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Corneal endothelium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239730/directed-differentiation-of-periocular-mesenchyme-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#1
Matthew Lovatt, Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Gary S Peh, Alan Colman, N Ray Dunn, Jodhbir S Mehta
Corneal tissue is the most transplanted of all body tissues. Currently, cadaveric donor tissues are used for transplantation. However, a global shortage of transplant grade material has prompted development of alternative, cell-based therapies for corneal diseases. Pluripotent stem cells are attractive sources of cells for regenerative medicine, because large numbers of therapeutically useful cells can be generated. However, a detailed understanding of how to differentiate clinically relevant cell types from stem cells is fundamentally required...
November 16, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227512/efficacy-and-safety-comparison-between-suberoylanilide-hydroxamic-acid-and-mitomycin-c-in-reducing-the-risk-of-corneal-haze-after-prk-treatment-in-vivo
#2
Govindaraj Anumanthan, Ajay Sharma, Michael Waggoner, Chuck W Hamm, Suneel Gupta, Nathan P Hesemann, Rajiv R Mohan
PURPOSE: This study compared the efficacy and safety of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and mitomycin C (MMC) up to 4 months in the prevention of corneal haze induced by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in rabbits in vivo. METHODS: Corneal haze in rabbits was produced with -9.00 diopter PRK. A single application of SAHA (25 μM) or MMC (0.02%) was applied topically immediately after PRK. Effects of the two drugs were analyzed by slit-lamp microscope, specular microscope, TUNEL assay, and immunofluorescence...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227341/characterization-of-corneal-endothelial-injury-during-penetrating-keratoplasty
#3
Thomas A Vo, Zack Oakey, Sumit Garg
PURPOSE: To characterize corneal endothelial injury during penetrating keratoplasty in a controlled wet laboratory environment using human tissue. To identify potential areas or steps within surgery in which insult to the corneal endothelium may be most affected by trauma during routine penetrating keratoplasty. METHODS: Human donor corneas (n = 12) with intact endothelium underwent experimental penetrating keratoplasty. Endothelial injury was evaluated after each suture quartile using trypan staining, a validated modality for assessing endothelial injury...
December 8, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213190/smartphone-based-imaging-of-the-corneal-endothelium-at-sub-cellular-resolution
#4
Devrim Toslak, Damber Thapa, Muhammet Kazim Erol, Yanjun Chen, Xincheng Yao
This aim of this study was to test the feasibility of smartphone-based specular microscopy of the corneal endothelium at a sub-cellular resolution. Quantitative examination of endothelial cells is essential for evaluating corneal disease such as determining a diagnosis, monitoring progression and assessing treatment. Smartphone-based technology promises a new opportunity to develop affordable devices to foster quantitative examination of endothelial cells in rural and underserved areas. In our study, we incorporated an iPhone 6 and a slit lamp to demonstrate the feasibility of smartphone-based microscopy of the corneal endothelium at a sub-cellular resolution...
2017: Journal of Modern Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206882/morphological-study-of-the-eye-and-adnexa-in-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-sp
#5
Danielle Nascimento Silva, Arianne Pontes Oriá, Nayone Lantyer Araujo, Emanoel Martins-Filho, Caterina Muramoto, Fernanda de Azevedo Libório, Alessandra Estrela-Lima
The objective of this study was to describe the anatomic and histologic features of the Sapajus sp. eye, comparing similarities and differences of humans and other species of non-human primates for biomedical research purposes. Computed tomography (CT) of adnexa, eye and orbit live animal, as well as formolized pieces of the same structures of Sapajus sp. for anatomical and histological study were also performed. The anatomical description of the eye and adnexa was performed using the techniques of topographic dissection and exenteration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189945/could-adverse-effects-and-complications-of-selective-laser-trabeculoplasty-be-decreased-by-low-power-laser-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Alexandre de Carvalho Mendes Paiva, Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca
Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) has been used for treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, pigmenter and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma being considered a low-risk procedure. Therefore, transitory and permanent adverse effects have been reported, including corneal changes, subclinical edema, and reduction in endothelial cells and in central corneal thickness. Despite rarer, serious corneal complications after SLT can be permanent and lead to visual impairment, central corneal haze, opacity and narrowing...
November 30, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175100/computational-modeling-of-drug-transport-across-the-in-vitro-cornea
#7
Joseph Pak, Z J Chen, Kay Sun, Andrzej Przekwas, Ross Walenga, Jianghong Fan
A novel quasi-3D (Q3D) modeling approach was developed to model networks of one dimensional structures like tubes and vessels common in human anatomy such as vascular and lymphatic systems, neural networks, and respiratory airways. Instead of a branching network of the same tissue type, this approach was extended to model an interconnected stack of different corneal tissue layers with membrane junction conditions assigned between the tissues. The multi-laminate structure of the cornea presents a unique barrier design and opportunity for investigation using Q3D modeling...
November 23, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146208/glaucoma-associated-corneal-endothelial-cell-damage-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Ben J Janson, Wallace L Alward, Young H Kwon, Daniel I Bettis, John H Fingert, Lorraine M Provencher, Kenneth M Goins, Michael D Wagoner, Mark A Greiner
The corneal endothelium is critical in maintaining a healthy and clear cornea. Corneal endothelial cells have a significant reserve function, but preservation of these cells is paramount as they have limited regenerative capacity. Glaucoma is a prevalent disease, and damage to the corneal endothelium may be caused by the disease process itself as well as by its treatment. The mechanisms involved in glaucoma-associated damage to the corneal endothelium need further investigation. Understanding how glaucoma and glaucoma surgery impact the endothelium is important for protecting corneal clarity and visual acuity in all glaucoma patients, including those undergoing corneal transplant...
November 13, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141390/-the-clinical-analysis-of-corneal-interface-fluid-syndrome-after-laser-lamellar-corneal-refractive-surgery
#9
K J Lin, J Chen, W Lin, X D Lin, Y M Zhou, L D Zheng, Y Tong
Objective: To analysis, the clinical characteristics, refractive changes, and clinical treatment of interface fluid syndrome after laser lamellar corneal refractive surgery. Methods: During Dec. 2010 to Apr. 2016. In total 6 cases(9 eyes), 3 cases were bilateral, 3 cases were unilateral. Five patients were male and 1 was female. The age of the patients ranged from 20 to 29 years was (24.83±4.02) years. Six cases(9 eyes)of IFS were diagnosed at our hospital. The history and complete ophthalmic examination that include Slit-lamp examination, Slit-lamp photography, refraction, corneal thickness measurement, corneal endothelial cell counting, IOP, anterior segment OCT(AS-OCT), exams were recorded...
November 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133638/comparison-of-the-endosaver-with-noninjector-techniques-in-descemet-s-stripping-endothelial-keratoplasty
#10
Michael Tsatsos, Ioannis Athanasiadis, Nikolaos Kopsachilis, Radhika Krishnan, Parwez Hossain, David Anderson
PURPOSE: Minimal loss of corneal endothelial cells during corneal transplantation is a major target but remains a point of controversy among specialists. Hence, the available method to best achieve this continues to stir progress in the field. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of the Endosaver injector device for graft insertion in Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) and compare the visual outcomes and endothelial cell survival between the Endosaver injector and Goosey grasping forceps insertion techniques...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126993/trophic-effect-of-pacap-on-human-corneal-endothelium
#11
Grazia Maugeri, Antonio Longo, Agata Grazia D'Amico, Daniela Maria Rasà, Michele Reibaldi, Andrea Russo, Vincenza Bonfiglio, Teresio Avitabile, Velia D'Agata
Cornea's posterior surface includes endothelium maintaining stromal hydration and clarity. Due to their limited proliferative capability, the loss of endothelial cells can outcome in permanent opacity. In the last years, different studies have demonstrated the protective effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in different ocular diseases. However, its role on human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs) has not been investigated, yet. Here, we have developed a culture protocol to differentiate HCECs from donor's cornea...
November 8, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120712/demarcation-line-depth-after-contact-lens-assisted-corneal-crosslinking-for%C3%A2-progressive-keratoconus-comparison-of%C3%A2-dextran-based-and-hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose-based-riboflavin-solutions
#12
Chintan Malhotra, Arun K Jain, Amit Gupta, Jagat Ram, Balamurugan Ramatchandirane, Deepika Dhingra, Kulbhushan Sachdeva, Amit Kumar
PURPOSE: To compare the demarcation line depth after contact lens-assisted corneal crosslinking (CXL) for progressive keratoconus using dextran-based and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-based riboflavin solutions. SETTING: Advanced Eye Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patients with preoperative epithelium-on (epi-on) minimum corneal thickness between 350 μm and 450 μm having contact lens-assisted CXL for progressive keratoconus were crosslinked with isoosmolar 0...
October 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119310/on-the-regional-variability-of-averaged-cell-area-estimates-for-the-human-corneal-endothelium-in-relation-to-the-extent-of-polymegethism
#13
M J Doughty
PURPOSE: To assess variability in the coefficient of variation (COV) in cell area estimates when using different numbers of cells for endothelial morphometry. METHODS: Using non-contact specular microscopy images of the corneal endothelium, 4 sets of 20 cases were selected that included 200 cells and had overall (global) COV values of less than 30 (group 1), 31-40 (group 2), 41-50 (group 3) and over 50% (group 4). Subjects could be normal, or had ophthalmic disease (such as diabetes), a history of rigid or soft contact lens wear or were assessed after cataract surgery...
November 7, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111821/correlations-of-corneal-optical-densitometry-endothelial-hexagonality-percentage-and-epithelium-thickness
#14
Gökhan Pekel, Fatih Özbakış, Alperen Bahar, Evre Pekel, Ebru Nevin Çetin
PURPOSE: Our aim was to examine the associations between the cornea morphological parameters, endothelial cell density, and anterior chamber measurements. METHODS: This observational study included 50 eyes of 50 healthy volunteers. The thicknesses of corneal epithelium, Bowman's layer, stroma, Descemet's membrane-endothelium complex, and pre-ocular tear film were measured by means of anterior segment optical coherence tomography. The keratometry (K), corneal volume (CV), corneal optical densitometry (COD), iridocorneal angle (ICA), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and anterior chamber volume (ACV) measurements were taken by the Scheimpflug anterior segment imaging...
November 7, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111586/an-unusual-case-of-feline-acute-corneal-hydrops-atypical-disease-presentation-and-possible-in%C3%A2-vivo-detection-of-descemet-s-membrane-detachment-in-the-cat-s-unaffected-eye
#15
Brittany N Schlesener, Erin M Scott, Lucien V Vallone
A 1-year-old, female spayed, domestic shorthair cat presented for blepharospasm of the right eye. Slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination showed focal corneal ulceration and presumptive keratomalacia of the right eye. Examination of the left eye was normal apart from a focal endothelial opacity. Within the first 24 h of medical management, the right eye developed marked corneal edema and globular anterior protrusion of the corneal surface consistent with feline acute corneal hydrops (FACH). Surgical management consisted of a bridge conjunctival graft, nictitating membrane flap, and temporary tarsorrhaphy...
November 7, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095506/subacute-effects-of-rose-bengal-green-light-cross-linking-on-rabbit-thin-corneal-stability-and-safety
#16
Ti Wang, Lu Zhu, Jingyin Zhu, Yinbo Peng, Nianci Shen, Yan Yu, Min Yao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the subacute effects of Rose Bengal (RB) and 532 nm green light-induced photochemical crosslinking (RB-PCL) on rabbit thin corneal stability and safety in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rabbit thin corneal models with 250 μm thickness were created by photorefractive keratectomy surgery. Photochemical crosslinking with green light (wavelength 532 nm) at an illumination intensity of 0.4 W/cm(2) for 250 s (100 J/cm(2) ) was performed, followed by antibiotic treatment and slit lamp monitoring for four weeks...
November 2, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089772/isolated-descemetorhexis-for-anterior-synechiolysis-prior-to-endothelial-keratoplasty-case-report-and-technique
#17
Konstantinos Droutsas, Konstantinos Andreanos, Apostolos Lazaridis, Ilias Georgalas, George Kymionis, Dimitris Papaconstantinou
PURPOSE: To describe the utilization of descemetorhexis for reformation of the anterior chamber in eyes with central iridocorneal synechiae before endothelial keratoplasty (EK). METHODS: A 71-year-old man with a history of trabeculectomy complicated by hypotony presented with bullous keratopathy in the presence of extensive iridocorneal synechiae and a flat anterior chamber. In order to proceed with EK, synechiolysis with the use of viscoelastic and scissors was attempted...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079991/establishment-of-a-porcine-corneal-endothelial-organ-culture-model-for-research-purposes
#18
Berenike C Kunzmann, Olaf J C Hellwinkel, Christian Klameth, Daniel Wenzel, Karl U Bartz-Schmidt, Martin S Spitzer, Maximilian Schultheiss
Human corneas usually are not available for research, as they are used for transplantation only. At the same time, scientific studies on cultured human endothelial cells can produce misleading results due to inevitable dedifferentiation. Therefore, an organ-culture model of porcine corneas-displaying endothelial cell death rates comparable to those of cultured human corneas-would be very desirable. Fresh pig eyes were prepared under sterile conditions to obtain corneoscleral buttons, corneal buttons and so called "split corneal buttons" (new preparation method) and cultivated for 15 days...
October 27, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077953/the-comet-assay-applied-to-cells-of-the-eye
#19
Amaya Azqueta, Elisa Rundén-Pran, Elisabeth Elje, Bjørn Nicolaissen, Kristiane Haug Berg, Ingrida Smeringaiova, Katerina Jirsova, Andrew R Collins
The human eye is relatively unexplored as a source of cells for investigating DNA damage. There have been some clinical studies, using cells from surgically removed tissues, and altered DNA bases as well as strand breaks have been measured using the comet assay. Tissues examined include corneal epithelium and endothelium, lens capsule, iris and retinal pigment epithelium. For the purpose of biomonitoring for exposure to potential mutagens in the environment, the eye-relatively unprotected as it is compared with the skin-would be a valuable object for study; non-invasive techniques exist to collect lachrymal duct cells from tears, or cells from the ocular surface by impression cytology, and these methods should be further developed and validated...
October 25, 2017: Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076672/determination-of-association-of-pigmentary-glaucoma-with-pigment-dispersion-syndrome
#20
Imtiaz Ali Shah, Shujaat Ali Shah, Partab Rai Nagdev, Safdar Ali Abbasi, Naeem Ali Abbasi, Safdar Akhtar Katpar
BACKGROUND: Pigment Dispersion Syndrome (PDS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of white males between 20 to 40 years of age characterized by deposition of pigment on the lens, zonules of lens, trabecular meshwork and corneal endothelium (Krukenberg's spindle) in addition to radial, spoke like transillumination defects in the mid peripheral iris. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of occurrence of Pigmentary Glaucoma in patients with Pigment Dispersion Syndrome (PDS)...
July 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
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