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Community First Responder

Elizabeth T Gershoff, Sarah A Font, Catherine A Taylor, Rebecca H Foster, Ann Budzak Garza, Denyse Olson-Dorff, Amy Terreros, Monica Nielsen-Parker, Lisa Spector
Several medical professional organizations, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, recommend that parents avoid hitting children for disciplinary purposes (e.g., spanking) and that medical professionals advise parents to use alternative methods. The extent to which medical professionals continue to endorse spanking is unknown. This study is the first to examine attitudes about spanking among staff throughout medical settings, including non-direct care staff. A total of 2580 staff at a large general medical center and 733 staff at a children's hospital completed an online survey; respondents were roughly divided between staff who provide direct care to patients (e...
October 13, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jennifer Pearson, Ruth Westra
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Department of Family Medicine and Community Health Duluth has offered the Obstetrical Longitudinal Course (OBLC) as an elective for first-year medical students since 1999. The objective of the OBLC Impact Survey was to assess the effectiveness of the course over the past 15 years. METHODS: A Qualtrics survey was emailed to participants enrolled in the course from 1999-2014. Data was compiled for the respondent group as a whole as well as four cohorts based on current level of training/practice...
October 2016: Family Medicine
S Miehlke, R Loibl, S Meszaros, J Labenz
Purpose: The acceptance and realization of clinical guidelines in daily routine practice is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of private gastroenterologists in Germany with respect to the diagnostic and therapeutic management of H. pylori infection in times of increasing antibiotic resistance. Methods: Between 12/2014 and 02/2015 a standardized questionnaire with 19 multiple choice questions were sent to 1507 private gastroenterologists in Germany. The data were electronically captured and analyzed using SurveyMonkey...
October 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Anteneh Girma Minas, Makombo Ganga-Limando
BACKGROUND: Despite the presence of high impact interventions to improve infant and young child feeding, only about 52% of mothers in Ethiopia exclusively breastfeed their child for the first six months after delivery. Although the decision to breastfeed a child is ultimately that of the mother, this decision could be influenced by a variety of factors including social-cognitive ones. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to describe the breastfeeding behaviour of primiparous mothers during their prenatal period in terms of intentions/goals, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and socio-structural factors and assess their exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practices as well as identify the social-cognitive predictors of EBF practices among these mothers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia...
2016: PloS One
Jani Heino, Janne Soininen, Janne Alahuhta, Jyrki Lappalainen, Risto Virtanen
Metacommunity patterns and underlying processes in aquatic organisms have typically been studied within a drainage basin. We examined variation in the composition of six freshwater organismal groups across various drainage basins in Finland. We first modelled spatial structures within each drainage basin using Moran eigenvector maps. Second, we partitioned variation in community structure among three groups of predictors using constrained ordination: (1) local environmental variables, (2) spatial variables, and (3) dummy variable drainage basin identity...
October 6, 2016: Oecologia
Valeria Markova, Gro M Sandal
Objective: Refugees are at high risk of experiencing mental health problems due to trauma in their pasts and to acculturation stress as they settle in a new country. To develop efficient health services that meet the needs of refugees from different regions, an understanding is required of how they make sense of and prefer to cope with mental health problems. This study aims to investigate lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway. Methods: The study used a mixed-method design with a vignette describing a moderately depressed person based on ICD-10 criteria...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
F Mazel, T J Davies, L Gallien, J Renaud, M Groussin, T Münkemüller, W Thuiller
During the last decades, describing, analysing and understanding the phylogenetic structure of species assemblages has been a central theme in both community ecology and macro-ecology. Among the wide variety of phylogenetic structure metrics, three have been predominant in the literature: Faith's phylogenetic diversity (PDFaith), which represents the sum of the branch lengths of the phylogenetic tree linking all species of a particular assemblage, the mean pairwise distance between all species in an assemblage (MPD) and the pairwise distance between the closest relatives in an assemblage (MNTD)...
October 2016: Ecography
Yuanzhao Ding, Yufan Zhou, Juan Yao, Craig Szymanski, James K Fredrickson, Liang Shi, Bin Cao, Zihua Zhu, Xiao-Ying Yu
Molecular mapping of live biofilms at submicron resolution presents a grand challenge. Here, we present the first chemical mapping results of biofilm extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) components in biofilms using correlative imaging be-tween super resolution florescence microscopy and liquid time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). She-wanella oneidensis is used as a model organism. Heavy metal anions chromate (Cr2O72-) consisting of chromium Cr (VI) was a model environmental stressor used to treat the biofilms...
October 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Abiodun Idowu Adanikin, Pipeloluwa Oluwayemisi Adanikin, Ernest Okechukwu Orji, Benedict Tolulope Adeyanju
This study sought to characterize sexual behaviour, contraceptive use and contributory upbringing factors among young people who had dropped out of school or college in a Nigerian setting. A community-based, cross-sectional sexual survey of 161 young people aged between 15 and 35 who had dropped out of school or college was performed in Ado-Ekiti, south-west Nigeria, in April 2015. One hundred and nineteen of the respondents (73.9%) had had sexual intercourse. Mean age at sexual debut was 19.08±3.5 years. Of those with sexual experience, 79 (66...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Corrado Cancedda, Sheila M Davis, Kerry L Dierberg, Jonathan Lascher, J Daniel Kelly, Mohammed Bailor Barrie, Alimamy Philip Koroma, Peter George, Adikali Alpha Kamara, Ronald Marsh, Manso S Sumbuya, Cameron T Nutt, Kirstin W Scott, Edgar Thomas, Katherine Bollbach, Andrew Sesay, Ahmidu Barrie, Elizabeth Barrera, Kathryn Barron, John Welch, Nahid Bhadelia, Raphael G Frankfurter, Ophelia M Dahl, Sarthak Das, Rebecca E Rollins, Bryan Eustis, Amanda Schwartz, Piero Pertile, Ilias Pavlopoulos, Allan Mayfield, Regan H Marsh, Yusupha Dibba, Danielle Kloepper, Andrew Hall, Karin Huster, Michael Grady, Kimberly Spray, David A Walton, Fodei Daboh, Cora Nally, Sahr James, Gabriel S Warren, Joyce Chang, Michael Drasher, Gina Lamin, Sherry Bangura, Ann C Miller, Annie P Michaelis, Ryan McBain, M Jana Broadhurst, Megan Murray, Eugene T Richardson, Ted Philip, Gary L Gottlieb, Joia S Mukherjee, Paul E Farmer
An epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) beginning in 2013 has claimed an estimated 11 310 lives in West Africa. As the EVD epidemic subsides, it is important for all who participated in the emergency Ebola response to reflect on strengths and weaknesses of the response. Such reflections should take into account perspectives not usually included in peer-reviewed publications and after-action reports, including those from the public sector, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), survivors of Ebola, and Ebola-affected households and communities...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Alacia Armstrong, Angel Valverde, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Thulani P Makhalanyane, Janet K Jansson, David W Hopkins, Thomas J Aspray, Mary Seely, Marla I Trindade, Don A Cowan
The temporal dynamics of desert soil microbial communities are poorly understood. Given the implications for ecosystem functioning under a global change scenario, a better understanding of desert microbial community stability is crucial. Here, we sampled soils in the central Namib Desert on sixteen different occasions over a one-year period. Using Illumina-based amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that α-diversity (richness) was more variable at a given sampling date (spatial variability) than over the course of one year (temporal variability)...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jeongeun Jo
After the defeat of the Opium War and the Sino-Japanese War, China's intellectuals realized necessity of modernization (Westernization) to survive in the imperial order of the survival of the fittest. In particular, it was urgent to accept Western medicine and train the doctors who learned Western medicine to change the sick and weary Chinese to be robust. Thus, new occupations of the Western Medicine Group (xiyi, doctors who learned Western medicine) emerged in China. As with the first profession, the new Western Medicine Group tried to define standards of Western medicine and medical profession; however, it was difficult in the absence of the strong central government...
August 2016: Ŭi Sahak
Michael D Colvard, Benjamin J Vesper, Linda M Kaste, Jeremy L Hirst, David E Peters, James James, Rodrigo Villalobos, E John Wipfler
Disaster and pandemic response events require an interprofessional team of health care responders to organize and work together in high-pressure, time-critical situations. Civilian oral health care professionals have traditionally been limited to forensic identification of human remains. However, after the bombing of the Twin Towers in New York, federal agencies realized that dentists can play significant roles in disaster and immunization response, especially on interprofessional responder teams. Several states have begun to incorporate dentists into the first responder community...
October 2016: Dental Clinics of North America
Morten Magelssen, Elisabeth Gjerberg, Lillian Lillemoen, Reidun Førde, Reidar Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Through the Norwegian ethics project, ethics activities have been implemented in the health and care sector in more than 200 municipalities. OBJECTIVES: To study outcomes of the ethics activities and examine which factors promote and inhibit significance and sustainability of the activities. RESEARCH DESIGN: Two online questionnaires about the municipal ethics activities. PARTICIPANTS AND RESEARCH CONTEXT: A total of 137 municipal contact persons for the ethics project answered the first survey (55% response rate), whereas 217 ethics facilitators responded to the second survey (33% response rate)...
September 22, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Chee Wei Tan, Maciej Piotr Chlebicki
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a collective term for infections that involve any part of the urinary tract. It is one of the most common infections in local primary care. The incidence of UTIs in adult males aged under 50 years is low, with adult women being 30 times more likely than men to develop a UTI. Appropriate classification of UTI into simple or complicated forms guides its management and the ORENUC classification can be used. Diagnosis of a UTI is based on a focused history, with appropriate investigations depending on individual risk factors...
September 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
S Fodelianakis, A Moustakas, N Papageorgiou, O Manoli, I Tsikopoulou, G Michoud, D Daffonchio, I Karakassis, E D Ladoukakis
Previous studies have shown that the response of bacterial communities to disturbances depends on their environmental history. Historically fluctuating habitats host communities that respond better to disturbance than communities of historically stable habitats. However, the exact ecological mechanism that drives this dependency remains unknown. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that modifications of niche optima and niche breadths of the community members are driving this dependency of bacterial responses to past environmental conditions...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Gary Wong, Xiangguo Qiu, Marc-Antoine de La Vega, Lisa Fernando, Haiyan Wei, Alexander Bello, Hugues Fausther-Bovendo, Jonathan Audet, Andrea Kroeker, Robert Kozak, Kaylie Tran, Shihua He, Kevin Tierney, Geoff Soule, Estella Moffat, Stephan Günther, George F Gao, Jim Strong, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, Gary Kobinger
Enhanced virulence and/or transmission of West African Ebola virus (EBOV) variants, which are divergent from their Central African counterparts, are suspected to have contributed to the sizable toll of the recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. This study evaluated the pathogenicity and shedding in rhesus macaques infected with 1 of 2 West African isolates (EBOV-C05 or EBOV-C07) or a Central African isolate (EBOV-K). All animals infected with EBOV-C05 or EBOV-C07 died of EVD, whereas 2 of 3 EBOV-K-infected animals died...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Nikki McCaffrey, Billingsley Kaambwa, David C Currow, Julie Ratcliffe
BACKGROUND: Although a five level version of the widely-used EuroQol 5 dimensions (EQ-5D) instrument has been developed, population norms are not yet available for Australia to inform the future valuation of health in economic evaluations. The aim of this study was to estimate HrQOL normative values for the EQ-5D-5L preference-based measure in a large, randomly selected, community sample in South Australia. METHODS: The EQ-5D-5L instrument was included in the 2013 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey, an interviewer-administered, face-to-face, cross-sectional survey...
2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Ronald M Epstein, Paul R Duberstein, Joshua J Fenton, Kevin Fiscella, Michael Hoerger, Daniel J Tancredi, Guibo Xing, Robert Gramling, Supriya Mohile, Peter Franks, Paul Kaesberg, Sandy Plumb, Camille S Cipri, Richard L Street, Cleveland G Shields, Anthony L Back, Phyllis Butow, Adam Walczak, Martin Tattersall, Alison Venuti, Peter Sullivan, Mark Robinson, Beth Hoh, Linda Lewis, Richard L Kravitz
Importance: Observational studies demonstrate links between patient-centered communication, quality of life (QOL), and aggressive treatments in advanced cancer, yet few randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of communication interventions have been reported. Objective: To determine whether a combined intervention involving oncologists, patients with advanced cancer, and caregivers would promote patient-centered communication, and to estimate intervention effects on shared understanding, patient-physician relationships, QOL, and aggressive treatments in the last 30 days of life...
September 9, 2016: JAMA Oncology
Virginia Bond, Graeme Hoddinott, Lario Viljoen, Melvin Simuyaba, Maurice Musheke, Janet Seeley
Gauging community responses to the WHO 2015 recommendation to provide antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all people living with HIV (PLHIV) is critical. There is limited qualitative evidence on the acceptability of this Universal Test and Treat (UTT) strategy or community understanding of the impact of ART on reducing HIV transmission, promoted as Treatment as Prevention (TasP). This article explores early understanding of UTT and TasP in 21 urban communities in South Africa and Zambia in 2013 before a community randomized trial of combination prevention-HPTN 071 (PopART)...
September 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
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