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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895559/reorganization-of-visual-callosal-connections-following-alterations-of-retinal-input-and-brain-damage
#1
REVIEW
Laura Restani, Matteo Caleo
Vision is a very important sensory modality in humans. Visual disorders are numerous and arising from diverse and complex causes. Deficits in visual function are highly disabling from a social point of view and in addition cause a considerable economic burden. For all these reasons there is an intense effort by the scientific community to gather knowledge on visual deficit mechanisms and to find possible new strategies for recovery and treatment. In this review, we focus on an important and sometimes neglected player of the visual function, the corpus callosum (CC)...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894909/characteristics-of-bystander-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-for-paediatric-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrests-a-national-observational-study-from-2012-to-2014
#2
Ikwan Chang, Young Ho Kwak, Sang Do Shin, Young Sun Ro, Do Kyun Kim
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the associations between the provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) and both the relationship of bystanders with paediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims and the community educational level. METHODS: This observational study was conducted using the Korean national OHCA registry of paediatric OHCAs (<19years old) between 2012 and 2014. The main factor was the relationship between the bystander and the OHCA victim...
November 25, 2016: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878083/interactive-effects-between-plant-functional-types-and-soil-factors-on-tundra-species-diversity-and-community-composition
#3
Maitane Iturrate-Garcia, Michael J O'Brien, Olga Khitun, Samuel Abiven, Pascal A Niklaus, Gabriela Schaepman-Strub
Plant communities are coupled with abiotic factors, as species diversity and community composition both respond to and influence climate and soil characteristics. Interactions between vegetation and abiotic factors depend on plant functional types (PFT) as different growth forms will have differential responses to and effects on site characteristics. However, despite the importance of different PFT for community assembly and ecosystem functioning, research has mainly focused on vascular plants. Here, we established a set of observational plots in two contrasting habitats in northeastern Siberia in order to assess the relationship between species diversity and community composition with soil variables, as well as the relationship between vegetation cover and species diversity for two PFT (nonvascular and vascular)...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876388/depth-related-response-of-macroinvertebrates-to-the-reversal-of-eutrophication-in-a-mediterranean-lake-implications-for-ecological-assessment
#4
Marcello Bazzanti, Luciana Mastrantuono, Francesca Pilotto
A better management of nutrient inflows into lakes has led to an improvement in their conditions (i.e. reversal of eutrophication) and the effects of this on macroinvertebrate communities that inhabit different lake-depth zones is largely unknown. This paper reports a comparison of macroinvertebrate communities living in the eulittoral, infralittoral and sublittoral/profundal zones of Lake Nemi (Central Italy) before and after its natural recovery from eutrophication following the deviation of domestic wastewater...
November 19, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871273/the-impact-of-body-vigilance-on-help-seeking-for-cancer-alarm-symptoms-a-community-based-survey
#5
Kelly Winstanley, Cristina Renzi, Claire Friedemann Smith, Jane Wardle, Katriina L Whitaker
BACKGROUND: The act of detecting bodily changes is a pre-requisite for subsequent responses to symptoms, such as seeking medical help. This is the first study to explore associations between self-reported body vigilance and help-seeking in a community sample currently experiencing cancer 'alarm' symptoms. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, a 'health survey' was mailed through primary care practices to 4913 UK adults (age ≥50 years, no cancer diagnosis), asking about symptom experiences and medical help-seeking over the previous three months...
November 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871179/validating-competencies-for-an-undergraduate-training-program-in-rural-medicine-using-the-delphi-technique
#6
Eneline Ah Gouveia, Taciana D Braga, Sandra A Heráclio, Bruno Henrique S Pessoa
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide,<b> </b>half the population lives in rural or remote areas; however, less than 25% of doctors work in such regions. Despite the continental dimensions of Brazil and its enormous cultural diversity, only some medical schools in this country offer students the opportunity to acquire work experience focused on medicine in rural or remote areas. The objective of the present study was to develop a framework of competencies for a longitudinal medical training program in rural medicine as an integrated part of medical training in Brazil...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865243/lessons-learnt-from-active-tuberculosis-case-finding-in-an-urban-slum-setting-of-agra-city-india
#7
Banuru Muralidhara Prasad, Srinath Satyanarayana, Sarabjit Singh Chadha
Active case finding (ACF) is recognized as one of the key strategies to reach the missing 3 million cases in high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. In India, we conducted ACF as a pilot project to assess its operational feasibility in four slums of Agra city in 2012 and covered 3940 households (in 14 wards) with a population of 21,870. Trained community volunteers visited households with an intention to provide information on TB and refer those with cough ≥2 weeks for sputum smear examination. Volunteers identified 8 persons with cough of ≥2 weeks by asking the first or the main respondent of the household...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864499/project-no-rest-addressing-human-trafficking-in-north-carolina
#8
Dean F Duncan
Project NO REST (North Carolina Organizing and Responding to the Exploitation and Sexual Trafficking of Children) is a 5-year effort funded by the US Children's Bureau to address the trafficking of individuals age 25 years and younger in North Carolina. The project aims to increase awareness of human trafficking affecting children and youth, especially those in the child welfare system; to reduce the number of these youth who are trafficked; and to improve outcomes for those who are trafficked. In the project's first year, nearly 100 stakeholders statewide developed a comprehensive plan to address trafficking...
November 2016: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856699/first-in-vivo-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-transcriptomes-reveal-mechanisms-of-host-exploitation-host-specific-gene-expression-and-expressed-genotype-shifts
#9
Amy R Ellison, Graziella V DiRenzo, Caitlin A McDonald, Karen R Lips, Kelly R Zamudio
For generalist pathogens, host species represent distinct selective environments, providing unique challenges for resource acquisition and defense from host immunity, potentially resulting in host-dependent differences in pathogen fitness. Gene expression modulation should be advantageous, responding optimally to a given host and mitigating the costs of generalism. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a fungal pathogen of amphibians, shows variability in pathogenicity among isolates and within-strain virulence changes rapidly during serial passages through artificial culture...
November 16, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854452/accomplishments-of-77-va-mental-health-professionals-with-a-lived-experience-of-mental-illness
#10
Jennifer E Boyd, Antonette Zeiss, Shilpa Reddy, Stephanie Skinner
Anecdotal reports and first-person accounts by psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and nurses with lived experience of mental illness ("prosumers") indicate that they can be effective in these roles, but little is known about the extent, nature, or contributions of this group. Competently functioning prosumers are in a unique position to increase hope for recovery and reduce stigma and discrimination across the mental health field, to the ultimate benefit of consumers. The study surveyed a convenience sample of 77 prosumers working for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA)...
2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852651/emergency-procedures-for-patients-with-a-continuous-flow-left-ventricular-assist-device
#11
Juliane Vierecke, Martin Schweiger, David Feldman, Evgenij Potapov, Friedrich Kaufmann, Lorenzo Germinario, Roland Hetzer, Volkmar Falk, Thomas Krabatsch
The number of ventricular assist devices (VADs) being implanted for terminal heart failure is rising at an exponential rate. These implanted patients have a decreased mortality, but still have significant morbidities, as the prevalence of these patients increases in the community. When VAD patients are discharged to home, they will very likely require emergency medical services (EMSs) and emergency medical doctors (EDs) with their future care. The interface of these patients with the community would suggest an increasing prevalence of encounters requiring the need for acute medical care...
November 15, 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846242/understanding-health-workers-job-preferences-to-improve-rural-retention-in-timor-leste-findings-from-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#12
Marc-Francois Smitz, Sophie Witter, Christophe Lemiere, Patrick Hoang-Vu Eozenou, Tomas Lievens, Rashid U Zaman, Kay Engelhardt, Xiaohui Hou
BACKGROUND: Timor-Leste built its health workforce up from extremely low levels after its war of independence, with the assistance of Cuban training, but faces challenges as the first cohorts of doctors will shortly be freed from their contracts with government. Retaining doctors, nurses and midwives in remote areas requires a good understanding of health worker preferences. METHODS: The article reports on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) carried out amongst 441 health workers, including 173 doctors, 150 nurses and 118 midwives...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843850/birth-preparedness-and-complication-readiness-among-women-of-bankura-district-west-bengal
#13
Dipta Kanti Mukhopadhyay, Sharmistha Bhattacherjee, Sujishnu Mukhopadhyay, Sarmila Malik, Susmita Nayak, Akhil Bandhu Biswas
BACKGROUND: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) is the process of planning for normal birth and anticipating the actions needed in case of an emergency which is critical in averting maternal morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To find out awareness and practices regarding BPCR among pregnant and recently delivered women in Bankura, West Bengal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, community-based study was carried out among 120 pregnant women and 235 recently delivered women...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825344/the-norwegian-national-project-for-ethics-support-in-community-health-and-care-services
#14
Morten Magelssen, Elisabeth Gjerberg, Reidar Pedersen, Reidun Førde, Lillian Lillemoen
BACKGROUND: Internationally, clinical ethics support has yet to be implemented systematically in community health and care services. A large-scale Norwegian project (2007-2015) attempted to increase ethical competence in community services through facilitating the implementation of ethics support activities in 241 Norwegian municipalities. The article describes the ethics project and the ethics activities that ensued. METHODS: The article first gives an account of the Norwegian ethics project...
November 8, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821132/-why-screen-if-we-cannot-follow-up-and-manage-challenges-for-gestational-diabetes-screening-and-management-in-low-and-lower-middle-income-countries-results-of-a-cross-sectional-survey
#15
Bettina Utz, Vincent De Brouwere
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) in low and lower middle income countries (LLMIC) is increasing. Despite its associated short and long term complications for mothers and their newborns, there is a lack of knowledge about how to detect and manage GDM. The objective of our study was to identify the challenges that first line healthcare providers in LLMIC face in screening and management of GDM. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of key informants from 40 low and lower-middle income countries in Africa, South-Asia and Latin-America by sending out questionnaires to 182 gynecologists, endocrinologists and medical doctors...
November 8, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816565/expressing-and-negotiating-face-in-community-pharmacist-patient-interactions
#16
Muna S Murad, Judith A Spiers, Lisa M Guirguis
BACKGROUND: A collaborative patient-pharmacist interaction is fundamental to greater patient satisfaction with pharmacy care and improved medication adherence. Effective pharmacist-patient communication occurs when both pharmacist and patient are able to successfully attend to not only the typical tasks and goals of the interaction but also basic face needs that underlie all social interaction; autonomy, competence or esteem, and fellowship. Addressing face needs occurs through conventional and strategic communication strategies that respond to the emerging needs throughout an interaction...
October 27, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814032/quorum-sensing-in-marine-microbial-environments
#17
Laura R Hmelo
Quorum sensing (QS) is a form of chemical communication used by certain bacteria that regulates a wide range of biogeochemically important bacterial behaviors. Although QS was first observed in a marine bacterium nearly four decades ago, only in the past decade has there been a rise in interest in the role that QS plays in the ocean. It has become clear that QS, regulated by signals such as acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) or furanosyl-borate diesters [autoinducer-2 (AI-2) molecules], is involved in important processes within the marine carbon cycle, in the health of coral reef ecosystems, and in trophic interactions between a range of eukaryotes and their bacterial associates...
October 21, 2016: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809962/gaining-a-new-skill-with-the-risk-of-losing-one-the-effect-of-radial-catheterization
#18
Oluwaseyi Bolorunduro, Tamunoinemi Bob-Manuel, Yaser Cheema, Askari Raza, Rami Khouzam
The adoption of radial catheterization has been relatively slow in the United States. This study was conducted to assess the perceived comfort level of cardiology fellows with radial catheterizations and to predict the practice patterns in the United States in the near future. A 21-question survey on cardiology fellows' preferred cardiac catheterization access site was conducted between April and June 2015. Data on access preference and perceived competency were analyzed based on the fellow's level of training and type of training program (university vs community)...
May 2016: Current Problems in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808455/intensive-care-bereavement-practices-across-new-zealand-and-australian-intensive-care-units-a-qualitative-content-analysis
#19
Maureen Coombs, Marion Mitchell, Stephen James, Krista Wetzig
BACKGROUND: End of life and bereavement care is an important consideration in intensive care. This study describes the type of bereavement care provided in intensive care units across Australia and New Zealand. DESIGN: Inductive qualitative content analysis was conducted on free-text responses to a web-based survey exploring unit-based bereavement practice distributed to nurse managers in 229 intensive care units in New Zealand and Australia. RESULTS: 153 (67%) surveys were returned with 68 respondents making free-text responses...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803977/the-china-mental-health-survey-ii-design-and-field-procedures
#20
Zhaorui Liu, Yueqin Huang, Ping Lv, Tingting Zhang, Hong Wang, Qiang Li, Jie Yan, Yaqin Yu, Changgui Kou, Xiufeng Xu, Jin Lu, Zhizhong Wang, Hongyan Qiu, Yifeng Xu, Yanling He, Tao Li, Wanjun Guo, Hongjun Tian, Guangming Xu, Xiangdong Xu, Yanjuan Ma, Linhong Wang, Limin Wang, Yongping Yan, Bo Wang, Shuiyuan Xiao, Liang Zhou, Lingjiang Li, Liwen Tan, Hongguang Chen, Chao Ma
China Mental Health Survey (CMHS), which was carried out from July 2013 to March 2015, was the first national representative community survey of mental disorders and mental health services in China using computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI). Face-to-face interviews were finished in the homes of respondents who were selected from a nationally representative multi-stage disproportionate stratified sampling procedure. Sample selection was integrated with the National Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance Survey administered by the National Centre for Chronic and Non-communicable Disease Control and Prevention in 2013, which made it possible to obtain both physical and mental health information of Chinese community population...
November 1, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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