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Diabetes aqueous humor

Edoardo Midena, Elisabetta Pilotto
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Persistent hyperglycemia leads to the activation of multiple cellular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of DR, resulting in increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular dysfunction. DR has been considered a "chronic, low-grade inflammatory disease of the retina". However, an increasing body of evidence suggests that inflammation and neurodegeneration both occur in human diabetes even before the development of clinical signs of DR...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
Tomoyasu Shiraya, Satoshi Kato, Fumiyuki Araki, Takashi Ueta, Tempei Miyaji, Takuhiro Yamaguchi
PURPOSE: It is controversial whether the administration of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs for diabetic macular edema (DME) affects intraocular inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we measured cytokine concentration in aqueous humor before and after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR). The aim was to determine changes in cytokine concentration and their effects on DME reduction. METHODS: Twelve patients (13 eyes) with DME received two IVR (0...
2017: PloS One
Minhong Xiang, Xingru Zhang, Qingsong Li, Hanmin Wang, Zhenyong Zhang, Zhumei Han, Meiqing Ke, Xingxing Chen
Proteins in the aqueous humor (AH) are important in the induction of cataract development. The identification of cataract-associated proteins assists in identifying patients and predisposed to the condition and improve treatment efficacy. Proteomics analysis has previously been used for identifying protein markers associated with eye diseases; however, few studies have examined the proteomic alterations in cataract development due to high myopia, glaucoma and diabetes. The present study, using the isobaric tagging for relative and absolute protein quantification methodology, aimed to examine cataract-associated proteins in the AH from patients with high myopia, glaucoma or diabetes, and controls...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Aleksej Medić, Tomislav Jukić, Anita Matas, Katarina Vukojević, Ada Sapunar, Ljubo Znaor
AIM: To determine if preoperative treatment with a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) lowers the concentration of intraocular interleukin (IL)-12 and the incidence of postoperative macular edema in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy undergoing cataract surgery. METHODS: A total of 55 patients were randomized to diclofenac (n=27) or placebo (n=28). Patients receiving diclofenac started preoperative treatment with 0.1% topical diclofenac four times a day 7 days before cataract surgery and the therapy was discontinued 30 days after surgery...
February 28, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
Hiroshi Kunikata, Tomoaki Ida, Kota Sato, Naoko Aizawa, Tomohiro Sawa, Hiroshi Tawarayama, Namie Murayama, Shigemoto Fujii, Takaaki Akaike, Toru Nakazawa
We investigate the metabolomic profile of reactive persulfides and polysulfides in the aqueous and vitreous humors. Eighteen eyes of 18 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy underwent microincision vitrectomy combined with cataract surgery. Samples of the aqueous and vitreous humors were collected and underwent mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling of reactive persulfides and polysulfides (polysulfidomics). The effect of reactive polysulfide species on the viability of immortalized retinal cells (the RGC-5 cell line) under oxidative stress (induced with H2O2) was also evaluated with an Alamar Blue assay...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Wansun Kim, Soo Hyun Lee, Sang Hun Kim, Jae-Chul Lee, Sang Woong Moon, Jae Su Yu, Samjin Choi
Gold-decorated, vertically grown ZnO nanorods (NRs) on a flexible graphite sheet (Au/ZnONRs/G) were developed for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based biosensing to identify trace amounts of human aqueous humors. This Au/ZnONRs/G SERS-functionalized sensor was fabricated via two steps: hydrothermal synthesis-induced growth of ZnO NRs on graphite sheets for nanostructure fabrication, followed by e-beam evaporator-induced gold metallization on ZnONRs/G for SERS functionalization. The thickness of the Au layer and the height of the ZnO NRs for enhancing SERS performance were adjusted to maximize Raman intensity, and the optimized Au/ZnONRs/G nanostructures were verified by the electric finite element computational models to maximize the electric fields...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Holger Fuchs, Frederik Igney
PURPOSE: The ocular half-life of intravitreally (IVT) injected drugs is of major relevance for the suitability of a drug intended for chronic intraocular treatment, as the half-life determines the dosing frequency. Thus, half-life extension principles are very attractive as they can reduce the IVT dosing frequency. In this study, we investigated the ocular pharmacokinetics (PK) of the IVT injected Nanobody(®) BI-X and whether the noncovalent binding of BI-X to vitreous albumin could increase its ocular half-life...
March 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Laura Kowalczuk, Alexandre Matet, Ali Dirani, Alejandra Daruich, Aude Ambresin, Irmela Mantel, Richard F Spaide, Natacha Turck, Francine Behar-Cohen
PURPOSE: To evaluate intravitreal aflibercept in macular telangiectasia Type 1 (MacTel 1) patients and measure their ocular angiogenic profile. METHODS: Eight subjects with MacTel 1 refractory to bevacizumab, ranibizumab, or laser therapy and switched to aflibercept were included. Best-corrected visual acuity, central macular thickness, and cystic areas quantified on optical coherence tomography B-scans were assessed during 12 months. Perifoveal capillary densities were measured on optical coherence tomography angiography...
December 20, 2016: Retina
Gustavo B Rodrigues, Ricardo Y Abe, Camila Zangalli, Savio L Sodre, Flavia A Donini, Danilo C Costa, Andre Leite, Joao P Felix, Marcelo Torigoe, Alberto Diniz-Filho, Homero Gusmão de Almeida
Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a secondary glaucoma generally associated with poor visual prognosis. The development of new vessels over the iris and the iridocorneal angle can obstruct aqueous humor outflow and lead to increased intraocular pressure. The underlying pathogenesis in most cases is posterior segment ischemia, which is most commonly secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy or central vein retinal occlusion. The neovascularization process in the eye is driven by the events that alter the homeostatic balance between pro-angiogenic factors, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor and anti-angiogenic factors, such as the pigment-epithelium-derived factor...
2016: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
Hiroki Namikawa, Koichi Yamada, Hiroki Fujimoto, Ken-Ichi Oinuma, Yoshihiro Tochino, Yasuhiko Takemoto, Yukihiro Kaneko, Taichi Shuto, Hiroshi Kakeya
BACKGROUND: A few Japanese cases of hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) invasive syndrome have recently been reported. Although extrahepatic complications from bacteremic dissemination have been observed, infected aneurysms are rare. Furthermore, the primary source of infection is generally a liver abscess, and is rarely the prostate. Therefore, we report two atypical cases of hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae invasive syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: The first case was an 81-year-old Japanese man with no significant medical history, who was referred to our hospital for vision loss in his right eye...
November 16, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Hui Chen, Xiongze Zhang, Nanying Liao, Feng Wen
PURPOSE: Trans-signaling of interleukin (IL)-6 through its soluble receptor (sIL-6R) is critically involved in the promotion of chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to estimate IL-6, sIL-6R, and soluble gp130 (sgp130, a natural antagonist of IL-6 trans-signaling) concentrations in the serum and aqueous humor (AqH) of patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: Paired AqH and serum samples were collected from 152 consecutive diabetic patients (105 with DR and 47 without DR, NDR) and 51 healthy controls...
2016: Molecular Vision
Sang Woong Moon, Wansun Kim, Samjin Choi, Jae-Ho Shin
In this study, we investigate the biochemical characteristics of oxidative stress in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) by analyzing aqueous humors. Nondiabetic cataract aqueous humor was used as the control. The level of oxidative damage was evaluated based on changes in Raman spectral intensity. Seven prominent peaks were detected at 1002, 1043, 1062, 1352, 1419, 1454, and 1656 cm(-1) . We proposed four multimodal biomarkers to distinguish these peaks based on the ratios of Raman intensities in two wavelengths, including CHO (C-O stretching or C-O-H bending modes), AG (adenine and guanine), PRO-AG (protein and AG), and PHEα (phenylalanine symmetric ring breath and amide I α-helix) markers...
August 10, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Hirotaka Hashimoto, Kiyomi Arai, Shimmin Hayashi, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Jiro Takahashi, Makoto Chikuda
We explored the effect of astaxanthin on vascular endothelial growth factor in the aqueous humor, by measuring vascular endothelial growth factor levels and oxidation-related parameters, including O2 (•-) scavenging activity, H2O2 level, and total hydroperoxide level in the aqueous humor, obtained from 35 patients before and after astaxanthin administration. We evaluated the relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor and the oxidation-related parameters as well as the patient's diabetic status, age, and sex...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Roxane J Hillier, Elvis Ojaimi, David T Wong, Michael Y K Mak, Alan R Berger, Radha P Kohly, Peter J Kertes, Farzin Forooghian, Shelley R Boyd, Kenneth Eng, Filiberto Altomare, Louis R Giavedoni, Rosane Nisenbaum, Rajeev H Muni
PURPOSE: To determine whether aqueous cytokine levels correlate with disease severity in diabetic macular edema. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study of 49 adults with diabetes mellitus, centre-involving diabetic macular edema and central subfield macular thickness ≥310 μm on spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Clinical examination and aqueous sampling were carried out before an initial injection of ranibizumab. Multiplex immunoassay of sample was carried out for vascular endothelial growth factor, placental growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-3, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and epidermal growth factor...
April 2017: Retina
Jin-Woo Kwon, Jin A Choi, Donghyun Jee
PURPOSE: To assess the concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9 in the aqueous humor of diabetic macular edema (DME) patients. METHOD: The concentrations of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in the aqueous humors of 15 cataract patients and 25 DME patients were compared. DME patients were analyzed according to the diabetic retinopathy (DR) stage, diabetes mellitus (DM) duration, pan-retinal photocoagulation (PRP) treatment, recurrence within 3 months, HbA1C (glycated hemoglobin) level, and axial length...
2016: PloS One
Peter Westphal, Johannes-Maria Kaltenbach, Kai Wicker
A good understanding of the corneal birefringence properties is essential for polarimetric glucose monitoring in the aqueous humor of the eye. Therefore, we have measured complete 16-element Mueller matrices of single-pass transitions through nine porcine corneas in-vitro, spectrally resolved in the range 300…1000 nm. These ellipsometric measurements have been performed at several angles of incidence at the apex and partially at the periphery of the corneas. The Mueller matrices have been decomposed into linear birefringence, circular birefringence (i...
April 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Julie C Lim, Ankita Umapathy, Angus C Grey, Ehsan Vaghefi, Paul J Donaldson
Outside the traditional roles of the lens as an important refractive element and a UV filter, it was David Beebe's group that first demonstrated that the lens acts an oxygen sink that protects the tissues of the anterior segment of the eye from oxygen or oxygen metabolites. In this review, we follow on from this work, and present new evidence from our laboratory to demonstrate that the lens serves as a reservoir for the release of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) into the aqueous humor to provide a source of GSH and/or its precursor amino acids to nearby tissues that interface with the aqueous humor, or to remove toxic metabolites from the eye via the aqueous outflow pathway...
June 6, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Erdinc Aydin, Semsettin Sahin
AIM: To report the association between melatonin levels in aqueous humor and serum, and diabetic retinopathy (DR) grade in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: Aqueous humor and plasma samples from 26 patients with DR (in nonproliferative and proliferative stages) and 14 control subjects were collected during cataract surgery after 6 p.m. Melatonin concentrations were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Melatonin levels were significantly higher in the aqueous humor of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) [18...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Shoji Kishi
The presence of a posterior precortical vitreous pocket, referred to as a precortical pocket, implies that the vitreous cortex is formed into a collagen sheet separated from the gel in the macula. Along with strong vitreoretinal attachment at the fovea, the precortical pocket plays a role in perifoveal posterior vitreous detachments, which may lead to macular holes, premacular membranes, and ring-shaped proliferation in diabetic retinopathy. I and my colleagues published pioneer studies of the vitreous in postmortem eyes...
July 2016: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
Bokjun Ji, Daehan Lim, Jean Kim, Hyung Chan Kim, Hyewon Chung
PURPOSE: To investigate associations between diabetic macular edema (DME) and levels of the Wnt modulator Dickkopf 3 (DKK-3) in the aqueous humor (AH) of patients with DME and to analyze the clinical implications of this association. METHODS: Forty-four eyes of 39 patients with DME and 27 eyes of 27 controls were studied. Aqueous humor DKK-3 levels were measured by ELISA before the first intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB). Visual acuity assessments and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were performed before and 3 months after the first IVB...
April 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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