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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338018/oral-mucosa-tissue-gene-expression-profiling-before-during-and-after-radiation-therapy-for-tonsil-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#1
Mette Marcussen, Mads Sønderkær, Julie Støve Bødker, Maria Andersen, Søren Nielsen, Charles Vesteghem, Ilse Christiansen, Olav Jonas Bergmann, Martin Bøgsted, Karen Dybkær, Mogens Vyberg, Hans Erik Johnsen
BACKGROUND: Radiation-therapy (RT) induces mucositis, a clinically challenging condition with limited prophylactic interventions and no predictive tests. In this pilot study, we applied global gene-expression analysis on serial human oral mucosa tissue and blood cells from patients with tonsil squamous cell cancer (TSCC) to identify genes involved in mucositis pathogenesis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Eight patients with TSCC each provided consecutive buccal biopsies and blood cells before, after 7 days of RT treatment, and 20 days following RT...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335323/antibiotic-prescribing-quality-for-children-in-primary-care-an-observational-study
#2
Megan Rose Williams, Giles Greene, Gurudutt Naik, Kathryn Hughes, Christopher C Butler, Alastair D Hay
BACKGROUND: Overuse and inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics is driving antibiotic resistance. GPs often prescribe antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in young children despite their marginal beneficial effects. AIM: To assess the quality of antibiotic prescribing for common infections in young children attending primary care and to investigate influencing factors. DESIGN AND SETTING: An observational, descriptive analysis, including children attending primary care sites in England and Wales...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331076/submental-artery-island-flap-with-simultaneous-level-i-neck-dissection
#3
Antoine Eskander, Daniel Strigenz, Nolan Seim, Enver Ozer
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to illustrate the submental island flap elevation technique with simultaneous level I neck dissection followed by the inset and reconstruction of an oropharyngeal defect. METHODS: A 63-year-old patient with a T2N1M0 human papillomavirus-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil was treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (cisplatin + 66 Gy). A local recurrence 2.5 years after treatment was treated surgically and reconstructed with a submental island flap...
January 13, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330826/antibody-response-to-polyomavirus-primary-infection-high-seroprevalence-of-merkel-cell-polyomavirus-and-lymphoid-tissue-involvement
#4
Carolina Cason, Lorenzo Monasta, Nunzia Zanotta, Giuseppina Campisciano, Iva Maestri, Massimo Tommasino, Michael Pawlita, Sonia Villani, Manola Comar, Serena Delbue
Human polyomaviruses (HPyVs) asymptomatically infect the human population establishing latency in the host, and their seroprevalence can reach 90% in healthy adults. Few studies have focused on the pediatric population, and there are no reports regarding the seroprevalence of all the newly isolated HPyVs among Italian children. Therefore, we investigated the frequency of serum antibodies against 12 PyVs in 182 immunocompetent children from Northeast Italy, by means of a multiplex antibody detection system. Additionally, secondary lymphoid tissues were collected to analyze the presence of HPyV DNA sequences using a specific real-time PCRs or PCRs...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322750/use-of-streptococcus-salivarius-k12-to-reduce-the-incidence-pharyngo-tonsillitis-and-acute-otitis-media-in-children-a-retrospective-analysis-in-not-recurrent-pediatric-subjects
#5
Francesco DI Pierro, Paolo Risso, Elena Poggi, Anna Timitilli, Sara Bolloli, Maurizio Bruno, Egidio Caneva, Riccardo Campus, Alessandro Giannattasio
BACKGROUND: Previous trials, performed in subjects affected by recurrent streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillar infection, have shown that the use for 90 days of Streptococcus salivarius K12 (K12), an oral colonizing probiotic producing lantibiotic bacteriocins, reduces the occurrence of streptococcal and viral pharyngitis and acute otitis media (AOM). The aim was to evaluate the role of K12 in reducing the incidence of streptococcal and viral pharyngo-tonsillitis and AOM when administered in two separate trimesters, from October to December and then from April to June, in pediatric subjects with non-recurrent streptococcal infection...
January 11, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314831/a-fluorescent-probe-to-unravel-functional-features-of-cannabinoid-receptor-cb1-in-human-blood-and-tonsil-immune-system-cells
#6
Mar Martín-Fontecha, Alba Angelina, Beate Rückert, Ainoa Rueda-Zubiaurre, Leticia Martin-Cruz, Willem van de Veen, Mübeccel Akdis, Silvia Ortega-Gutierrez, María L López-Rodrí Guez, Cezmi Akdis, Oscar Palomares
The human endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) regulates key physiological processes and alterations in its signalling pathways and endocannabinoid levels are associated to diseases such as neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions, cancer, pain and inflammation, obesity, metabolic and different immune related disorders. Immune system cells express the G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) but its functional role has not been fully understood, likely due to the lack of appropriate tools. The availability of novel tools to investigate the role of CB1 in immune regulation might contribute to identify CB1 as a potential novel therapeutic target or biomarker for many diseases...
January 9, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313973/mouse-model-of-post-surgical-primary-tumor-recurrence-and-regional-lymph-node-metastasis-progression-in-hpv-related-head-and-neck-cancer
#7
Maxime Mermod, Agnès Hiou-Feige, Esther Bovay, Vincent Roh, Jana Sponarova, Massimo Bongiovanni, Daniel W Vermeer, John H Lee, Tatiana V Petrova, Jean-Paul Rivals, Yan Monnier, Genrich V Tolstonog, Christian Simon
HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is increasingly frequent. Management is particularly debated in the case of post-surgical high-risk features, i.e., positive surgical margins and extracapsular spread (ECS). In this increasingly complex emerging framework of HNSCC treatment, representative pre-clinical models are needed to support future clinical trials and advances in personalized medicine. Here, we present an immunocompetent mouse model based on the implantation of mouse tonsil epithelial HPV16-E6/E7-expressing cancer cells into the submental region of the floor-of-the-mouth...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312588/tripterygium-wilfordii-inhibits-tonsillar-iga-production-by-downregulating-iga-class-switching-in-iga-nephropathy
#8
Huining Li, Dan Kong, Yangyang Xu, Xiaomei Li, Guodong Yao, Kexin Chen, Qi You, Qingtao Shi, Lei Zhang, Xin Wang, Dawei Yuan, Shusheng Miao, Jingshu Geng, Xiaoming Jin, Hongxue Meng
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is characterized by high serum IgA levels and IgA deposition in the renal mesangium. Recent research has indicated that pathogenic IgA may originate from affected tonsils, where present enhancement of IgA production by IgA class switching and immuno-activation. Tripterygium Wilfordii (TW) was found to be especially effective in IgAN by its' immunosuppression effect. Given this background, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the role of TW in the generation of IgA and IgA class switching in tonsillar GCs of IgAN patients...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310503/decision-making-for-position-dependent-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-on-the-basis-of-patient-information-and-physical-examinations-of-the-upper-airway-acquired-on-an-outpatient-basis
#9
Minoru Endo, Takahito Kondo, Rie Shimada, Kiyoaki Tsukahara
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2 and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are highly suspicious for position-dependent OSAS. Diagnosis of position-dependent/position-independent OSAS can be difficult in patients satisfying both 'BMI >25 kg/m2' and 'any of tongue enlargement (TE), palatine tonsil hypertrophy (PTH) and obstruction by Muller's maneuver (OMM)'. Polysomnography is warranted in such patients. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to retrospectively elucidate criteria for differentiating position-dependent OSAS on the basis of patient information and physical examinations of the upper airway obtainable in clinics...
January 8, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307129/identification-and-characterization-of-yersinia-enterocolitica-strains-isolated-from-pig-tonsils-at-slaughterhouse-in-central-italy
#10
Patrizia Centorame, Nadia Sulli, Cristina De Fanis, Orazio Vincenzo Colangelo, Fabrizio De Massis, Annamaria Conte, Tiziana Persiani, Cristina Marfoglia, Silvia Scattolini, Francesco Pomilio, Alfreda Tonelli, Vincenza Annunziata Prencipe
Yersinia enterocolitica causes foodborne disease in humans and infections are usually acquired from contaminated raw or undercooked pork. Pigs are considered the primary reservoir of human pathogenic bio-serotypes. A total of 376 tonsil tissue samples collected after evisceration and cutting from pig carcasses were tested for Yersinia enterocolitica. Animals came from an abattoir located in the Abruzzo region, Italy. Yersinia enterocolitica was isolated from 35 out of 376 (9.31%) samples. A total of 47 strains were isolated, the prevalent bio-serotype was 4÷O:3 (95...
December 29, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302898/systemic-non-hodgkin-t-cell-lymphomas-presenting-in-the-head-and-neck-region-an-institutional-experience-of-a-rare-entity
#11
Devin R Broadwater, Deniz Peker
T cell lymphoma (TCL) is a group of rare and aggressive diseases. TCL primary to head and neck organs often present as extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type. Systemic TCL with initial head and neck presentation is extremely rare. Here we report our institutional experience. Clinicopathologic data was collected from patients diagnosed with TCL and treated at the University of Alabama at Birmingham between 2002 and 2012. Eleven cases of systemic TCL initially presented at head and neck region were identified...
January 4, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287856/comparison-of-three-different-adenoidectomy-techniques-in-children-has-the-conventional-technique-been-surpassed
#12
Mayra Soares Ferreira, João Mangussi-Gomes, Roberta Ximendes, Anne Rosso Evangelista, Eloá Lumi Miranda, Leonardo Bomediano Garcia, Aldo C Stamm
INTRODUCTION: Pharyngeal tonsil hyperplasia is the most frequent cause of nasal obstruction and chronic mouth breathing during childhood. Adenoidectomy is the procedure of choice for the resolution of these symptoms. It is not yet known, however, whether the conventional technique ("blind curettage") has been surpassed by more modern adenoidectomy techniques (video-assisted, with the aid of instruments). This study aimed to compare the conventional adenoidectomy technique with two other emerging techniques, performed in a reference otorhinolaryngology center...
January 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285106/pediatric-chiari-malformation-type-i-long-term-outcomes-following-small-bone-window-posterior-fossa-decompression-with-autologous-fascia-duraplasty
#13
Hai Liu, Chenlong Yang, Jun Yang, Yulun Xu
Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) is a common hindbrain disorder that is associated with deformity and elongation of the cerebellar tonsils. Although CM-I occurs in both pediatric and adult patients, its prevalence, clinical features and management in the pediatric population are not well defined. The current study evaluated a consecutive case series of 92 children (38 females and 54 males) who were diagnosed with congenital CM-I. All patients underwent small-bone-window posterior fossa decompression with autologous-fascia duraplasty...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284248/streptococcus-suis-a-re-emerging-pathogen-associated-with-occupational-exposure-to-pigs-or-pork-products-part-i-epidemiology
#14
Jacek Dutkiewicz, Jacek Sroka, Violetta Zając, Bernard Wasiński, Ewa Cisak, Anna Sawczyn, Anna Kloc, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla
<i>Streptococcus suis</i> (ex Elliot 1966, Kilpper-Bälz & Schleifer 1987) is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive ovoid or coccal bacterium surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. Based on the antigenic diversity of the capsule, <i>S. suis</i> strains are classified serologically into 35 serotypes. <i>Streptococcus suis</i> is a commensal of pigs, commonly colonizing their tonsils and nasal cavities, mostly in weaning piglets between 4-10 weeks of age. This species occurs also in cattle and other mammals, in birds and in humans...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280900/factors-associated-with-the-true-location-of-ingested-fishbones
#15
Yen-Ting Lu, Hung-Wen Chen, Yao-Ying Tseng, Chia-Hsi Chen, Ying-Chou Lu
OBJECTIVES: Fishbone ingestion is a common problem worldwide, and the first step for managing this condition is to locate the fishbone precisely. However, until now, no study has analysed the true location of fishbone and its associated factors. Thus, this study identified the factors predicting the true location of fishbone and subsequently attempted to provide a management algorithm for fishbone ingestion. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out at St Martin De Porres Hospital, Taiwan, between January 2015 and January 2016...
December 26, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277098/targeted-tonsillar-biopsy-for-unilateral-tonsillar-enlargement
#16
Truong An Pham, Robert G Berkowitz
BACKGROUND: Unilateral tonsillar enlargement (UTE) is not an uncommon incidental finding. Lymphoma is the most common malignancy of the tonsils in children and presents with tonsillar enlargement. METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of all cases of histopathological analysis of tonsillectomy specimens at a single pediatric tertiary hospital between 1996 and 2015. Patients either had a preoperative indication (n = 53) for pathological testing or indications based on intraoperative findings (n = 88)...
December 1, 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277006/hiv-internalization-into-oral-and-genital-epithelial-cells-by-endocytosis-and-macropinocytosis-leads-to-viral-sequestration-in-the-vesicles
#17
Aizezi Yasen, Rossana Herrera, Kristina Rosbe, Kathy Lien, Sharof M Tugizov
Recently, we showed that HIV-1 is sequestered, i.e., trapped, in the intracellular vesicles of oral and genital epithelial cells. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of HIV-1 sequestration in vesicles of polarized tonsil, foreskin and cervical epithelial cells. HIV-1 internalization into epithelial cells is initiated by multiple entry pathways, including clathrin-, caveolin/lipid raft-associated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Inhibition of HIV-1 attachment to galactosylceramide and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, and virus endocytosis and macropinocytosis reduced HIV-1 sequestration by 30-40%...
December 22, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276961/mri-determination-of-volumes-for-the-upper-airway-and-pharyngeal-lymphoid-tissue-in-preterm-and-term-infants
#18
Anilawan Smitthimedhin, Matthew Whitehead, Mahya Bigdeli, Nino Gustavo, Perez Geovanny, Otero Hansel
We aim to determine average volumes of the upper airway, adenoids and tonsils in preterm and term infants and assess for the differences according to weight, sex and ethnicity. The volumes of the upper airways, tonsils and adenoids were measured from brain MR images in 96 (49 preterm and 47 term) infants and compared using a two-tailed t-test (significant at p<0.05). The average volumes are reported for both groups. Term infants showed larger naso- and oropharyngeal volumes (independent of weight, sex, and ethnicity)...
December 16, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276771/recurrent-post-tonsillectomy-bleeding-due-to-an-iatrogenic-facial-artery-pseudoaneurysm
#19
Kevin J Choi, Tracy Cheng, Mary Ih Cobb, Mirabelle B Sajisevi, L Fernando Gonzalez, Marisa A Ryan
This is a report of an illustrative case of recurrent post-tonsillectomy bleeding that was caused by an iatrogenic facial artery pseudoaneurysm and controlled by endovascular embolization. A 37 year-old female who underwent bilateral tonsillectomy for chronic tonsillitis had recurrent secondary hemorrhage despite multiple operative interventions to control the bleeding. Because of the recurrent nature of the bleeding, an angiography of the external carotid artery was performed demonstrating a pseudoaneurysm of the left facial artery with active extravasation...
2017: Acta Oto-Laryngologica Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274081/normative-values-for-tonsils-in-pediatric-populations-based-on-ultrasonography
#20
Hyun Sook Hong, Ji Ye Lee, Sun Hye Jeong
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric tonsillar infections are common, particularly in adolescents. Ultrasonography (US) has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing peritonsillar abscesses and can diagnose tonsillitis by enlargement of the gland. In this study, we established normal tonsillar measurements and volumes according to age in pediatric populations. METHODS: Transcervical US of the peritonsillar region to measure tonsillar size and volume was performed in patients who had undergone neck US without throat symptoms from October 2016 to May 2017...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
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