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Galactomannans

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433769/healing-activity-evaluation-of-the-galactomannan-film-obtained-from-cassia-grandis-seeds-with-immobilized-cratylia-mollis-seed-lectin
#1
Priscilla B S Albuquerque, Paulo A G Soares, Adelmo C Aragão-Neto, Giwellington S Albuquerque, Luís C N Silva, Maria H M Lima-Ribeiro, Jacinto C Silva Neto, Luana C B B Coelho, Maria T S Correia, José A C Teixeira, Maria G Carneiro-da-Cunha
Galactomannan films from Cassia grandis seeds, associated or not with Cramoll 1,4, were used on topical wounds of rats for the evaluation of the healing process during 14 days. All of the films were evaluated by cytotoxic assay, FTIR and lectin hemagglutinating activity (HA). Forty-five male rats were submitted to aseptic dermal wounds (Ø=0.8cm) and divided in groups (n=15): control, test 1, and test 2, treated respectively with saline, galactomannan film and film with immobilized Cramoll 1,4. Macroscopic evaluations were performed by clinical observations and area measurements, and microscopic analysis by histological criteria...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431001/invasive-aspergillosis-in-patients-with-underlying-liver-cirrhosis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Juergen Prattes, Martin Hoenigl, Robert Krause, Walter Buzina, Thomas Valentin, Frederike Reischies, Christoph Koidl, Ines Zollner-Schwetz
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in patients with liver cirrhosis and the performance of serum galactomannan (GM) screening. Patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and patients with compensated liver cirrhosis presenting with fever and/or respiratory symptoms were prospectively enrolled. All patients were screened by serum GM twice weekly irrespective of clinical signs and symptoms. Positive serum GM triggered work-up consisting of chest computed tomography and in case of pathological findings bronchoscopy...
April 20, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407752/detection-of-high-serum-levels-of-%C3%AE-d-glucan-in-disseminated-nocardial-infection-a-case-report
#3
Toyomitsu Sawai, Takumi Nakao, Shota Yamaguchi, Sumako Yoshioka, Nobuko Matsuo, Naofumi Suyama, Katsunori Yanagihara, Hiroshi Mukae
BACKGROUND: β-D-glucan (BDG) is a helpful diagnostic marker for many invasive fungal infections, but not for nocardiosis. Here, we reported the first case of nocardial infection with high serum level of BDG. CASE PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old man was hospitalized because of fever, headache, and appetite loss after 10 months of steroid and immunosuppressive therapy for cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. With a diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia, treatment with ampicillin/sulbactam was initiated...
April 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397833/safety-and-efficacy-of-short-term-oral-immunotherapy-with-cry-j-1-galactomannan-conjugate-for-japanese-cedar-pollinosis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Daisuke Murakami, Motohiro Sawatsubashi, Hirofumi Omori, Akira Saito, Akio Kato, Shizuo Komune, Takashi Nakagawa
Current allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) for pollinosis requires long-term treatment with potentially severe side effects. Therefore, development of an AIT that is safe and more convenient with a shorter regimen is needed. This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial randomized 55 participants with Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP) to active or placebo groups to test the safety and efficacy of short-term oral immunotherapy (OIT) with Cry j 1-galactomannan conjugate for JCP. Mean symptom-medication score as the primary outcome in the active group improved 27...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395406/-expression-and-differential-diagnostic-value-of-serum-microrna-for-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#5
Z N Wen, Z G Ling, Y Huang, X Li
Objective: To explore the expression and the clinical diagnostic value of serum miR-21 for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). Methods: Outpatients and inpatients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University were included in the study during June 2014 to September 2015. The IPA group had 40 patients, male 22, female 18, aged 55-68 years (mean 60 ), while the control groups included 50 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis [male 23, female 27, aged 50-62 years (mean 55 )], 50 patients with lung cancer [male 30, female 20, aged 55-70 years (mean 62)], and 50 healthy controls [male 25, female 25, aged 50-67 years (mean 60) ]...
April 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384860/fungal-opportunistic-pneumonias-in-hiv-aids-patients-an-indian-tertiary-care-experience
#6
Ravinder Kaur, Bhanu Mehra, Megh Singh Dhakad, Ritu Goyal, Preena Bhalla, Richa Dewan
INTRODUCTION: Opportunistic pneumonias are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) reactive patients. Despite the significant role that fungi play in causation of this opportunistic mycoses, very few Indian studies have attempted to investigate the burden and aetiological spectrum of HIV/AIDS-associated fungal pneumonias. AIM: To document the prevalence of fungal aetiology in HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic pneumonias in an Indian setting; and to elucidate the various fungal opportunists responsible for the same...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384600/a-prospective-study-of-fungal-biomarkers-to-improve-management-of-invasive-fungal-diseases-in-a-mixed-specialty-critical-care-unit
#7
Alida Fe Talento, Katie Dunne, Eimear Ann Joyce, Michael Palmer, Elizabeth Johnson, P Lewis White, Jan Springer, Juergen Loeffler, Thomas Ryan, Daniel Collins, Thomas R Rogers
PURPOSE: The diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFD) in critical care patients (CrCP) is difficult. The study investigated the performance of a set of biomarkers for diagnosis of IFD in a mixed specialty critical care unit (CrCU). METHODS: A prospective observational study in patients receiving critical care for ≥7days was performed. Serum samples were tested for the presence of: (1-3) - β-d-glucan (BDG), galactomannan (GM), and Aspergillus fumigatus DNA...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381925/molecular-insights-into-pathogenesis-and-infection-with-aspergillus-fumigatus
#8
REVIEW
Ciamak Ghazaei
The virulence of fungi is dependent on multiple factors, including the immune status of patients and biological features of fungi. In particular, the virulence of Aspergillus fumigatus is due to the complex interaction among various molecules involved in thermotolerance (such as ribosomal biogenesis proteins, α-mannosyltransferase and heat shock proteins), pigment production (DHN-melanin), immune evasion (like melanin and hydrophobin) and nutrient uptake (such as siderophores and zinc transporters). Other molecules also play important roles in the virulence of A...
March 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381606/liquillizer%C3%A2-does-not-interfere-with-galactomannan-antigen-detection-in-contrast-to-dithiothreitol-and-n-acetyl-l-cysteine
#9
Michaela Simon, Ingeborg Held, Lukas Teichmann, Josef Köstler, André Gessner, Barbara Schmidt, Jonathan Jantsch
To improve the recovery rate of fungal culture it is recommended to liquefy viscous lower respiratory tract secretions with reducing agents like dithiothreitol (DTT) or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) (1).….
April 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378982/early-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-invasive-aspergillosis-as-a-main-determinant-of-outcome-review-of-literature-according-to-the-presented-case-report
#10
Michał Borys, Paweł Piwowarczyk, Justyna Sysiak, Mirosław Czuczwar, Andrzej Prystupa
Although. Aspergillus spp infection is not the major cause of morbidity in Intensive Care Units (ICUs), mortality among patients treated for it is tremendous. Moreover, invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an independent risk factor of hospital costs and length of stay. The prevalence of this disease is inversely correlated with the immunocompetence of individuals; for instance, the incidence of IA among patients with leukemia is estimated as high as 12.7%. Although there is a significant improvement in the antifungal armamentarium, the appropriate treatment is still being given too late, mostly because of late diagnosis...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369326/gfsa-is-a-%C3%AE-1-5-galactofuranosyltransferase-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-the-galactofuran-side-chain-of-fungal-type-galactomannan-inaspergillus-fumigatus
#11
Yukako Katafuchi, Qiushi Li, Yutaka Tanaka, Saki Shinozuka, Yohei Kawamitsu, Minoru Izumi, Keisuke Ekino, Keiji Mizuki, Kaoru Takegawa, Nobuyuki Shibata, Masatoshi Goto, Yoshiyuki Nomura, Kazuyoshi Ohta, Takuji Oka
Previously, we reported that GfsA is a novel galactofuranosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of O-glycan, the proper maintenance of fungal morphology, the formation of conidia and anti-fungal resistance in Aspergillus nidulans and A. fumigatus (Komachi Y et al., Mol. Microbiol. 90, 1054-1073, 2013). In the present paper, to gain an in depth-understanding of the enzymatic functions of GfsA in A. fumigatus (AfGfsA), we established an in vitro assay to measure galactofuranosyltransferase activity using purified AfGfsA, UDP-α-D-galactofuranose as a sugar donor, and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactofuranoside as an acceptor substrate...
March 28, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359894/characterisation-and-solution-properties-of-a-galactomannan-from-bauhinia-monandra-seeds
#12
Louis M Nwokocha, Chandra Senan, Peter A Williams, Madhav P Yadav
This study reports on the chemical and physicochemical properties of the polysaccharide isolated from Bauhinia monandra seeds. The seeds were found to contain 17.8% polysaccharide which consisted predominantly of galactose and mannose. The Man/Gal ratio was found to be approximately 4:1and the average molar mass was 2.54×10(5)g/mol. The extracted material was also found to contain a small amount of protein (5.35%). The galactomannan produced highly viscous solution; the viscosity-shear rate profile was best described by the Williamson model...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355467/new-pharmacological-opportunities-for-the-treatment-of-invasive-mould-diseases
#13
Marie-Pierre Ledoux, Elise Toussaint, Julie Denis, Raoul Herbrecht
Recently, several randomized studies have been published that will shape treatment decisions in the prevention and management of invasive mould infections. Liposomal amphotericin B is an option for empirical or targeted treatment of invasive aspergillosis or mucormycosis, but for prophylaxis therapy, the triazole class now predominates. The triazole voriconazole is currently regarded as a drug of choice for the treatment of proven or probable invasive aspergillosis, and has shown significantly higher response rates than amphotericin B deoxycholate in this setting, with fewer severe drug-related adverse events...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355466/invasive-mould-infections-in-the-icu-setting-complexities-and-solutions
#14
Matteo Bassetti, Emilio Bouza
Infections caused by filamentous fungi represent a major burden in the ICU. Invasive aspergillosis is emerging in non-neutropenic individuals with predisposing conditions, e.g. corticosteroid treatment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver cirrhosis, solid organ cancer, HIV infection and transplantation. Diagnosis is challenging because the signs and symptoms are non-specific, and initiation of additional diagnostic examinations is often delayed because clinical suspicion is low. Isolation of an Aspergillus species from the respiratory tract in critically ill patients, and tests such as serum galactomannan, bronchoalveolar lavage 1-3-β-d-glucan and specific PCR should be interpreted with caution...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355464/early-diagnosis-of-invasive-mould-infections-and-disease
#15
Frédéric Lamoth, Thierry Calandra
Invasive mould infections (IMIs), such as invasive aspergillosis or mucormycosis, are a major cause of death in patients with haematological cancer and in patients receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of antifungal therapy are crucial steps in the management of patients with IMI. The diagnosis of IMI remains a major challenge, with an increased spectrum of fungal pathogens and a diversity of clinical and radiological presentations within the expanding spectrum of immunocompromised hosts...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353454/utility-of-the-aspergillus-galactomannan-antigen-testing-for-neutropenic-paediatric-patients
#16
Hafize Sav, Mustafa Altay Atalay, Ayse Nedret Koc, Ekrem Unal, Gonca Demir, Gokmen Zararsiz
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality particularly in paediatric patients. Early diagnosis and the initiation of efficacious antifungal treatments could affect the prognosis of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical contribution of Galactomannan (GM) screening in paediatric patients. We reviewed the records of all in-patients, and followed up, in the various units at the Medical Faculty Children's Hospital of Erciyes University (Kayseri, Turkey), those who had at least one GM assay result from August 2009 to April 2012...
March 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347788/galactomannan-from-schizolobium-amazonicum-seed-and-its-sulfated-derivatives-impair-metabolism-in-hepg2-cells
#17
Monique Meyenberg Cunha de Padua, Silvia Maria Suter Correia Cadena, Carmen Lucia de Oliveira Petkowicz, Glaucia Regina Martinez, Guilhermina Rodrigues Noleto
This study evaluated the effects of native galactomannan from Schizolobium amazonicum seeds and its sulfated forms on certain metabolic parameters of HepG2 cells. Aqueous extraction from S. amazonicum seeds furnished galactomannan with 3.2:1 Man:Gal ratio (SAGM) and molar mass of 4.34×10(5)g/mol. The SAGM fraction was subjected to sulfation using chlorosulfonic acid to obtain SAGMS1 and SAGMS2 with DS of 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. Cytotoxicity of SAGM, SAGMS1, and SAGMS2 was evaluated in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2)...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330887/usefulness-of-two-aspergillus-pcr-assays-and-aspergillus-galactomannan-and-%C3%AE-d-glucan-testing-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-for-diagnosis-of-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#18
Naohisa Urabe, Susumu Sakamoto, Go Sano, Junko Suzuki, Akira Hebisawa, Yasuhiko Nakamura, Kazuya Koyama, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kazuhiro Tateda, Sakae Homma
We evaluated the usefulness of an Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) test, a β-D-glucan (βDG) test, and two different Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples for diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). BALF samples from 28 patients with and 120 patients without CPA were collected. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio for each test individually and in combination with other tests...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327806/invasive-fungal-infection-in-patients-with-hematologic-disorders-in-a-brazilian-tertiary-care-hospital
#19
Milton Camplesi, Hildene Meneses Silva, Adriano Moraes Arantes, Carolina Rodrigues Costa, Fábio Silvestre Ataides, Thaisa Cristina Silva, Maysa de Paula Costa Dos Reis, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva
INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an important complication in immunocompromised individuals, particularly neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies. In this study, we aimed to verify the epidemiology and diagnosis of IFIs in patients with hematologic problems at a tertiary hospital in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. METHODS: Data from 117 patients, involving 19 cases of IFIs, were collected. The collected data included diagnosis methods, demographics, clinical characteristics, and in vitro susceptibility to different antifungal agents...
January 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317475/characterization-of-a-pa14-domain-containing-galactofuranose-specific-%C3%AE-d-galactofuranosidase-from-streptomyces-sp
#20
Emiko Matsunaga, Yujiro Higuchi, Kazuki Mori, Nao Yairo, Saki Toyota, Takuji Oka, Kosuke Tashiro, Kaoru Takegawa
As a constituent of polysaccharides and glycoconjugates, β-d-galactofuranose (Galf) exists in several pathogenic microorganisms. Although we recently identified a β-d-galactofuranosidase (Galf-ase) gene, ORF1110, in the Streptomyces strain JHA19, very little is known about the Galf-ase gene. Here, we characterized a strain, named JHA26, in the culture supernatant of which exhibited Galf-ase activity for 4-nitrophenyl β-d-galactofuranoside (pNP-β-d-Galf) as a substrate. Draft genome sequencing of the JHA26 strain revealed a putative gene, termed ORF0643, that encodes Galf-ase containing a PA14 domain, which is thought to function in substrate recognition...
March 20, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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