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Actin cytoskeleton

Xingzhi Jing, Jiang Wang, Weifeng Yin, Guanghui Li, Zhong Fang, Wentao Zhu, Fengjing Guo, Yaping Ye
Adipose‑derived stem cell (ASC)‑based therapy is a promising treatment strategy for diseases of the musculoskeletal system, as ASCs have the potential to differentiate into numerous cell lineages. However, this field has only recently been explored; therefore, a considerable amount of work is required to determine the therapeutic potential of ASCs. The mechanisms and factors associated with ASC proliferation and differentiation remain to be elucidated. In order to determine the biological properties and subsequent clinical applications of ASCs, these molecular mechanisms must be investigated...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Elisabeth Hansson
Nociceptive and neuropathic pain signals are known to result from noxious stimuli, which are converted into electrical impulses within tissue nociceptors. There is a complex equilibrium of pain-signalling and pain-relieving pathways connecting PNS and CNS. Drugs against long-term pain are today directed against increased neuronal excitability, mostly with less success. An injury often starts with acute physiological pain, which becomes inflammatory, nociceptive, or neuropathic, and may be transferred into long-term pain...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
E Hansson, L Block, U Björklund, B Biber
Aims In inflammation-reactive astrocytes the cell parameters, Ca2+ signalling, Na+ transporters, cytoskeleton, and release of proinflammatory cytokines are affected. We want to re-establish these parameters with agents, which might have a potential to restore the cells back to a normal non-inflammatory level. Methods Astrocytes in primary cultures were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 ng/ml) for 24 h to become inflammation-reactive. Different parameters were analysed to verify this inflammation: Ca2+ signalling, Na+/K+-ATPase expression, actin filament organization, and interleukin-1beta release (IL-1β)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Matiyo Ojehomon, Sarah L Alderman, Love Sandhu, Sierra Sutcliffe, Terry Van Raay, Todd E Gillis, John F Dawson
Zebrafish is rapidly becoming a key model organism for studying a variety of biological processes from molecules to organisms. Interactions involving actin, a contractile protein and part of the cytoskeleton, are regulated by actin binding proteins in the majority of physiological processes in eukaryotic cells. To understand the contribution of actin proteins to the physiological processes of zebrafish, it is important to identify the diverse isoforms of actin encoded by its genome; however, significant sequence identity complicates isoform assignments...
June 15, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Meriem Echbarthi, Josefine Vallin, Julie Grantham
Chaperonin containing tailless complex polypeptide 1 (CCT) is a molecular chaperone consisting of eight distinct protein subunits, that when oligomeric is essential for the folding of newly synthesized tubulin and actin. In addition to folding, CCT activity includes functions of individual subunits in their monomeric form. For example, when CCTδ monomer levels are increased in cultured mammalian cells, numerous cell surface protrusions are formed from retraction fibres, indicating that an underlying function for the CCTδ monomer exists...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Malou Zuidscherwoude, Hannah L H Green, Steven G Thomas
The platelet and megakaryocyte cytoskeletons are essential for formation and function of these cells. A dynamic, properly organised tubulin and actin cytoskeleton is critical for the development of the megakaryocyte and the extension of proplatelets. Tubulin in particular plays a pivotal role in the extension of these proplatelets and the release of platelets from them. Tubulin is further required for the maintenance of platelet size, and actin is the driving force for shape change, spreading and platelet contraction during platelet activation...
June 18, 2018: Platelets
Noa Beatriz Martín-Cófreces, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
The different cytoskeleton systems and their connecting molecular motors move vesicles and intracellular organelles to shape cells. Polarized cells with specialized functions display an exquisite spatio-temporal regulation of both cytoskeletal and organelle arrangements that support their specific tasks. In particular, T cells rapidly change their shape and cellular function through the establishment of cell surface and intracellular polarity in response to a variety of cues. This review focuses on the contribution of the microtubule-based dynein/dynactin motor complex, the tubulin and actin cytoskeletons, and different organelles to the formation of the antigen-driven immune synapse...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Philipp Schätzle, Marta Esteves da Silva, Roderick P Tas, Eugene A Katrukha, Hai Yin Hu, Corette J Wierenga, Lukas C Kapitein, Casper C Hoogenraad
In neurons, microtubules form dense bundles and run along the length of axons and dendrites. Occasionally, dendritic microtubules can grow from the shaft directly into dendritic spines. Microtubules target dendritic spines that are undergoing activity-dependent changes, but the mechanism by which microtubules enter spines has remained poorly understood. Using live-cell imaging, high-resolution microscopy, and local glutamate uncaging, we show that local actin remodeling at the base of a spine promotes microtubule spine targeting...
June 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Nil Ege, Anna M Dowbaj, Ming Jiang, Michael Howell, Steven Hooper, Charles Foster, Robert P Jenkins, Erik Sahai
The transcriptional regulator YAP1 is critical for the pathological activation of fibroblasts. In normal fibroblasts, YAP1 is located in the cytoplasm, while in activated cancer-associated fibroblasts, it is nuclear and promotes the expression of genes required for pro-tumorigenic functions. Here, we investigate the dynamics of YAP1 shuttling in normal and activated fibroblasts, using EYFP-YAP1, quantitative photobleaching methods, and mathematical modeling. Imaging of migrating fibroblasts reveals the tight temporal coupling of cell shape change and altered YAP1 localization...
June 8, 2018: Cell Systems
Alireza Mohammadkarim, Mohammad Tabatabaei, Azim Parandakh, Manijhe Mokhtari-Dizaji, Mohammad Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad-Mehdi Khani
Radiation therapy has been widely utilized as an effective method to eliminate malignant tumors and cancerous cells. However, subjection of healthy tissues and the related networks of blood vessels adjacent to the tumor area to irradiation is inevitable. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequent effects of fractionation radiotherapy on the mechanical characteristics of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through alterations in cytoskeleton organization and cell and nucleus morphology...
June 6, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Julia Saifetiarova, Qian Shi, Martin Paukert, Masayuki Komada, Manzoor A Bhat
Disorganization of nodes of Ranvier is associated with motor and sensory dysfunctions. Mechanisms that allow nodal recovery during pathological processes remain poorly understood. A highly enriched nodal cytoskeletal protein βIV Spectrin anchors and stabilizes the nodal complex to actin cytoskeleton. Loss of murine βIV Spectrin allows the initial nodal organization, but causes gradual nodal destabilization. Mutations in human βIV SPECTRIN cause auditory neuropathy and impairment in motor coordination and similar phenotypes are caused by nodal disruption due to demyelination...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Johanna Lilja, Johanna Ivaska
The formation of correct synaptic structures and neuronal connections is paramount for normal brain development and a functioning adult brain. The integrin family of cell adhesion receptors and their ligands play essential roles in the control of several processes regulating neuronal connectivity - including neurite outgrowth, the formation and maintenance of synapses, and synaptic plasticity - that are affected in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia. Many ASD- and schizophrenia-associated genes are linked to alterations in the genetic code of integrins and associated signalling pathways...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Pratik Kadekar, Rita Chaouni, Emily Clark, Anna Kazanets, Richard Roy
BACKGROUND: Caenorhabditis elegans can endure long periods of environmental stress by altering their development to execute a quiescent state called "dauer". Previous work has implicated LKB1 - the causative gene in the autosomal dominant, cancer pre-disposing disease called Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS), and its downstream target AMPK, in the establishment of germline stem cell (GSC) quiescence during the dauer stage. Loss of function mutations in both LKB1/par-4 and AMPK/aak(0) result in untimely GSC proliferation during the onset of the dauer stage, although the molecular mechanism through which these factors regulate quiescence remains unclear...
June 15, 2018: BMC Genomics
A Agosti, D Ambrosi, S Turzi
When living cells are observed at rest on a flat substrate, they can typically exhibit a rounded (symmetric) or an elongated (polarized) shape. Although the cells are apparently at rest, the active stress generated by the molecular motors continuously stretches and drifts the actin network, the cytoskeleton of the cell. In this paper we theoretically compare the energy stored and dissipated in this active system in two geometric configurations of interest: symmetric and polarized. We find that the stored energy is larger for a radially symmetric cell at low activation regime, while the polar configuration has larger strain energy when the active stress is beyond a critical threshold...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Syed Aoun Ali, Deeba N Baig
Ezrin, Radixin and Moesin (ERM) are critical membranous component involved in cross-linking of actin filaments. Moesin (Msn) is recognized as a pivotal protein involved in regulation of cell signalling events associated with the maintenance of epithelial integrity, actin organization and polarity. Radixin (Rad) is known to cell-to-cell adherens junction as a barbed end-capping protein whereas ezrin (Ezr) is recognized at cell adhesion, motility, apoptosis and phagocytosis. The current study for the first time reports the transcriptional and RNA secondary structural variations among brain-specific ERM genes...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Alba Manresa-Arraut, Flemming Fryd Johansen, Cord Brakebusch, Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas, Henrik Hasseldam
T-cells are known to be intimately involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). T-cell activation is controlled by a range of intracellular signaling pathways regulating cellular responses such as proliferation, cytokine production, integrin expression, and migration. These processes are crucial for the T-cells' ability to mediate inflammatory processes in autoimmune diseases such as MS. RhoA is a ubiquitously expressed small GTPase well described as a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yang Lei, Lang Lei, Yunbing Wang, Sasha A Singh, Elena Aikawa
Vascular calcification contributes to clinical mortality and morbidity. One possible mechanism for vascular calcification is lack of functional osteoclast formation in atherosclerotic plaques. Here, we seek to discover novel regulators of osteoclastogenesis with the aim to reduce vascular calcification. We used quantitative proteomics and functional network analysis to identify novel proteins in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)-derived osteoclast model. In the current studies we focus on novel proteins in osteoclast ruffled border, a plasma membrane contacting the bone surface during bone resorption...
June 11, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yasemin Ucal, Murat Eravci, Fatma Tokat, Mete Duren, Umit Ince, Aysel Ozpinar
Introduction: Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) allows the cytological differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. However, the method itself is not adequate in determining some cases. For example, the diagnosis of Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (FV-PTC) can be challenging. In the current study we investigate the protein profiles of FV-PTC and classical variant PTC (CV-PTC) with no lymph node metastasis and compare it with benign thyroid tissue. Method: We used CV-PTC (n = 6), FV-PTC (n = 6) and benign thyroid tissues (n = 6) to prepare tissue lysates...
December 2017: EuPA Open Proteomics
Elizabeth Ntantie, Michaela J Allen, Jerrine Fletcher, Augustine T Nkembo, Nazarius S Lamango, Offiong F Ikpatt
Migratory cells form extracellular matrix attachments called focal-adhesions. Focal adhesion assembly and disassembly are regulated by the Rho family of small GTPases. We previously reported that polyisoprenylated cysteinyl amide inhibitors (PCAIs) suppress Rho protein levels, disrupting F-actin cytoskeleton remodeling in the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia. In this study, we investigated whether these observations effect focal adhesion formation, which involves cell surface receptors known as integrins and several signaling/adaptor proteins such as vinculin, α-actinin, Rock kinases and phospho-Myosin Light Chain-2 (p-MLC-2), that foster the linkage of the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix...
May 25, 2018: Oncotarget
Ruxiu Liu, Jie Li, Yu Liu, Jie Peng, Xuanke Guan
Objective: We investigated the role of astragaloside in the treatment of sick sinus syndrome (SSS). Methods: Neonatal New Zealand rabbits were selected for the study. Rabbit sinoatrial node (SAN) cells were isolated by the method of dual enzymatic digestion and differential adherence. The injury model was prepared through simulated ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), and changes in the pacemaker current ( I f ) were recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The proteins F-actin and vinculin were examined between various groups of SAN cells using a microplate reader and laser scanning confocal microscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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