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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809618/corneal-donations-in-south-africa-a-15-year-review
#1
Nicholas J York, Christopher Tinley
BACKGROUND: Corneal pathology is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in South Africa (SA). A corneal transplant can restore or significantly improve vision in most cases. However, in SA there is a gross shortage of corneal tissue available to ophthalmologists. Little has been published describing the magnitude of the problem. OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in the number of corneal donors per year in SA, the number of corneal transplants performed each year, the origin of donors, the allocation of corneas to the public or private sector, and the demographics of donors...
July 28, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730112/evaluation-of-antioxidants-and-argpyrimidine-in-normal-and-cataractous-lenses-in-north-indian-population
#2
Bharani K Mynampati, Sujata Ghosh, Thungapathra Muthukumarappa, Jagat Ram
AIM: To assess the level of glutathione, thioltransferase, and argpyrimidine in nuclear and cortical cataractous lenses as well as in the clear lenses in the north Indian population. METHODS: Human cataractous lenses were collected from the patients who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction surgery; clear lenses were collected from the freshly donated eye bank eyes. Antioxidant molecules such as glutathione and thioltransferase enzyme activity were measured; simultaneously in these lenses a blue fluorophore argpyrimidine, an advanced glycation end (AGE) product level was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728174/a-global-view-on-output-and-outcomes-of-cataract-surgery-with-national-indices-of-socioeconomic-development
#3
Wei Wang, William Yan, Andreas Müller, Mingguang He
Purpose: Cataract blindness accounts for a substantial proportion of blindness worldwide. Understanding the correlations between national levels of socioeconomic development with the quantity and quality of cataract surgery may provide insight for the prioritization and resource allocation for blindness prevention programs. Methods: The relationships between human development index (HDI), gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and cataract surgical coverage (CSC) and visual outcome of cataract surgery were examined in a multinational study utilizing secondary data from the repository for Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB), World Health Organization, Global Burden of Disease, United Nations, and the World Bank...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698576/multimodal-imaging-quality-control-of-epithelia-regenerated-with-cultured-human-donor-corneal-limbal-epithelial-stem-cells
#4
Marco Lombardo, Sebastiano Serrao, Vanessa Barbaro, Enzo Di Iorio, Giuseppe Lombardo
Current imaging techniques for the characterization of differentiated corneal limbal stem cells are destructive and cannot be used in eye bank for monitoring the regenerated epithelium in culture. We presented a minimally invasive, multimodal, marker-free imaging method for the investigation of epithelia regenerated with cultured human donor corneal limbal epithelial stem cells. Two-photon fluorescence and harmonic generation signals were collected from specimens in culture and used for evaluating the structure and morphology of epithelia cultured on two different bio-scaffolds; in addition, donor human corneal tissues were used as controls...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697461/direct-induction-of-functional-neuronal-cells-from-fibroblast-like-cells-derived-from-adult-human-retina
#5
Lili Hao, Zhen Xu, Hui Sun, Wu Luo, Youchen Yan, Jing Wang, Jingyi Guo, Yizhi Liu, Shuyi Chen
Obtaining and manipulating neuronal cells are critical for neural biology basic mechanism studies and translational applications. Recent advances in protocol development and mechanism dissections have made direct induction of neuronal cells from other somatic cells (iN) a promising strategy for such purposes. In this study, we established a protocol to expand a population of fibroblast-like cells from adult human retinal tissues, which can be reprogrammed into iNs by forced expression of neurogenic transcription factors...
June 29, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696355/abcc6-and-pseudoxanthoma-elasticum-the-face-of-a-rare-disease-from-genetics-to-advocacy
#6
REVIEW
Karobi Moitra, Sonia Garcia, Michelle Jaldin, Clementine Etoundi, Donna Cooper, Anna Roland, Patrice Dixon, Sandra Reyes, Sevilay Turan, Sharon Terry, Michael Dean
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the mineralization of connective tissues in the body. Primary manifestation of PXE occurs in the tissues of the skin, eyes, and cardiovascular system. PXE is primarily caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene. The ABCC6 gene encodes the trans-membrane protein ABCC6, which is highly expressed in the kidneys and liver. PXE has high phenotypic variability, which may possibly be affected by several modifier genes. Disease advocacy organizations have had a pivotal role in bringing rare disease research to the forefront and in helping to sustain research funding for rare genetic diseases in order to help find a treatment for these diseases, pseudoxanthoma elasticum included...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692574/technician-consistency-in-specular-microscopy-measurements-a-real-world-retrospective-analysis-of-a-united-states-eye-bank
#7
Gabriel M Rand, Ji Won Kwon, Patrick K Gore, Mitchell D McCartney, Roy S Chuck
PURPOSE: To quantify consistency of endothelial cell density (ECD) measurements among technicians in a single US eye bank operating under typical operating conditions. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of 51 microscopy technicians using a semiautomated counting method on 35,067 eyes from July 2007 to May 2015, technician- and date-related marginal ECD effects were calculated using linear regression models. ECD variance was correlated with the number of specular microscopy technicians...
July 7, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669121/development-of-national-system-performance-metrics-for-tissue-donation-production-and-distribution-activity
#8
Brenda Weiss, Mazen Dakkak, Gary Rockl, Balram Sukhu, Jim Mohr, Kyle Maru
Canada's federal, provincial, and territorial governments gave Canadian Blood Services a mandate for organ and tissue donation and transplantation, including system performance, data and analytics. In 2012 Canadian Blood Services facilitated an eye and tissue banking workshop focused on standardized specifications and practices. At the workshop, the Canadian tissue community directed Canadian Blood Services to facilitate the development and implementation of a national data stream and analytics. Prior to this no national data was prospectively collected or collated on tissue donation, production or distribution activity...
July 1, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660079/umbilical-cord-patch-transplantation-for-corneal-perforations-and-descemetoceles
#9
Hua-Tao Xie, Dan Zhao, Yang Liu, Ming-Chang Zhang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical outcome of umbilical cord patch (UCP) transplantation for deep corneal ulcers with perforations and descemetoceles. METHODS: In this retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series, 11 eyes of 11 patients with corneal perforation or descemetocele were included. The thickness and microstructure of UCP were measured. All eyes were treated with UCP and amniotic membrane transplantation for corneal reconstruction. Corneal ulcer healing, corneal thickness, anterior chamber formation, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded and analyzed...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649148/origins-and-genetic-diversity-of-introduced-populations-of-the-puerto-rican-red-eyed-coqu%C3%A3-eleutherodactylus-antillensis-in-saint-croix-u-s-virgin-islands-and-panam%C3%A3
#10
Brittany S Barker, Javier A Rodríguez-Robles
The Red-eyed Coquí, Eleutherodactylus antillensis, is a terrestrial frog endemic to the Puerto Rican Bank (Puerto Rico and numerous islands and cays off its eastern coast), in the eastern Caribbean Sea. The species was likely introduced in Saint Croix, an island c. 100 km southeast of Puerto Rico, in the late 1930s, and in Panamá City, Panamá, in the late 1950s or early 1960s, but the source(s) of these introductions are unknown. We analyzed sequence data from one mtDNA locus and four nuDNA introns to infer the origin(s) of the Saint Croix and Panamá City populations and quantify their genetic diversity...
July 2017: Copeia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634888/saccades-evoked-in-response-to-electrical-stimulation-of-the-posterior-bank-of-the-arcuate-sulcus
#11
E Neromyliotis, A K Moschovakis
To test the hypothesis that the premotor cortex in and behind the caudal bank of the arcuate sulcus can generate saccades, we stimulated electrically the periarcuate region of alert rhesus monkeys. We were able to produce saccades from sites of the premotor cortex that were contiguous with the frontal eye fields and extended up to 2 mm behind the smooth pursuit area. However, premotor sites often elicited saccades with ipsiversive characteristic vectors, lower peak velocities, and flatter velocity profiles when compared to saccades evoked from the frontal eye field...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597192/pre-banking-microbial-contamination-of-donor-conjunctiva-and-storage-medium-for-penetrating-keratoplasty
#12
Takenori Inomata, Koichi Ono, Tsuyoshi Matsuba, Tina Shiang, Antonio Di Zazzo, Satoru Nakatani, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki Ebihara, Akira Murakami
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to investigate the incidence of positive donor tissue cultures before transfer to preservation medium (Optisol™-GS) for penetrating keratoplasty, to verify the efficacy of antibiotics contained in Optisol™-GS by examining the drug susceptibility and to assess the relationship between the results of our microbial assessments as well as donor factors and the incidence of contamination. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study using Juntendo Eye Bank records for all corneal transplantations...
June 8, 2017: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594621/an-undergraduate-placemement-at-the-st-john-eye-hospital-jerusalem
#13
Ruth Dickinson
The elective placement is an opportunity for nursing undergraduates to independently decide where to go and what to do to widen their clinical experience. Being able to decide on and participate in an elective placement provides student nurses with a chance to work in a different area and explore personal ambitions. This reflective account examines a student nurse's experiences while on an elective placement at an eye hospital in East Jerusalem and the West Bank.
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575912/-growth-factor-concentration-in-keratocyte-supernatant-after-incubation-with-human-serum-in-vitro
#14
Nóra Szentmáry, Tanja Stachon, Ming-Feng Wu, Mona Bischoff, Manuela Huber, Achim Langenbucher, Berthold Seitz
Purpose Application of serum eye drops is an alternative treatment option for therapy-resistant corneal epithelial defects. In case of persisting epithelial defects, cytokines, which are secreted from stromal keratocytes, may play a role in epithelial wound healing. Our aim was to analyze fibroblast growth factor basic (FGFb), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) concentration in the supernatant of keratocytes, after incubation with human serum (HS)...
June 2, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574496/optical-clearing-of-the-eye-using-the-see-deep-brain-technique
#15
B Hohberger, C Baumgart, A Bergua
PurposeTissue clearing has been used in anatomy for the first time in Germany over a century ago. Neuronal tissue, like cortex, was investigated in mice using a water-based optical clearing method termed See Deep Brain (SeeDB). However, although the eye belongs to the central nervous system, this histological technique was not applied in the eye up to date. We applied SeeDB for the visualization of intraocular structures.Patients and methodsFour eyes of cornea donors (two male, two female: 73-84 years) obtained from the Cornea Bank of the Department of Ophthalmology Erlangen, four chicken eyes and two mices' optic nerve were used...
June 2, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542087/validity-of-postmortem-glycated-hemoglobin-to-determine-status-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-corneal-donors
#16
Mark C Soper, Santica M Marcovina, Caroline K Hoover, Peter M Calhoun, Kristen E McCoy, Christopher G Stoeger, Gregory A Schmidt, Baha M Arafah, Marianne O Price, Loretta B Szczotka-Flynn, Jonathan H Lass
PURPOSE: To examine the stability of postmortem glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement and its relationship to premortem glycemia. METHODS: Postmortem blood samples were obtained from 32 donors (8 known diabetic) and shipped on ice to a central laboratory to examine the stability of HbA1c measurements during the first 9 postmortem days. Thirty-nine other suspected diabetic donors underwent comparison of premortem and postmortem HbA1c measurements. RESULTS: Postmortem HbA1c measurements remained stable after 9 postmortem days (all measurements within ±0...
May 23, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535143/intercultural-communication-through-the-eyes-of-patients-experiences-and-preferences
#17
Emma Paternotte, Sandra van Dulmen, Lindsay Bank, Conny Seeleman, Albert Scherpbier, Fedde Scheele
Objectives: To explore patients' preferences and experiences regarding intercultural communication which could influence the development of intercultural patient-centred communication training. Methods: This qualitative study is based on interviews with non-native patients. Thirty non-native patients were interviewed between September and December 2015 about their preferences and experiences regarding communication with a native Dutch doctor. Fourteen interviews were established with an interpreter...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508165/frequency-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-the-retina-in-eye-banks-in-brazil
#18
Deise F Costa, Heloisa Nascimento, Aline Sutili, Fernando A J Nobrega, Flavio Fowler, Mario Junqueira Nobrega, Cristina Garrido, Janaina de Oliveira Dias, Consuelo B D Adán, Luiz Vicente Rizzo, Claudio Silveira, Rubens Belfort, Alessandra G Commodaro
Ocular toxoplasmosis is the main cause of posterior uveitis worldwide frequently leading to vision loss. In Brazil, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection ranges from 50 to 80% depending of the region studied. The frequency of toxoplasmic retinal scar may reach 18% of the adults in the South of Brazil. Our goal was to determine the frequency of T. gondii DNA in retinas from eye banks from different regions in Brazil. A total of 162 eyes were obtained from eye banks in Manaus (n = 60), Sao Paulo (n = 60), Chapeco (n = 26), and Joinville (n = 16)...
July 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495906/emergency-corneal-grafting-in-the-uk-a-6-year-analysis-of-the-uk-transplant-registry
#19
Parwez Hossain, Abdo Karim Tourkmani, Dimitri Kazakos, Mark Jones, David Anderson
BACKGROUND: Corneal graft (CG) surgery is the most common and successful tissue transplant worldwide. A small and important group of patients are operated in emergency situations, typically to save a perforated eye. Our knowledge of the indications and outcomes of emergency corneal graft (eCG) is limited. METHODS: Retrospective, multifactorial analysis of all CGs registered by the UK Transplant Service from April 1999 to March 2005. RESULTS: A total of 12 976 CGs were performed...
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489792/eye-bank-prepared-versus-surgeon-cut-endothelial-graft-tissue-for-descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty-an-observational-study
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Marie Regnier, Céline Auxenfans, Delphine Maucort-Boulch, Anne-Sophie Marty, Odile Damour, Carole Burillon, Viridiana Kocaba
The purpose of this article is to examine outcomes of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) performed with cornea bank (CB) prestripped tissue and surgeon stripped tissue (SST).This retrospective study examined subjects who underwent DMEK with CB or surgeon prepared tissue for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal thickness, endothelial cell count (ECC), and complications were examined before and throughout a 6-month postoperative period.Eleven CB and 22 SST subjects were included...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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