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Actin cytoskeleton

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245060/activation-of-human-eosinophils-with-palladium-nanoparticles-pd-nps-importance-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-pd-nps-induced-cellular-adhesion
#1
P Chhay, M Murphy-Marion, Y Samson, D Girard
Palladium (Pd) is known to be released into the environment in the fine and ultrafine (at the nanoscale) airborne particle fractions mainly from automobile catalytic converters leading to an increase human exposure to this noble metal. It was reported that Pd can induce allergic reactions in individuals exposed to it via different ways. Some studies reported an increased number of eosinophils into airways following NP exposure in vivo in rodent models of allergies and inflammation. Knowing the importance of eosinophils in allergies, asthma and other lung diseases, it is surprising to observe that the direct effect of Pd at the nanoscale in eosinophils has been poorly documented...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244882/%C3%AE-ii-spectrin-in-t-cells-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-cell-cell-contact-leading-to-immunological-synapse-formation
#2
Justyna M Meissner, Aleksander F Sikorski, Tomasz Nawara, Jakub Grzesiak, Krzysztof Marycz, Dżamila M Bogusławska, Izabela Michalczyk, Marie-Christine Lecomte, Beata Machnicka
T-lymphocyte activation after antigen presentation to the T-Cell Receptor (TCR) is a critical step in the development of proper immune responses to infection and inflammation. This dynamic process involves reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and signaling molecules at the cell membrane, leading to the formation of the Immunological Synapse (IS). The mechanisms regulating the formation of the IS are not completely understood. Nonerythroid spectrin is a membrane skeletal protein involved in the regulation of many cellular processes, including cell adhesion, signaling and actin cytoskeleton remodeling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242050/mutant-fgfr3-associated-with-saddan-disease-causes-cytoskeleton-disorganization-through-plc%C3%AE-1-src-mediated-paxillin-hyperphosphorylation
#3
R Montone, M G Romanelli, A Baruzzi, F Ferrarini, E Liboi, P M-J Lievens
K650M/E substitutions in the Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) are associated with Severe Achondroplasia with Developmental Delay and Acanthosis Nigricans (SADDAN) and Thanatophoric Dysplasia type II (TDII), respectively. Both SADDAN and TDII present with affected endochondral ossification marked by impaired chondrocyte functions and growth plate disorganization. In vitro, K650M/E substitutions confer FGFR3 constitutive kinase activity leading to impaired biosynthesis and accumulation of immature receptors in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240845/ras-gap-related-and-c-terminal-domain-dependent-localization-and-tumorigenic-activities-of-iqgap1-in-melanoma-cells
#4
Michael Reimer, Elisabeth Denby, Silviya P Zustiak, Joseph M Schober
IQGAP1 interacts with a number of binding partners through a calponin homology domain (CHD), a WW motif, IQ repeats, a Ras GAP-related domain (GRD), and a conserved C-terminal (CT) domain. Among various biological and cellular functions, IQGAP1 is known to play a role in actin cytoskeleton dynamics during membrane ruffling and lamellipodium protrusion. In addition, phosphorylation near the CT domain is thought to control IQGAP1 activity through regulation of intramolecular interaction. In a previous study, we discovered that IQGAP1 preferentially localizes to retracting areas in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells, not areas of membrane ruffling and lamellipodium protrusion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239766/fam13a-is-a-modifier-gene-of-cystic-fibrosis-lung-phenotype-regulating-rhoa-activity-actin-cytoskeleton-dynamics-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#5
Harriet Corvol, Nathalie Rousselet, Kristin E Thompson, Laura Berdah, Guillaume Cottin, Tobias Foussigniere, Elisabeth Longchampt, Laurence Fiette, Edouard Sage, Céline Prunier, Mitchell Drumm, Craig A Hodges, Pierre-Yves Boëlle, Loic Guillot
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease severity is highly variable and dependent on several factors including genetic modifiers. Family with sequence similarity 13 member A (FAM13A) has been previously associated with lung function in the general population as well as in several chronic lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we examined whether FAM13A is a modifier gene of CF lung phenotype. We also studied how FAM13A may contribute to the physiopathological mechanisms associated with CF...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238898/comprehensive-bioinformation-analysis-of-the-mirna-of-plce1-knockdown-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
Xiaobin Cui, Kaige Wang, Xinqian Yang, Hao Peng, Xi Chen, Huahua Xin, Yanxia Tian, Yunzhao Chen, Feng Li
Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) has been recognized as a novel susceptibility marker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The purpose of our study is to investigate its effect on the regulation of miRNA expression so as to translating the data into a novel strategy in control of ESCC. In this study, PLCE1 siRNA and vector-only plasmid were stably transfected into Eca109 and EC9706 cells and then subjected to miRNA array analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR was applied to validate miRNA array data...
December 13, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238726/downregulation-of-profilin-1-expression-attenuates-cardiomyocytes-hypertrophy-and-apoptosis-induced-by-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-h9c2-cells
#7
Dafeng Yang, Ya Wang, Minna Jiang, Xu Deng, Zhifang Pei, Fei Li, Ke Xia, Lingyan Zhu, Tianlun Yang, Meifang Chen
Cardiomyocytes hypertrophy and apoptosis induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is the crucial pathological foundation contributing to the onset and development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report that profilin-1 (PFN-1), a well-known actin-binding protein, serves as a potent regulator in AGEs-induced cardiomyocytes hypertrophy and apoptosis. PFN-1 was upregulated in AGEs-treated H9c2 cells, which was associated with increased cardiomyocytes hypertrophy and apoptosis...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237495/bone-marrow-cd34-cell-subset-under-induction-of-moderate-stiffness-of-extracellular-matrix-after-myocardial-infarction-facilitated-endothelial-lineage-commitment-in-vitro
#8
Shuning Zhang, Xin Ma, Junjie Guo, Kang Yao, Cong Wang, Zhen Dong, Hong Zhu, Fan Fan, Zheyong Huang, Xiangdong Yang, Juying Qian, Yunzeng Zou, Aijun Sun, Junbo Ge
BACKGROUND: The stiffness of the myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM) and the transplanted cell type are vitally important in promoting angiogenesis. However, the combined effect of the two factors remains uncertain. The purpose of this study is to investigate in vitro the combined effect of myocardial ECM stiffness postinfarction with a bone marrow-derived cell subset expressing or not expressing CD34 on endothelial lineage commitment. METHODS: Myocardial stiffness of the infarct zone was determined in mice at 1 h, 24 h, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days after coronary artery ligation...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236154/calcium-dynamics-in-tomato-pollen-tubes-using-the-yellow-cameleon-3-6-sensor
#9
María Laura Barberini, Lorena Sigaut, Weijie Huang, Silvina Mangano, Silvina Paola Denita Juarez, Eliana Marzol, José Estevez, Mariana Obertello, Lía Pietrasanta, Weihua Tang, Jorge Muschietti
In vitro tomato pollen tubes show a cytoplasmic calcium gradient that oscillates with the same period as growth. Pollen tube growth requires coordination between the tip-focused cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) gradient and the actin cytoskeleton. This [Ca2+]cyt gradient is necessary for exocytosis of small vesicles, which contributes to the delivery of new membrane and cell wall at the pollen tube tip. The mechanisms that generate and maintain this [Ca2+]cyt gradient are not completely understood...
December 13, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232894/significant-down-regulation-of-biological-adhesion-genes-in-porcine-oocytes-after-ivm
#10
Joanna Budna, Piotr Celichowski, Artur Bryja, Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Michal Jeseta, Dorota Bukowska, Paweł Antosik, Klaus Peter Brüssow, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel, Bartosz Kempisty
Proper maturation of the mammalian oocyte is a compound processes determining successful monospermic fertilization, however the number of fully mature porcine oocytes is still unsatisfactory. Since oocytes' maturation and fertilization involve cellular adhesion and membranous contact, the aim was to investigate cell adhesion ontology group in porcine oocytes. The oocytes were collected from ovaries of 45 pubertal crossbred Landrace gilts and subjected to two BCB tests. After the first test, only granulosa cell-free BCB⁺ oocytes were directly exposed to microarray assays and RT-qPCR ("before IVM" group), or first in vitro matured and then if classified as BCB⁺ passed to molecular analyses ("after IVM" group)...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229906/direction-of-actin-flow-dictates-integrin-lfa-1-orientation-during-leukocyte-migration
#11
Pontus Nordenfelt, Travis I Moore, Shalin B Mehta, Joseph Mathew Kalappurakkal, Vinay Swaminathan, Nobuyasu Koga, Talley J Lambert, David Baker, Jennifer C Waters, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Tomomi Tani, Satyajit Mayor, Clare M Waterman, Timothy A Springer
Integrin αβ heterodimer cell surface receptors mediate adhesive interactions that provide traction for cell migration. Here, we test whether the integrin, when engaged to an extracellular ligand and the cytoskeleton, adopts a specific orientation dictated by the direction of actin flow on the surface of migrating cells. We insert GFP into the rigid, ligand-binding head of the integrin, model with Rosetta the orientation of GFP and its transition dipole relative to the integrin head, and measure orientation with fluorescence polarization microscopy...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228011/characterization-of-the-giardia-intestinalis-secretome-during-interaction-with-human-intestinal-epithelial-cells-the-impact-on-host-cells
#12
Showgy Y Ma'ayeh, Jingyi Liu, Dimitra Peirasmaki, Katarina Hörnaeus, Sara Bergström Lind, Manfred Grabherr, Jonas Bergquist, Staffan G Svärd
BACKGROUND: Giardia intestinalis is a non-invasive protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis in humans, the most common form of parasite-induced diarrhea. Disease mechanisms are not completely defined and very few virulence factors are known. METHODOLOGY: To identify putative virulence factors and elucidate mechanistic pathways leading to disease, we have used proteomics to identify the major excretory-secretory products (ESPs) when Giardia trophozoites of WB and GS isolates (assemblages A and B, respectively) interact with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vitro...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226137/identification-of-key-pathways-and-genes-in-advanced-coronary-atherosclerosis-using-bioinformatics-analysis
#13
Xiaowen Tan, Xiting Zhang, Lanlan Pan, Xiaoxuan Tian, Pengzhi Dong
Background: Coronary artery atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. This study aimed to identify the key changes of gene expression between early and advanced carotid atherosclerotic plaque in human. Methods: Gene expression dataset GSE28829 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), including 16 advanced and 13 early stage atherosclerotic plaque samples from human carotid. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed. Results: 42,450 genes were obtained from the dataset...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225789/taking-control-reorganization-of-the-host-cytoskeleton-by-chlamydia
#14
REVIEW
Jordan Wesolowski, Fabienne Paumet
Both actin and microtubules are major cytoskeletal elements in eukaryotic cells that participate in many cellular processes, including cell division and motility, vesicle and organelle movement, and the maintenance of cell shape. Inside its host cell, the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis manipulates the cytoskeleton to promote its survival and enhance its pathogenicity. In particular, Chlamydia induces the drastic rearrangement of both actin and microtubules, which is vital for its entry, inclusion structure and development, and host cell exit...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222746/cadmium-favors-f-actin-depolymerization-in-rat-renal-mesangial-cells-by-site-specific-disulfide-based-dimerization-of-the-cap1-protein
#15
Ying Liu, Weiqun Xiao, Manasi Shinde, Jeffrey Field, Douglas M Templeton
Cadmium is a toxic metal that produces oxidative stress and has been shown to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton in rat renal mesangial cells (RMC). In a survey of proteins that might undergo Cd2+-dependent disulfide crosslinking, we identified the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein, CAP1, as undergoing a dimerization in response to Cd2+ (5-40 µM) that was sensitive to disulfide reducing agents, was reproduced by the disulfide crosslinking agent diamide, and was shown by site-directed mutagenesis to involve the Cys29 residue of the protein...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222169/nanoscale-tuning-of-vcam-1-determines-vla-4-dependent-melanoma-cell-plasticity-on-rgd-motifs
#16
Katharina Amschler, Eugen Kossmann, Luise Erpenbeck, Sebastian Kruss, Tillmann Schill, Margarete Schön, Sigrid M C Möckel, Joachim P Spatz, Michael P Schön
The biophysical fine-tuning of cancer cell plasticity is crucial for tumor progression but remains largely enigmatic. Although Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1/CD106) has been implicated in melanoma progression, here its presentation on endothelial cells was associated with diminished melanoma cell spreading. Using a specific nanoscale-modulation of VCAM-1 (tunable from 70 to 670 ligands/µm²) next to integrin ligands (RGD motifs) in a bifunctional system, reciprocal regulation of integrin α4 (ITGA4/VLA-4/CD49d)-dependent adhesion and spreading of melanoma cells was found...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220409/acquisition-of-functions-on-the-outer-capsid-surface-during-evolution-of-double-stranded-rna-fungal-viruses
#17
Carlos P Mata, Daniel Luque, Josué Gómez-Blanco, Javier M Rodríguez, José M González, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A Ghabrial, José L Carrascosa, Benes L Trus, José R Castón
Unlike their counterparts in bacterial and higher eukaryotic hosts, most fungal viruses are transmitted intracellularly and lack an extracellular phase. Here we determined the cryo-EM structure at 3.7 Å resolution of Rosellinia necatrix quadrivirus 1 (RnQV1), a fungal double-stranded (ds)RNA virus. RnQV1, the type species of the family Quadriviridae, has a multipartite genome consisting of four monocistronic segments. Whereas most dsRNA virus capsids are based on dimers of a single protein, the ~450-Å-diameter, T = 1 RnQV1 capsid is built of P2 and P4 protein heterodimers, each with more than 1000 residues...
December 8, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218087/the-cytoskeleton-protein-%C3%AE-actin-may-mediate-t-cell-apoptosis-during-acute-rejection-reaction-after-liver-transplantation-in-a-rat-model
#18
Xiaolong Chen, Jun Zheng, Jianye Cai, Hui Li, Shihui Li, Li Wang, Daorou Cheng, Huaxin Chen, Yang Yang, Guihua Chen, Qi Zhang, Yanwen Peng, Qiyou Wang, Genshu Wang
Cytoskeletal proteins and associated regulatory proteins are essential for maintaining cell structure and growth. β-actin is a major component of the cytoskeleton, and β-actin remodeling is involved in lymphocyte migration, infiltration and apoptosis. However, little is known about whether changes in β-actin expression affect lymphocyte cell fate, particularly during acute rejection after liver transplantation in a rat model. In our studies, grafts were harvested on days 5, 7 or 9 after xenogeneic rat liver transplantation...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215007/multivalent-cross-linking-of-actin-filaments-and-microtubules-through-the-microtubule-associated-protein-tau
#19
Yunior Cabrales Fontela, Harindranath Kadavath, Jacek Biernat, Dietmar Riedel, Eckhard Mandelkow, Markus Zweckstetter
Microtubule-associated proteins regulate microtubule dynamics, bundle actin filaments, and cross-link actin filaments with microtubules. In addition, aberrant interaction of the microtubule-associated protein Tau with filamentous actin is connected to synaptic impairment in Alzheimer's disease. Here we provide insight into the nature of interaction between Tau and actin filaments. We show that Tau uses several short helical segments to bind in a dynamic, multivalent process to the hydrophobic pocket between subdomains 1 and 3 of actin...
December 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212020/mechanotransmission-and-mechanosensing-of-human-alpha-actinin-1
#20
Shimin Le, Xian Hu, Mingxi Yao, Hu Chen, Miao Yu, Xiaochun Xu, Naotaka Nakazawa, Felix M Margadant, Michael P Sheetz, Jie Yan
α-Actinins, a family of critical cytoskeletal actin-binding proteins that usually exist as anti-parallel dimers, play crucial roles in organizing the framework of the cytoskeleton through crosslinking the actin filaments, as well as in focal adhesion maturation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its functions are unclear. Here, by mechanical manipulation of single human α-actinin 1 using magnetic tweezers, we determined the mechanical stability and kinetics of the functional domains in α-actinin 1...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
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