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Udita Brahmachari, Zhanjun Guo, Sara E Konecny, Emmanuela N C Obi, Bridgette A Barry
Photosystem II oxidizes water at a Mn4 CaO5 cluster. Oxygen evolution is accompanied by proton release through a 35 Å hydrogen-bonding network to the lumen. The mechanism of this proton-transfer reaction is not known, but the reaction is dependent on chloride. Here, vibrational spectroscopy defines the functional properties of the proton-transfer network using chloride, bromide, and nitrate as perturbative agents. As assessed by peptide C═O frequencies, bromide substitution yields a spectral Stark shift because of its increase in ionic radius...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Rodolfo Sumayao, Philip Newsholme, Tara McMorrow
Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to play an important role in renal physiology and pathophysiology partly through its influence on various transport systems in the kidney proximal tubule. The role of NO in the kidney dysfunction associated with the lysosomal storage disorder, cystinosis, is largely unknown. In the present study, the effects of iNOS-specific inhibitor, 1400W, on Na+ ,K+ -ATPase activity and expression, mitochondrial integrity and function, nutrient metabolism, and apoptosis were investigated in Ctns null proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs)...
June 20, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Viorel Circu, Laura F Chiriac, Iuliana Pasuk, Mihai Secu, Marin Micutz
A series of novel liquid crystals with various lanthanide ions (Eu(III), Sm(III) and Tb(III)) was designed and prepared starting from corresponding lanthanide nitrates and N-alkylated 4-pyridones derivatives with mesogenic 3,4,5-tris(alkyloxy)benzyl moieties (alkyl = hexyl, octyl, decyl, dodecyl, tetradecyl or hexadecyl). These new lanthanidomesogens were investigated for their mesogenic properties by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and temperature dependent powder X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
June 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Ayushi Nirwan, Alka Devi, Vikas D Ghule
We compared the effectiveness of different molecular surface electrostatic potential (MESP)-based methods for calculating the density of CHNO explosives. Densities computed for 221 CHNO explosives of different chemical nature and functional groups and compared with the experimental values. The CHNO explosives in this work are divided into seven groups as group I nitrate-esters, group II nitramines, group III azides, group IV energetic materials containing benzene ring, group V energetic materials containing caged and strained rings, group VI energetic materials containing heterocyclic backbone, and group VII are the energetic materials containing fused ring...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Yuan-Yuan Li, Xiao-Huang Chen, Zhang-Xian Xie, Dong-Xu Li, Peng-Fei Wu, Ling-Fen Kong, Lin Lin, Shuh-Ji Kao, Da-Zhi Wang
Nitrogen (N) is a primary limiting nutrient for bacterial growth and productivity in the ocean. To better understand bacterial community and their N utilization strategy in different N regimes of the ocean, we examined bacterial diversity, diazotrophic diversity, and N utilization gene expressions in the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWPO) using a combination of high-throughput sequencing and real-time qPCR methods. 521 and 204 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in the 16s rRNA and nifH libraries from nine surface samples...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Philipp Schwabl, Ksenia Brusilovskaya, Paul Supper, David Bauer, Philipp Königshofer, Florian Riedl, Hubert Hayden, Claudia Daniela Fuchs, Judith Stift, Georg Oberhuber, Stefan Aschauer, Diana Bonderman, Thorsten Gnad, Alexander Pfeifer, Frank Erhard Uschner, Jonel Trebicka, Nataliya Rohr-Udilova, Bruno Karl Podesser, Markus Peck-Radosavljevic, Michael Trauner, Thomas Reiberger
In cirrhotic patients, portal hypertension (PHT) deteriorates survival, yet treatment options are limited. A major contributor to increased intrahepatic vasoconstriction in PHT is dysfunctional nitric-oxide signaling. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the receptor of nitric-oxide and can be stimulated by riociguat. Riociguat is approved for pulmonary hypertension but has not been studied in liver cirrhosis. In this study we assessed the effects of riociguat on PHT and liver fibrosis in cholestatic (bile duct ligation, BDL) and toxic (carbon-tetrachloride, CCl4) rat models...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Biranchi N Mishra, Manish S Kaushik, Gerard Abraham, Pawan K Singh
Spore (akinete) formation in the heterocystous and branched filamentous cyanobacterium Fischerella muscicola involves a significant increase in cell size and formation of several endospores in each of the cells. In present study, the physico-chemical factors (pH, light sources, nutrient deficiency, nitrogen sources, carbon sources, and growth hormones) affecting the germination of spores of F. muscicola were examined. Increase in spore germination frequency was detected above pH 8 with maximum germination (46...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Shin-Nosuke Hashida, Atsuko Miyagi, Maho Nishiyama, Keisuke Yoshida, Toru Hisabori, Kawai-Yamada
NADP is a key electron carrier for a broad spectrum of redox reactions, including photosynthesis. Hence, chloroplastic NADP status, as represented by redox status (ratio of NADPH to NADP+ ) and pool size (sum of NADPH and NADP+ ), is critical for homeostasis in photosynthetic cells. However, the mechanisms and molecules that regulate NADP status in chloroplasts remain largely unknown. We have now characterized an Arabidopsis mutant with imbalanced NADP status (inap1), which exhibits a high NADPH/NADP+ ratio and large NADP pool size...
June 19, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Bonnie A Lyon-Marion, Anjuliee M Mittelman, Justine Rayner, Daniele S Lantagne, Kurt D Pennell
Applying silver nanoparticles (nAg) or silver nitrate (AgNO3 ) to ceramic water filters improves microbiological efficacy, reduces biofilm formation, and protects stored water from recontamination. A challenge in ceramic filter production is adding sufficient silver to achieve these goals without exceeding the maximum recommended silver concentration in drinking water. Silver release is affected by silver type, application method, and influent water chemistry. Despite a lack of data, there is an assumption that chlorinated water should not be used as influent water because it may increase silver elution...
June 5, 2018: Water Research
Srinath Rangappa, Krishnaswamy K Rangan, Tirumalai S Sudarshan, S Narasimha Murthy
Second degree burn injury is the most common type of burn injury which usually takes 2-3 weeks for complete healing. However, such patients suffer with intense pain associated with development of hyperalgesia and allodynia. Here, we prepare a silver clay patch using Montmorillonite clay, betaine and silver nitrate. Later, the silver clay patches were loaded with fentanyl. Further, the patches were fabricated into burn wound dressings. The dressings were first subjected to ex vivo skin penetration studies and were later evaluated for thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia using second degree burn injury rodent model...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Qiangsheng ZHang, Jun Wang, Alexander M Kirillov, Wei Dou, Cong Xu, Cai-Ling Xu, Lizi Yang, Ran Fang, Wei-Sheng Liu
New series of five three-dimensional Ln(III) MOFs (metal-organic frameworks) formulated as [Ln4(µ6-L)2(µ-HCOO)(µ3-OH)3(µ3-O)(DMF)2(H2O)4]n {Ln3+ = Tb3+ (1), Eu3+ (2), Gd3+ (3), Dy3+ (4), and Er3+ (5)} was successfully obtained via a solvothermal reaction between the corresponding lanthanide(III) nitrates and phenylpyridine-tricarboxylic acid, 2-(5-carboxypyridin-3-yl)terephthalic acid (H3L). All the obtained compounds were fully characterized and their structures were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction...
June 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Laís Sara Egas, Erik Neiva Ribeiro de Carvalho Reis, Leonardo Freitas da Silva, João Paulo Bonardi, Valthierre Nunes de Lima, Pedro Henrique Silva Gomes Ferreira, Ciro Borges Duailibe de Deus, Idelmo Rangel Garcia Júnior
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a devastating disease that typically affects immunocompromised patients, chronically debilitated patients or drug users, but can also affect healthy patients. Necrotizing fasciitis can rapidly produce septic shock and requires immediate surgical management of the necrotic tissue. It is a bacterial infection that progresses rapidly and has a high mortality generally caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The patient was immunocompromised and drug user. During treatment, a combination of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with Ciprofloxacin and Metronidazole, besides the use of activated charcoal dressing composed of carbonized fabric and impregnated with 0...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Dandan Liu, Mingzhu Zhang, Wei Du, Lei Hu, Fei Li, Xiaohe Tian, Aidong Wang, Qiong Zhang, Zhongping Zhang, Jieying Wu, Yupeng Tian
Two-photon active probe to label apoptotic cells plays a significant role in biological systems. However, discrimination of live/apoptotic cells at subcellular level under microscopy remains unachieved. Here, three novel Zn(II) terpyridine-based nitrate complexes (C1-C3) containing different pull/push units were designed. The structures of the ligands and their corresponding Zn(II) complexes were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. On the basis of the comprehensive comparison, C3 had a suitable two-photon absorption cross section in the near-infrared wavelength and good biocompatibility...
June 19, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Xiaomei Wang, Guoxun Ji, Cen Shi, Juan Diwu, Lanhua Chen, Daxiang Gui, Jianmei Wan, Mark A Silver, Jianqiang Wang, Shuao Wang
Deferiprone (3-hydroxy-1,2-dimethyl-4(1H)-pyridone, DFP), which is a drug clinically used for removing heavy metals in vivo, was explored for its removal efficiency towards uranium. The reaction of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate with DFP at room temperature yielded the compound [(UO2)(H2O)(C7NO2H8)2]·4H2O (1), which crystallizes from a mixed solution of methanol and water (pH = 7.0). X-ray diffraction shows that the stable complexation of uranyl occurs from the coordination of two bidentate DFP ligands perpendicular to the O[double bond, length as m-dash]U[double bond, length as m-dash]O unit with a fifth coordinating oxygen atom coming from one water molecule, resulting in a pentagonal bipyramidal geometry...
June 19, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Viktor R Tóth
Littoral zones of freshwater lakes are exposed to environmental impacts from both terrestrial and aquatic sides, while substantial anthropogenic pressure also affects the high spatial, and temporal variability of the ecotone. In this study, the possibility of monitoring seasonal and spatial changes in reed ( Phragmites australis ) stands using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based remote sensing technique was examined. Stands in eutrophic and mesotrophic parts of Lake Balaton including not deteriorating (stable) and deteriorating (die-back) patches, were tracked throughout the growing season using a UAV equipped with a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) camera...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhenhua Yan, Hongming Sun, Xiang Chen, Huanhuan Liu, Yaran Zhao, Haixia Li, Wei Xie, Fangyi Cheng, Jun Chen
Electrochemical deposition is a facile strategy to prepare functional materials but suffers from limitation in thin films and uncontrollable interface engineering. Here we report a universal electrosynthesis of metal hydroxides/oxides on varied substrates via reduction of oxyacid anions. On graphitic substrates, we find that the insertion of nitrate ion in graphene layers significantly enhances the electrodeposit-support interface, resulting in high mass loading and super hydrophilic/aerophobic properties. For the electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction, the nanocrystalline cerium dioxide and amorphous nickel hydroxide co-electrodeposited on graphite exhibits low overpotential (177 mV@10 mA cm-2 ) and sustains long-term durability (over 300 h) at a large current density of 1000 mA cm-2 ...
June 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Mario Corti, Antonio Raudino, Laura Cantù, Johannes Theisen, Maximilian Pleines, Thomas N Zemb
Selectively exchanging metal complexes between emulsified water-poor microemulsions and concentrated solutions of mixed electrolytes is the core technology for strategic metal recycling. Nanostructuration triggered by solutes present in the organic phase is understood, but little is known about fluctuations of the microemulsion-water interface. We use here a modified version of an opto-electric device initially designed for air bubbles, in order to evidence resonant electrically induced surface waves of an oily droplet suspended in an aqueous phase...
June 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Po-Hsun Lei, I-Jen Chen, Jia-Jan Chen, Po-Chun Yang, Yan-Hua Gong
We synthesized a silver nanoparticle/zinc oxide (Ag NP/ZnO) thin film by using spin-coating technology. The treatment solution for Ag NP/ZnO thin film deposition contained zinc acetate (Zn(CH₃COO)₂), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and silver nitrate (AgNO₃) aqueous solutions. The crystalline characteristics, surface morphology, content of elements, and reflectivity of the Ag NPs/ZnO thin film at various concentrations of the AgNO₃ aqueous solution were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and ultraviolet⁻visible⁻near infrared spectrophotometry...
June 15, 2018: Materials
Xuebin Hu, Yiyu Wang, Xiaoxuan Su, Yi Chen
The fungicide chlorothalonil (CHT) has been widely used in the tea orchard due to its high-efficiency and sterilization. It has been reported that repeated application of CHT inhibits soil nitrification process. However, the acute impact of CHT on soil denitrification and associated N2 O emissions is unclear. This study evaluated nitrate (NO3 - ) removal, denitrifying gene abundance and denitrifying enzyme activity of tea orchard soil after a 72-h-exposure to CHT. It was found that increasing CHT from 5 to 25 mg kg-1 suppressed the NO3 - removal efficiency from 74...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
V D Assimakopoulos, T Bekiari, S Pateraki, Th Maggos, P Stamatis, P Nicolopoulou, M N Assimakopoulos
An integrated indoor-outdoor 15-day PM sampling campaign in a general area close to the centre of Athens, targeted to examine personal exposure. All microenvironments (MEs) (second and fourth floor flats, cafes, cars, restaurants, underground metro, outdoor etc.) frequented by the residents were included in the study. The instrumentation used was both stationary (low volume samplers) and portable/wearable to be able to measure continuously PM10 , PM2.5 , PM1 and analyze chemically PM2.5 and PM1 samples. The study showed that the residences' air quality was determined by the type and intensity of outdoor sources and their vertical distance from the street...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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