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Petr Znachor, Jiří Nedoma, Josef Hejzlar, Jaromír Seďa, Jiří Kopáček, David Boukal, Tomáš Mrkvička
Man-made reservoirs are common across the world and provide a wide range of ecological services. Environmental conditions in riverine reservoirs are affected by the changing climate, catchment-wide processes and manipulations with the water level, and water abstraction from the reservoir. Long-term trends of environmental conditions in reservoirs thus reflect a wider range of drivers in comparison to lakes, which makes the understanding of reservoir dynamics more challenging. We analysed a 32-year time series of 36 environmental variables characterising weather, land use in the catchment, reservoir hydrochemistry, hydrology and light availability in the small, canyon-shaped Římov Reservoir in the Czech Republic to detect underlying trends, trend reversals and regime shifts...
December 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Michael E Steinmann, Remo S Schmidt, Juan P Macêdo, Christina Kunz Renggli, Peter Bütikofer, Doris Rentsch, Pascal Mäser, Erwin Sigel
CLC type anion transport proteins are homo-dimeric or hetero-dimeric with an integrated transport function in each subunit. We have identified and partially characterized three members of this family named TbVCL1, TbVCL2 and TbVCL3 in Trypanosoma brucei. Among the human CLC family members, the T. brucei proteins display highest similarity to CLC-6 and CLC-7. TbVCL1, but not TbVCL2 and TbVCL3 is able to complement growth of a CLC-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant. All TbVCL-HA fusion proteins localize intracellulary in procyclic form trypanosomes...
2017: PloS One
Raul Domínguez, Manuel Vicente Garnacho-Castaño, Eduardo Cuenca, Pablo García-Fernández, Arturo Muñoz-González, Fernando de Jesús, María Del Carmen Lozano-Estevan, Sandro Fernandes da Silva, Pablo Veiga-Herreros, José Luis Maté-Muñoz
Background: Beetroot juice (BJ) is rich in inorganic nitrates and has proved effective at increasing blood nitric oxide (NO) levels. When used as a supplement BJ has shown an ergogenic effect on cardiorespiratory resistance exercise modalities, yet few studies have examined its impact on high intensity efforts. Objective: To assess the effects of BJ intake on anaerobic performance in a Wingate test. Methods: Fifteen trained men (age 21.46 ± 1.72 years, height 1.78 ± 0.07 cm and weight 76.90 ± 8.67 kg) undertook a 30-s maximum intensity test on an inertial cycle ergometer after drinking 70 mL of BJ (5...
December 15, 2017: Nutrients
Ryan L Dalton, Ryan J Sowinski, Tyler J Grubic, Patrick B Collins, Adriana M Coletta, Aimee G Reyes, Brittany Sanchez, Majid Koozehchian, Yanghoon P Jung, Christopher Rasmussen, Mike Greenwood, Peter S Murano, Conrad P Earnest, Richard B Kreider
In a double-blind, crossover, randomized and placebo-controlled trial; 28 men and women ingested a placebo (PLA), 3 g of creatine nitrate (CNL), and 6 g of creatine nitrate (CNH) for 6 days. Participants repeated the experiment with the alternate supplements after a 7-day washout. Hemodynamic responses to a postural challenge, fasting blood samples, and bench press, leg press, and cycling time trial performance and recovery were assessed. Data were analyzed by univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures general linear models (GLM)...
December 15, 2017: Nutrients
Annamaria Halasz, Jalal Hawari, Nancy N Perreault
This study describes photolysis of the insensitive munition formulation IMX-101 [2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), NQ (nitroguanidine) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO)] in aqueous solutions using a solar simulating photoreactor. Due to a large variance in the water solubility of the three constituents DNAN (276 mg L-1), NQ (5,000 mg L-1) and NTO (16,642 mg L-1), two solutions of IMX-101 were prepared: one with low concentration (109.3 mg L-1) and another with high concentration (2831 mg L-1). The degradation rate constants of DNAN, NQ and NTO (0...
December 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Xiangbo Duan, Yang Yu, Huizi Duanmu, Chao Chen, Xiaoli Sun, Lei Cao, Qiang Li, Xiaodong Ding, Beidong Liu, Yanming Zhu
Alkaline stress is a major form of abiotic stress that severely inhibits plant growth and development, thus restricting crop productivity. However, little is known about how plants respond to alkali. In this study, a slow-type anion channel homologue 3 gene GsSLAH3 was isolated and functionally characterized. Bioinformatics analysis showed that GsSLAH3 protein contains ten transmembrane helices. Consistently, GsSLAH3 was found to locate on plasma membrane by transient expression in onion epidermal cells. In wild soybeans, GsSLAH3 expression was induced by NaHCO3 treatment, suggesting its involvement in plant response to alkaline stress...
December 15, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Karteek Durbakula, Vishnudas Prabhu, Maji Jose
AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of non-alcoholic mouth rinses on buccal epithelial cells using a micronucleus test. METHODS: A total of 105 patients were selected and randomly divided into five groups. Four different mouth rinses and normal saline were given for 2 weeks' duration, and cytological smears were collected before and after exposure. These smears were subjected to micronucleus (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities (ONA) tests using acridine orange stain, and their frequencies were obtained in 500 buccal epithelial cells...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
Daniella de S Moreira, Paula W Figueiró, Cassiana Siebert, Caroline A Prezzi, Francieli Rohden, Fatima C R Guma, Vanusa Manfredini, Angela T S Wyse
Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid derived from methionine metabolism. When plasma homocysteine levels exceed 10-15 μM, there is a condition known as hyperhomocysteinemia, which occur as a result of an inborn error of methionine metabolism or by non-genetic causes. Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is considered a risk factor for development of neurodegenerative diseases. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether acetylsalicylic acid has neuroprotective role on the effect of homocysteine on inflammatory, oxidative/nitrative stress, and morphological parameters in cerebral cortex of rats subjected to chronic mild hyperhomocysteinemia...
December 14, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
Daniela Ducci, Renata Della Morte, Adolfo Mottola, Giuseppe Onorati, Giovanni Pugliano
The Environmental Protection Agency of the Campania region in Italy (ARPAC) manages a groundwater quality monitoring network. For almost all the polluted waters, the key parameter driving the classification is the concentration of nitrate; hence, the Campania region, in coherence with the EU regulations, outlined the vulnerable areas and undertook remediation policies. The best groundwater quality is recorded for carbonate aquifers of the Apennine chain; on the contrary, the Tyrrhenian coastal plains are affected by severe contamination, with a locally very contaminated groundwater of the shallow and also the deeper aquifers...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Masood Moein, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini
Bacteriocins are low molecular weight substances produced through post transcriptional changes. These molecules are easily degraded in mammalian gut by proteolytic enzymes especially protease. Nisin is a peptide with 34 aa and its structure contains a pentacyclic lanthionine and 4 beta metyllanthionine residues. Different formulations have been designed for nisin. Since "green synthesis" is a progressive method to prepare anti-microbial and anti-cancer compounds, this study aimed at green synthesis of nisin metal compounds to be used lower concentration still exerting nisin effects...
December 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Cui-Hui Sun, Jian-Qiang Yu, Li-Zhu Wen, Yun-Hui Guo, Xia Sun, Yu-Jin Hao, Da-Gang Hu, Cheng-Shu Zheng
Root system architecture is an important agronomic trait by which plants both acquire water and nutrients from the soil and adapt to survive in a complex environment. The adaptation of plant root systems to environmental constraints largely depends on the growth and development of lateral roots (LRs). MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) are important known regulators of plant growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli. However, the potential mechanisms by which they regulate LRs development remain poorly understood...
January 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Hui Yun, Bin Liang, Deyong Kong, Aijie Wang
Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have been tentatively applied for wastewater treatment processes, but the complex composition of wastewater could lead to difficulties in establishing functional biofilm or result in performance instability. Few studies have investigated the enrichment of biocathode with domestic wastewater (DW) and the function. A biocathode with multi-pollutant removal capabilities was enriched based on polarity inverted bioanode, which was established with DW. The biocathode function was examined using model pollutants (nitrate, nitrobenzene and Acid Orange 7) supplemented as sole or mixed electron acceptors...
December 7, 2017: Chemosphere
Jeremy Astier, Inonge Gross, Jörg Durner
Nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule in plant physiology. However, its production in photosynthetic organisms remains partially unresolved. The best characterized NO production route involves the reduction of nitrite to NO via different non-enzymatic or enzymatic mechanisms. Nitrate reductases (NRs), the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and the new complex between NR and NOFNiR (nitric oxide-forming nitrite reductase) described in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are the main enzymatic systems that perform this reductive NO production in plants...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yiwen Liu, Huu Hao Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Lai Peng, Xueming Chen, Dongbo Wang, Yuting Pan, Bing-Jie Ni
Hydrogenotrophic denitrification is a novel and sustainable process for nitrogen removal, which utilizes hydrogen as electron donor and carbon dioxide as carbon source. Recent studies have shown that nitrous oxide (N2 O), a highly undesirable intermediate and potent greenhouse gas, can accumulate during this process. In this work, a new mathematical model is developed to describe nitrogen oxides dynamics, especially N2 O, during hydrogenotrophic denitrification for the first time. The model describes electron competition among the four steps of hydrogenotrophic denitrification through decoupling hydrogen oxidation and nitrogen reduction processes using electron carriers, in contrast to the existing models that couple these two processes and also do not consider N2 O accumulation...
December 14, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Mosselhi A N M Mohamed, Laila M B Abu-Alola, Nada M G Aljaied
The coupling reaction of 1,3-dimethylxanthine (theophylline), 3-benzylxanthine and 3-benzyl-1-methylxanthine with 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-β-D-ribofuranose afforded the corresponding protected nucleosides, respectively. Nitration of each of the theophylline and 3-benzy-1-methyllxanthine protected nucleosides yielded the corresponding 8-nitronucleosides derivatives, which were reduced to give the corresponding 8-aminonucleoside derivatives. Debenzoylation of protected nucleosides formed by using methanolic sodium methoxide afforded the corresponding free N-nucleosides, respectively...
December 2, 2017: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
Mehdi Ahmadi, Farshid Ghanbari
Several efforts have been carried out to present an efficient method for PMS activation. This work presented the use of UVC-LEDs (light emitting diodes) and US (ultrasound) to activate PMS for decolorization of Direct Orange 26 (DO26). The performance of UVC-LEDs/US/PMS process was effective in a broad range of pH (3.0-9.0). Complete decolorization was obtained in only 12 min in pH = 7.0 and 1.5 mM PMS. Bicarbonate and nitrite ions showed inhibitory effect on decolorization while sulfate, chloride, and nitrate had no significant effect on the performance of the process...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xianwei Song, Yang Gao, Sophie M Green, Jennifer A J Dungait, Tao Peng, Timothy A Quine, Bailian Xiong, Xuefa Wen, Nianpeng He
Karst topography covers more than 1/3 of the People's Republic of China in area. The porous, fissured, and soluble nature of the underlying karst bedrock (primarily dolomite and limestone) leads to the formation of underground drainage systems. Karst conduit networks dominate this system, and rainfall takes a crucial role on water cycle at China karst area. Nitrogen loss from the karst system is of particular concern, with regard to nutrient use efficiency as well as water quality, as much of the karst system, including steeply sloping terrain, is used for intensive agriculture...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Mohsen Sadani, Mohammad Amin Karami, Fahimeh Teimouri, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Seyed Mahdi Moosavi, Bahare Dehdashti
Background: Cleanup of areas contaminated by explosives is a public health concern. Some explosives can be carcinogenic in humans. Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN), a powerful explosive with very low water solubility, can be easily transported to ground waters. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the removal efficiencies of PETN from soil by bioremediation, and obtain kinetic parameters of biological process. Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the Environmental Health Engineering Lab (Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran) in 2015-2016...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
Her Shuang Toh, Roxanne Line Faure, Liyana Bte Mohd Amin, Crystal Yu Fang Hay, Saji George
This article presents a simple, one-step, in situ generation of silver nanoparticle-functionalized fabrics with antibacterial properties, circumventing the conventional, multistep, time-consuming methods. Silver nanoparticle formation was studied with a library of capping agents (branched polyethylenimine [BPEI] of molecular weight [Mw] 10,000 and 25,000, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol, polyvinylalcohol and citrate) mixed with silver nitrate. The mixture was then exposed to an assortment of light wavelengths (ultraviolet, infrared and simulated solar light) for studying the light-assisted synthesis of nanoparticles...
2017: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications
Abirami S Anu, Kashinath I Dhabbe, Prashant S Kulkarni, Mehilal Mehilal
The current demilitarization processes employs open burning /open detonation which is not permitted by the environmental protection agency. Therefore, a systematic study has been carried out to convert waste/rejected nitramine and fuel rich based propellants into liquid fertilizer by digesting in dilute nitric acid followed by neutralization with potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid. The obtained liquid fertilizers were fully characterised for nitrate, phosphate and ammonium ions along with potassium. Further, the effect of liquid fertilizers of nitramine propellant and fuel rich propellant on cluster bean plants was studied by taking in different concentrations from 25 mL to 150 mL, and their effect on germination pattern, shoots growth, thickness of stem, size and number of leaves, number of pods and length over a full grown period of plants were investigated...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Technology
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