keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Actin cytoskeleton

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821742/rock-1-mediates-diabetes-induced-retinal-pigment-epithelial-and-endothelial-cell-blebbing-contribution-to-diabetic-retinopathy
#1
Pierre-Raphaël Rothschild, Sawsen Salah, Marianne Berdugo, Emmanuelle Gélizé, Kimberley Delaunay, Marie-Christine Naud, Christophe Klein, Alexandre Moulin, Michèle Savoldelli, Ciara Bergin, Jean-Claude Jeanny, Laurent Jonet, Yvan Arsenijevic, Francine Behar-Cohen, Patricia Crisanti
In diabetic retinopathy, the exact mechanisms leading to retinal capillary closure and to retinal barriers breakdown remain imperfectly understood. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), an effector of the small GTPase Rho, involved in cytoskeleton dynamic regulation and cell polarity is activated by hyperglycemia. In one year-old Goto Kakizaki (GK) type 2 diabetic rats retina, ROCK-1 activation was assessed by its cellular distribution and by phosphorylation of its substrates, MYPT1 and MLC. In both GK rat and in human type 2 diabetic retinas, ROCK-1 is activated and associated with non-apoptotic membrane blebbing in retinal vessels and in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that respectively form the inner and the outer barriers...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818948/vinculin-forms-a-directionally-asymmetric-catch-bond-with-f-actin
#2
Derek L Huang, Nicolas A Bax, Craig D Buckley, William I Weis, Alexander R Dunn
Vinculin is an actin-binding protein thought to reinforce cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions. However, how mechanical load affects the vinculin-F-actin bond is unclear. Using a single-molecule optical trap assay, we found that vinculin forms a force-dependent catch bond with F-actin through its tail domain, but with lifetimes that depend strongly on the direction of the applied force. Force toward the pointed (-) end of the actin filament resulted in a bond that was maximally stable at 8 piconewtons, with a mean lifetime (12 seconds) 10 times as long as the mean lifetime when force was applied toward the barbed (+) end...
August 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816391/cytoskeleton-and-nucleoskeleton-involvement-in-processes-of-cytomixis-in-plants
#3
REVIEW
E A Kravets, A I Yemets, Ya B Blume
Cytomixis, is a form of cell-to-cell nuclear migration that involves the interaction of dynamic cytoskeletal components with the nucleus through signalling systems and linker complexes. In cytomixis two known mechanisms can be involved: actomyosin and/or microtubules and their associated motors. Perinuclear actin anchors and determines the direction of nuclear movement. In microsporogenesis cytomixis is probably initiated by a cascade of signals that trigger prophase reorganization of nucleus and cytoskeleton, and is a result of cytoskeletal protein activation, as well as a weakening of mechanisms responsible for anchoring the nucleus...
August 17, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815725/p2y6-regulates-cytoskeleton-reorganization-and-cell-migration-of-c2c12-myoblasts-via-rock-pathway
#4
Wei Wang, Mengjie Chen, Yingna Gao, Xianmin Song, Hongliang Zheng, Kaiyong Zhang, Bimeng Zhang, Donghui Chen
Migration of skeletal muscle precursor cells is required for limb muscle development and skeletal muscle repair. This study aimed to examine the role of P2Y6 receptor in C2C12 myoblasts migration. C2C12 myoblasts were treated with P2Y6 agonist UDP, P2Y6 antagonist MRS2578, Ca(2+) channel blocker BTP2, or ROCK inhibitor GSK269962 or Y27632, and the migration ability of C2C12 cells was assessed by wound healing assay. The cellular Ca(2+) content was analyzed with fluo-4 probe and the activation of ROCK (phosphorlyation of LIMK and cofilin) was assayed by western blot...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815590/juxtanodin-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-expression-and-biological-activities-in-regulating-cell-morphology-and-actin-cytoskeleton-organization
#5
Fengyi Liang, Ji Hyun Hwang, Nicholas Weiwei Tang, Walter Hunziker
Juxtanodin (also known as ermin) was initially identified as an actin cytoskeleton-related oligodendroglial protein in the rat central nervous system. It was subsequently also found in the rat olfactory neuroepithelium, especially at the apical junctional belt of the sustentacular cells. We further examined juxtanodin expression and functional roles in the retina using fluorescence histochemistry, confocal microscopy, immuno-electron microscopy, molecular biology and cell culture. Prominent juxtanodin expression was found in the photoreceptor-supporting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), especially in a zone corresponding to the apices of RPE cells, at the roots of the RPE microvilli, and at the base of RPE cells next to the Bruch's membrane...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814668/injury-induced-actin-cytoskeleton-reorganization-in-podocytes-revealed-by-super-resolution-microscopy
#6
Hani Y Suleiman, Robyn Roth, Sanjay Jain, John E Heuser, Andrey S Shaw, Jeffrey H Miner
The architectural integrity of tissues requires complex interactions, both between cells and between cells and the extracellular matrix. Fundamental to cell and tissue homeostasis are the specific mechanical forces conveyed by the actomyosin cytoskeleton. Here we used super-resolution imaging methods to visualize the actin cytoskeleton in the kidney glomerulus, an organized collection of capillaries that filters the blood to make the primary urine. Our analysis of both mouse and human glomeruli reveals a network of myosin IIA-containing contractile actin cables within podocyte cell bodies and major processes at the outer aspects of the glomerular tuft...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812094/force-percolation-of-contractile-active-gels
#7
REVIEW
José Alvarado, Michael Sheinman, Abhinav Sharma, Fred C MacKintosh, Gijsje H Koenderink
Living systems provide a paradigmatic example of active soft matter. Cells and tissues comprise viscoelastic materials that exert forces and can actively change shape. This strikingly autonomous behavior is powered by the cytoskeleton, an active gel of semiflexible filaments, crosslinks, and molecular motors inside cells. Although individual motors are only a few nm in size and exert minute forces of a few pN, cells spatially integrate the activity of an ensemble of motors to produce larger contractile forces (∼nN and greater) on cellular, tissue, and organismal length scales...
August 16, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808796/structural-alteration-of-the-endothelial-glycocalyx-contribution-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton
#8
Weiqi Li, Wen Wang
The endothelial glycocalyx is a carbohydrate-protein layer that lines the luminal surface of the endothelium. It anchors to the cell membrane via its core proteins that share extended link to the actin cytoskeleton. It is widely accepted that those protein domains and the attached carbohydrates are susceptible to pathological changes. It is unclear, however, to what extent the actin cytoskeleton contributes to the glycocalyx stability. In this study, we investigate the role of the actin cytoskeleton in the maintenance of the glycocalyx under static and laminar flow conditions in vitro...
August 14, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806482/automated-segmentation-and-quantification-of-actin-stress-fibres-undergoing-experimentally-induced-changes
#9
H Rogge, N Artelt, N Endlich, K Endlich
The actin cytoskeleton is a main component of cells and it is crucially involved in many physiological processes, e.g. cell motility. Changes in the actin organization can be effected by diseases or vice versa. Due to the nonuniform pattern, it is difficult to quantify reasonable features of the actin cytoskeleton for a significantly high cell number. Here, we present an approach capable to fully segment and analyse the actin cytoskeleton of 2D fluorescence microscopic images with a special focus on stress fibres...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805828/mutations-in-keops-complex-genes-cause-nephrotic-syndrome-with-primary-microcephaly
#10
Daniela A Braun, Jia Rao, Geraldine Mollet, David Schapiro, Marie-Claire Daugeron, Weizhen Tan, Olivier Gribouval, Olivia Boyer, Patrick Revy, Tilman Jobst-Schwan, Johanna Magdalena Schmidt, Jennifer A Lawson, Denny Schanze, Shazia Ashraf, Jeremy F P Ullmann, Charlotte A Hoogstraten, Nathalie Boddaert, Bruno Collinet, Gaëlle Martin, Dominique Liger, Svjetlana Lovric, Monica Furlano, I Chiara Guerrera, Oraly Sanchez-Ferras, Jennifer F Hu, Anne-Claire Boschat, Sylvia Sanquer, Björn Menten, Sarah Vergult, Nina De Rocker, Merlin Airik, Tobias Hermle, Shirlee Shril, Eugen Widmeier, Heon Yung Gee, Won-Il Choi, Carolin E Sadowski, Werner L Pabst, Jillian K Warejko, Ankana Daga, Tamara Basta, Verena Matejas, Karin Scharmann, Sandra D Kienast, Babak Behnam, Brendan Beeson, Amber Begtrup, Malcolm Bruce, Gaik-Siew Ch'ng, Shuan-Pei Lin, Jui-Hsing Chang, Chao-Huei Chen, Megan T Cho, Patrick M Gaffney, Patrick E Gipson, Chyong-Hsin Hsu, Jameela A Kari, Yu-Yuan Ke, Cathy Kiraly-Borri, Wai-Ming Lai, Emmanuelle Lemyre, Rebecca Okashah Littlejohn, Amira Masri, Mastaneh Moghtaderi, Kazuyuki Nakamura, Fatih Ozaltin, Marleen Praet, Chitra Prasad, Agnieszka Prytula, Elizabeth R Roeder, Patrick Rump, Rhonda E Schnur, Takashi Shiihara, Manish D Sinha, Neveen A Soliman, Kenza Soulami, David A Sweetser, Wen-Hui Tsai, Jeng-Daw Tsai, Rezan Topaloglu, Udo Vester, David H Viskochil, Nithiwat Vatanavicharn, Jessica L Waxler, Klaas J Wierenga, Matthias T F Wolf, Sik-Nin Wong, Sebastian A Leidel, Gessica Truglio, Peter C Dedon, Annapurna Poduri, Shrikant Mane, Richard P Lifton, Maxime Bouchard, Peter Kannu, David Chitayat, Daniella Magen, Bert Callewaert, Herman van Tilbeurgh, Martin Zenker, Corinne Antignac, Friedhelm Hildebrandt
Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by the combination of early-onset nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and microcephaly with brain anomalies. Here we identified recessive mutations in OSGEP, TP53RK, TPRKB, and LAGE3, genes encoding the four subunits of the KEOPS complex, in 37 individuals from 32 families with GAMOS. CRISPR-Cas9 knockout in zebrafish and mice recapitulated the human phenotype of primary microcephaly and resulted in early lethality. Knockdown of OSGEP, TP53RK, or TPRKB inhibited cell proliferation, which human mutations did not rescue...
August 14, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805663/yap-taz-regulates-sprouting-angiogenesis-and-vascular-barrier-maturation
#11
Jongshin Kim, Yoo Hyung Kim, Jaeryung Kim, Do Young Park, Hosung Bae, Da-Hye Lee, Kyun Hoo Kim, Seon Pyo Hong, Seung Pil Jang, Yoshiaki Kubota, Young-Guen Kwon, Dae-Sik Lim, Gou Young Koh
Angiogenesis is a multistep process that requires coordinated migration, proliferation, and junction formation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) to form new vessel branches in response to growth stimuli. Major intracellular signaling pathways that regulate angiogenesis have been well elucidated, but key transcriptional regulators that mediate these signaling pathways and control EC behaviors are only beginning to be understood. Here, we show that YAP/TAZ, a transcriptional coactivator that acts as an end effector of Hippo signaling, is critical for sprouting angiogenesis and vascular barrier formation and maturation...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805251/wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-protein-emerging-mechanisms-in-immunity
#12
REVIEW
Elizabeth Rivers, Adrian J Thrasher
The Wiskott Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) participates in innate and adaptive immunity through regulation of actin cytoskeleton-dependent cellular processes, including immune synapse formation, cell signaling, migration and cytokine release. There is also emerging evidence for a direct role in nuclear transcription programmes uncoupled from actin polymerization. A deeper understanding of some of the more complex features of Wiskott Aldrich syndrome (WAS) itself, such as the associated autoimmunity and inflammation, has come from identification of defects in the number and function of anti-inflammatory myeloid cells and regulatory T and B cells, as well as defects in positive and negative B-cell selection...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804630/protected-cytoskeletal-related-proteins-towards-a-resolution-of-contradictions-regarding-the-role-of-the-cytoskeleton-in-cancer
#13
Daniel T Segarra, John M Yavorski, George Blanck
Initial reports of the role of the cytoskeleton in cancer indicated that tumor cells with a more disorganized cytoskeleton were more tumorigenic. These reports were based on stains for the F-actin cytoskeleton, for example, using phalloidin or anti-F-actin antibody reagents, and gave a basic impression of F-actin-based cytoskeletal integrity. Later developments emphasized the significance of the cytoskeletal elements in cell migration, presumably associated with either basement membrane invasion or metastasis, or both, with several specific proteins implicated in the formation of cell invadopodia...
August 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803958/identification-and-characterization-of-lymph-organ-micrornas-in-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii-infected-with-white-spot-syndrome-virus
#14
Zhi-Qiang Du, Xiao-Yun Leng, Xiu-Li Shen, Yan-Hui Jin, Xin-Cang Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were important post-transcriptional regulators and played vital roles in innate immunity system of invertebrates, especially in the aspect of antivirus. In this study, using high-throughput small RNAs Illumina sequencing system, differently expressed miRNAs (DEMs) from lymph organs in red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, infected with white spot syndrome virus, were identified. As a result, 32 known miRNAs and 7 novel miRNAs were identified in crayfish lymph organ small RNAs library of NG and WG...
August 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803903/structured-illumination-microscopy-reveals-actin-i-localization-in-discreet-foci-in-plasmodium-berghei-gametocytes
#15
Chiara Curra, Paul J McMillan, Lefteris Spanos, Vanessa Mollard, Elena Deligianni, Geoffrey McFadden, Leann Tilley, Inga Siden-Kiamos
Actin has important roles in Plasmodium parasites but its exact function in different life stages is not yet fully elucidated. Here we report the localization of ubiquitous actin I in gametocytes of the rodent model parasite P. berghei. Using an antibody specifically recognizing F-actin and deconvolution microscopy we detected actin I in a punctate pattern in gametocytes. 3D-Structured Illumination Microscopy which allows sub-diffraction limit imaging resolved the signal into structures of less than 130 nm length...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803871/an-rnai-screen-in-a-novel-model-of-oriented-divisions-identifies-the-actin-capping-protein-z-%C3%AE-as-an-essential-regulator-of-spindle-orientation
#16
Florencia di Pietro, Léo Valon, Yingbo Li, Rosette Goïame, Auguste Genovesio, Xavier Morin
Oriented cell divisions are controlled by a conserved molecular cascade involving Gαi, LGN, and NuMA. We developed a new cellular model of oriented cell divisions combining micropatterning and localized recruitment of Gαi and performed an RNAi screen for regulators acting downstream of Gαi. Remarkably, this screen revealed a unique subset of dynein regulators as being essential for spindle orientation, shedding light on a core regulatory aspect of oriented divisions. We further analyze the involvement of one novel regulator, the actin-capping protein CAPZB...
August 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801568/atomic-force-microscopy-reveals-the-dynamic-morphology-of-fenestrations-in-live-liver-sinusoidal-endothelial-cells
#17
B Zapotoczny, K Szafranska, K Owczarczyk, E Kus, S Chlopicki, M Szymonski
Here, we report an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based imaging method for resolving the fine nanostructures (e.g., fenestrations) in the membranes of live primary murine liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). From data on topographical and nanomechanical properties of the selected cell areas collected within 1 min, we traced the dynamic rearrangement of the cell actin cytoskeleton connected with the formation or closing of cell fenestrations, both in non-stimulated LSECs as well as in response to cytochalasin B and antimycin A...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800062/cellular-entry-of-clostridium-perfringens-iota-toxin-and-clostridium-botulinum-c2-toxin
#18
REVIEW
Masaya Takehara, Teruhisa Takagishi, Soshi Seike, Masataka Oda, Yoshihiko Sakaguchi, Junzo Hisatsune, Sadayuki Ochi, Keiko Kobayashi, Masahiro Nagahama
Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin are composed of two non-linked proteins, one being the enzymatic component and the other being the binding/translocation component. These latter components recognize specific receptors and oligomerize in plasma membrane lipid-rafts, mediating the uptake of the enzymatic component into the cytosol. Enzymatic components induce actin cytoskeleton disorganization through the ADP-ribosylation of actin and are responsible for cell rounding and death...
August 11, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798482/retinoblastoma-protein-rb-links-hypoxia-to-altered-mechanical-properties-in-cancer-cells-as-measured-by-an-optical-tweezer
#19
S Khakshour, M P Labrecque, H Esmaeilsabzali, F J S Lee, M E Cox, E J Park, T V Beischlag
Hypoxia modulates actin organization via multiple pathways. Analyzing the effect of hypoxia on the biophysical properties of cancer cells is beneficial for studying modulatory signalling pathways by quantifying cytoskeleton rearrangements. We have characterized the biophysical properties of human LNCaP prostate cancer cells that occur in response to loss of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) under hypoxic stress using an oscillating optical tweezer. Hypoxia and Rb-loss increased cell stiffness in a fashion that was dependent on activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the protein kinase B (AKT)- mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR) pathways...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798142/accumulation-of-smooth-muscle-22%C3%AE-protein-accelerates-senescence-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-via-stabilization-of-p53-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Sui-Bing Miao, Xiao-Li Xie, Ya-Juan Yin, Li-Li Zhao, Fan Zhang, Ya-Nan Shu, Rong Chen, Peng Chen, Li-Hua Dong, Yan-Ling Lin, Pin Lv, Dan-Dan Zhang, Xi Nie, Zhen-Ying Xue, Mei Han
OBJECTIVE: Smooth muscle (SM) 22α, an actin-binding protein, displays an upregulated expression as a marker during cellular senescence. However, the causal relationship between SM22α and senescence is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of SM22α in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). APPROACH AND RESULTS: We prepared a model of VSMC senescence induced by Ang II and found that the expression of SM22α in VSMCs was increased in response to chronic Ang II treatment...
August 10, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
keyword
keyword
65429
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"