-with-abpa-and-cpa
#15
Samuel Fayemiwo, Caroline B Moore, Philip Foden, David W Denning, Malcolm D Richardson
OBJECTIVES: Galactomannan (GM) and Aspergillus DNA detection are useful tools for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), primarily in blood and bronchoscopy samples. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of both markers for detection of Aspergillus in sputum from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). METHODS: ABPA or CPA demographic patient data were retrieved. This retrospective observational audit included 159 patients with at least one sputum pair...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636889/complications-of-hematopoietic-stem-transplantation-fungal-infections
#16
REVIEW
Ali S Omrani, Reem S Almaghrabi
Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at increased risk of invasive fungal infections, especially during the early neutropenic phase and severe graft-versus-host disease. Mold-active prophylaxis should be limited to the highest risk groups. Empiric antifungal therapy for HSCT with persistent febrile neutropenia is associated with unacceptable response rates, unnecessary antifungal therapy, increased risk of toxicity, and inflated costs. Empiric therapy should not be a substitute for detailed work up to identify the cause of fever in such patients...
June 13, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630185/in-vivo-biomarker-analysis-of-intranasally-dosed-pc945-a-novel-antifungal-triazole-on-aspergillus-fumigatus-infection-in-immunocompromised-mice
#17
Genki Kimura, Takahiro Nakaoki, Thomas Colley, Garth Rapeport, Pete Strong, Kazuhiro Ito, Yasuo Kizawa
PC945 is a novel triazole optimised for lung delivery and the objective of this study is to determine the effects of intranasally dosed PC945 on Aspergillus fumigatus infection and associated biomarkers in immunocompromised mice. PC945, posaconazole or voriconazole was treated intranasally once daily on days 0 to 3 (early intervention) or days 1 to 3 (late intervention) post-infection in temporarily neutropenic A/J mice infected intranasally with A. fumigatus, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were collected on day 3...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608692/galactomannan-from-antrodia-cinnamomea-enhances-the-phagocytic-activity-of-macrophages
#18
Namal Perera, Feng-Ling Yang, Ching-Ming Chang, Yueh-Tung Lu, Shih-Hao Zhan, Yi-Ting Tsai, Jung-Feng Hsieh, Lan-Hui Li, Kuo-Feng Hua, Shih-Hsiung Wu
Galactomannan with an octasaccharide-repeating unit (ACP) was isolated from Taiwan medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea, and its chemical structure was determined herein. ACP significantly enhanced the phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of J774A.1 murine macrophages against Escherichia coli, with prospects for developing a new immunomodulatory compound or adjuvant in immunotherapy and vaccination.
June 13, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580236/penicillium-citrinum-opportunistic-pathogen-or-idle-bystander-a-case-analysis-with-demonstration-of-galactomannan-cross-reactivity
#19
Shayla E Hesse, Paul M Luethy, John H Beigel, Adrian M Zelazny
We present a case of an immunocompromised woman with fever, pulmonary infiltrates and multiple bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cultures positive for Penicillium citrinum with a concomitant high BAL galactomannan level. We report the results of Aspergillus galactomannan testing performed on culture supernatants from her P. citrinum strain that confirmed the suspected cross-reactivity. Finally, we discuss the clinical significance and antifungal susceptibility of P. citrinum in our case and review the literature...
September 2017: Medical Mycology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554382/a-novel-%C3%AE-galactosidase-from-fusarium-oxysporum-and-its-application-in-determining-the-structure-of-the-gum-arabic-side-chain
#20
Akiho Maruta, Mirei Yamane, Midori Matsubara, Shiho Suzuki, Masami Nakazawa, Mitsuhiro Ueda, Tatsuji Sakamoto
We previously reported that Fusarium oxysporum 12S produces two bifunctional proteins, FoAP1 and FoAP2, with α-d-galactopyranosidase (GPase) and β-l-arabinopyranosidase (APase) activities. The aim of this paper was to purify a third GPase, FoGP1, from culture supernatant of F. oxysporum 12S, to characterize it, and to determine its mode of action towards gum arabic. A cDNA encoding FoGP1 was cloned and the protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Module sequence analysis revealed the presence of a GH27 domain in FoGP1...
August 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
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