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Actin cytoskeleton

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040437/sperm-release-at-spermiation-is-regulated-by-changes-in-the-organization-of-actin-and-microtubule-based-cytoskeletons-at-the-apical-ectoplasmic-specialization-a-study-using-the-adjudin-model
#1
Linxi Li, Elizabeth I Tang, Haiqi Chen, Qingquan Lian, Renshan Ge, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
The mechanism that regulates sperm release at spermiation is unknown. Herein, we utilized an animal model wherein rats were treated with adjudin, 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide, via oral gavage to induce premature release of elongating/elongated spermatid, followed by round spermatids and spermatocytes. Spermatid release mimicking spermiation occurred within 6-12 h following adjudin treatment and by 96 h, virtually all tubules were devoid of spermatids. Using this model, we tracked the organization of F-actin and microtubules (MTs) by immunofluorescence microscopy, and the association of actin or MT regulatory proteins that either promote or demolish cytoskeletal integrity through changes in the organization of actin-microfilaments or MTs by co-immunoprecipitation...
October 12, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036437/fimbrins-4-and-5-act-synergistically-during-polarized-pollen-tube-growth-to-ensure-fertility-in-arabidopsis
#2
Hui Su, Hualing Feng, Xiaoting Chao, Xia Ding, Qiong Nan, Chenxi Wen, Huidong Liu, Sinuo Liu, Yun Xiang, Wenzhe Liu
The germination and polar growth of pollen are prerequisite for double fertilization in plants. The actin cytoskeleton and its binding proteins play pivotal roles in pollen germination and pollen-tube growth. Two homologs of the actin-bundling protein fimbrin, AtFIM4 and AtFIM5, are highly expressed in pollen in Arabidopsis and can form distinct actin architectures in vitro, but how they cooperatively regulate pollen germination and pollen-tube growth in vivo is largely unknown. In this study, we explored their functions during pollen germination and polar growth...
September 29, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035375/upregulation-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton-via-myocardin-leads-to-increased-expression-of-type-1-collagen
#3
Zengdun Shi, Don C Rockey
Liver fibrosis, a model wound healing system, is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the liver. Although many fibrogenic cell types may express ECM, the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) is currently considered to be the major effector. HSCs transform into myofibroblast-like cells, also known as hepatic myofibroblasts in a process known as activation; this process is characterized in particular by de novo expression of smooth muscle alpha actin (SM α-actin) and type 1 collagen...
October 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035140/cytoskeleton-genes-expression-and-survival-rate-comparison-between-immature-and-mature-yak-oocyte-after-ops-vitrification
#4
Xia Wei, Ye Sijie, Zeng Weibin, Xu Qing, Zheng Jie, Zi Xiangdong
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of vitrification on survival rate and cytoskeleton gene expression during yak oocyte maturation. The yak oocytes were incubated for 0 h [germinal vesicle (GV) stage] and in vitro matured for 24 h [metaphase II (MII) stage] to obtain immature and mature oocytes. Survival rate after vitrification were compared between immature and mature yak oocytes and cytoskeleton-related genes [cytokeratin 8 (CK8), β-actin (ACTB), and gap junction protein, alpha 1 (GJA1)] were tested by real-time PCR...
October 16, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034471/lipid-signaling-affects-primary-fibroblast-collective-migration-and-anchorage-in-response-to-stiffness-and-microtopography
#5
Michael A Mkrtschjan, Snehal B Gaikwad, Kevin J Kappenman, Christopher Solís, Sagar Dommaraju, Long Le, Tejal A Desai, Brenda Russell
Cell migration is regulated by several mechanotransduction pathways, which consist of sensing and converting mechanical microenvironmental cues to internal biochemical cellular signals, such as protein phosphorylation and lipid signaling. While there has been significant progress in understanding protein changes in the context of mechanotransduction, lipid signaling is more difficult to investigate. In this study, physical cues of stiffness (10 kPa, 100 kPa, 400 kPa, and glass), and microrod or micropost topography were manipulated in order to reprogram primary fibroblasts and assess the effects of lipid signaling on the actin cytoskeleton...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033970/spermine-regulates-pollen-tube-growth-by-modulating-ca-2-dependent-actin-organization-and-cell-wall-structure
#6
Iris Aloisi, Giampiero Cai, Claudia Faleri, Lorella Navazio, Donatella Serafini-Fracassini, Stefano Del Duca
Proper growth of the pollen tube depends on an elaborate mechanism that integrates several molecular and cytological sub-processes and ensures a cell shape adapted to the transport of gametes. This growth mechanism is controlled by several molecules among which cytoplasmic and apoplastic polyamines. Spermine (Spm) has been correlated with various physiological processes in pollen, including structuring of the cell wall and modulation of protein (mainly cytoskeletal) assembly. In this work, the effects of Spm on the growth of pear pollen tubes were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032607/erythroblast-macrophage-protein-emp-past-present-and-future
#7
REVIEW
Gulnaz T Javan, Amandeep Salhotra, Sheree J Finley, Shivani Soni
This review is a journey of the landmark protein Erythroblast macrophage protein (Emp) discovered in 1994, and it walks chronologically through the progress that has been made in understanding the biological function of this protein. Historically, Emp was the first identified cell attachment molecule and is expressed in both erythroblasts and macrophages and mediate their attachments to form erythroblastic islands. The absence of Emp erythroblasts shows defects in differentiation and enucleation. Emp-deficient macrophages display immature morphology characterized by small size, round shapes, and the lack of cytoplasmic projections...
October 15, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032357/actin-assembly-mechanisms-at-a-glance
#8
REVIEW
Klemens Rottner, Jan Faix, Sven Bogdan, Stefan Linder, Eugen Kerkhoff
The actin cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins provide the driving forces for establishing the astonishing morphological diversity and dynamics of mammalian cells. Aside from functions in protruding and contracting cell membranes for motility, differentiation or cell division, the actin cytoskeleton provides forces to shape and move intracellular membranes of organelles and vesicles. To establish the many different actin assembly functions required in time and space, actin nucleators are targeted to specific subcellular compartments, thereby restricting the generation of specific actin filament structures to those sites...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032114/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-reduces-the-proliferation-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-cells-via-regulation-of-focal-adhesions
#9
Burcu Erbaykent Tepedelen, Elif Soya, Mehmet Korkmaz
AIMS: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common urological disease that is characterized by the excessive growth of prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. Pharmacological therapy for BPH has limited use due to the many side effects so there is a need for new agents including natural compounds such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). This study was undertaken to assess the role of EGCG, suppressing the formation of BPH by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, in cytoskeleton organization and ECM interactions via focal adhesions...
October 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027931/discovering-the-biological-target-of-5-epi-sinuleptolide-using-a-combination-of-proteomic-approaches
#10
Elva Morretta, Roberta Esposito, Carmen Festa, Raffaele Riccio, Agostino Casapullo, Maria Chiara Monti
Sinuleptolide and its congeners are diterpenes with a norcembranoid skeleton isolated from the soft coral genus Sinularia. These marine metabolites are endowed with relevant biological activities, mainly associated with cancer development. 5-epi-sinuleptolide has been selected as a candidate for target discovery studies through the application of complementary proteomic approaches. Specifically, a combination of conventional chemical proteomics based on affinity chromatography, coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry and bioinformatics, as well as drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS), led to a clear identification of actins as main targets for 5-epi-sinuleptolide...
October 13, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027626/emerging-roles-for-lpp-in-metastatic-cancer-progression
#11
REVIEW
Elaine Ngan, Alex Kiepas, Claire M Brown, Peter M Siegel
LIM domain containing proteins are important regulators of diverse cellular processes, and play pivotal roles in regulating the actin cytoskeleton. Lipoma Preferred Partner (LPP) is a member of the zyxin family of LIM proteins that has long been characterized as a promoter of mesenchymal/fibroblast cell migration. More recently, LPP has emerged as a critical inducer of tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. LPP is thought to contribute to these malignant phenotypes by virtue of its ability to shuttle into the nucleus, localize to adhesions and, most recently, to promote invadopodia formation...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025914/dendritic-cytoskeletal-architecture-is-modulated-by-combinatorial-transcriptional-regulation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Ravi Das, Shatabdi Bhattacharjee, Atit A Patel, Jenna M Harris, Surajit Bhattacharya, Jamin M Letcher, Sarah G Clark, Sumit Nanda, Eswar Prasad R Iyer, Giorgio A Ascoli, Daniel N Cox
Transcription factors (TFs) have emerged as essential cell autonomous mediators of sub-type specific dendritogenesis, however, the downstream effectors of these TFs remain largely unknown, as are the cellular events that TFs control to direct morphological change. As dendritic morphology is largely dictated by the organization of the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletons, elucidating TF-mediated cytoskeletal regulatory programs is key to understanding molecular control of diverse dendritic morphologies. Previous studies in Drosophila melanogaster have demonstrated that the conserved TFs Cut and Knot exert combinatorial control over aspects of dendritic cytoskeleton development, promoting actin- and MT-based arbor morphology, respectively...
October 12, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023936/understanding-patterns-of-invasion-a-novel-approach-to-assessment-of-podoplanin-expression-in-prediction-of-lymph-node-metastasis-in-oscc
#13
Ankita Sharma, Karen Boaz, Srikant Natarajan
BACKGROUND: Cellular motility is considered central to the process of metastasis and podoplanin expression can be explored as a prospective link due to its ability to modulate actin cytoskeleton. We aimed to evaluate the tumoural expression of D2-40 (mono-clonal antibody to podoplanin) in pathologically neck-node negative/positive cases (pN0/N+) to characterise the pattern of invasion, potentially explaining the role of various patterns of invasion in causing tumor metastasis. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 60 cases of OSCC of known nodal status were selected for immunohistochemical staining of tumour (invasive front) by D2-40 (anti-podoplanin) along with routine staining by Haematoxylin & Eosin...
October 11, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021705/global-analysis-of-ginsenoside-rg1-protective-effects-in-%C3%AE-amyloid-treated-neuronal-cells
#14
Ji Seon Shim, Min-Young Song, Sung-Vin Yim, Seung-Eun Lee, Kang-Sik Park
BACKGROUND: A number of reports have described the protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the protective mechanisms of Rg1 in AD remain elusive. METHODS: To investigate the potential mechanisms of Rg1 in β-amyloid peptide-treated SH-SY5Y cells, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture combined with nano-LC-MS/MS. RESULTS: We identified a total of 1,149 proteins in three independent experiments...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018403/repulsive-guidance-molecule-a-inhibits-angiogenesis-by-downregulating-vegf-and-phosphorylated-focal-adhesion-kinase-in-vitro
#15
Gang Zhang, Rong Wang, Ke Cheng, Qi Li, Yu Wang, Rongrong Zhang, Xinyue Qin
Repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa) is a major neuron guidance factor in central nervous systems. We previously found that inhibition of RGMa could greatly enhance neural function rehabilitation in rats after MCAO/reperfusion. Neuron guidance factors are often regulators of angiogenesis. However, the effect of RGMa on angiogenesis and its mechanisms remain to be determined. Here, we investigated the effect of RGMa on endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, migration, tube formation, and cytoskeleton reassembly...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017932/tanshinone-i-prevents-atorvastatin-induced-cerebral-hemorrhage-in-zebrafish-and-stabilizes-endothelial-cell-cell-adhesion-by-inhibiting-ve-cadherin-internalization-and-actin-myosin-contractility
#16
Bin Huang, Zhong-Yan Zhou, Shang Li, Xiao-Hui Huang, Jing-Yi Tang, Maggie Pui Man Hoi, Simon Ming Yuen Lee
Defects in vascular integrity in cerebrovasculature lead to serious pathologies including hemorrhagic stroke. The stability of cell adhesion junctions and actin-myosin contractile machinery are two major determinants for the integrity of endothelial monolayer. Here we have evaluated the protective effects of tanshinone I (Tan I), a lipophilic compound presents in Salvia miltiorrhiza, against atorvastatin-induced cerebral hemorrhage in zebrafish in vivo, and further dissected the molecular mechanisms in HUVECs...
October 7, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016873/cgnl1-an-endothelial-junction-complex-protein-regulates-gtpase-mediated-angiogenesis
#17
Ihsan Chrifi, Dorien Hermkens, Maarten M Brandt, Christian G M van Dijk, Petra E Bürgisser, Remco Haasdijk, Jiayi Pei, Esther H M van de Kamp, Changbin Zhu, Lau Blonden, Johan M Kros, Dirk J Duncker, Henricus J Duckers, Caroline Cheng
Aims: The formation of cell-cell and cell-extra cellular matrix contacts by endothelial cells is crucial for the stability and integrity of a vascular network. We previously identified cingulin-like 1 (Cgnl1) in a transcriptomic screen for new angiogenic modulators. Here we aim to study the function of the cell-cell junction associated protein Cgnl1 during vessel formation. Methods and Results: Unlike family member cingulin, Cgnl1 expression is enriched in endothelial cells during vascular growth...
August 31, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016860/primary-angle-closure-glaucoma-pacg-susceptibility-gene-plekha7-encodes-a-novel-rac1-cdc42-gap-that-modulates-cell-migration-and-blood-aqueous-barrier-function
#18
Mei-Chin Lee, William Shei, Anita S Chan, Boon-Tin Chua, Shuang-Ru Goh, Yaan-Fun Chong, Maryam H Hilmy, Monisha E Nongpiur, Mani Baskaran, Chiea-Chuen Khor, Tin Aung, Walter Hunziker, Eranga N Vithana
PLEKHA7, a gene recently associated with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), encodes an apical junctional protein expressed in components of the blood aqueous barrier (BAB). We found that PLEKHA7 is down-regulated in lens epithelial cells and in iris tissue of PACG patients. PLEKHA7 expression also correlated with the C risk allele of the sentinel SNP rs11024102 with the risk allele carrier groups having significantly reduced PLEKHA7 levels compared to non-risk allele carriers. Silencing of PLEKHA7 in human immortalized non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (h-iNPCE) and primary trabecular meshwork cells, which are intimately linked to BAB and aqueous humor outflow respectively, affected actin cytoskeleton organization...
October 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016853/metalloprotease-mediated-cleavage-of-plexind1-and-its-sequestration-to-actin-rods-in-the-motoneuron-disease-spinal-muscular-atrophy-sma
#19
Sebastian Rademacher, Bert M Verheijen, Niko Hensel, Miriam Peters, Gamze Bora, Gudrun Brandes, Renata Vieira de Sá, Natascha Heidrich, Silke Fischer, Hella Brinkmann, W Ludo van der Pol, Brunhilde Wirth, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Peter Claus
Cytoskeletal rearrangement during axon growth is mediated by guidance receptors and their ligands which act either as repellent, attractant or both. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is disturbed in Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), a devastating neurodegenerative disease affecting mainly motoneurons, but receptor-ligand interactions leading to the dysregulation causing SMA are poorly understood. In this study, we analysed the role of the guidance receptor PlexinD1 in SMA pathogenesis. We showed that PlexinD1 is cleaved by metalloproteases in SMA and that this cleavage switches its function from an attractant to repellent...
October 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994374/-the-actin-cytoskeleton-goes-retroviral
#20
Élodie Teruel, Gerges Rizkallah, Chloé Journo, Hélène Dutartre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
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