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Actin cytoskeleton

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458174/networks-that-link-cytoskeletal-regulators-and-diaphragm-proteins-underpin-filtration-function-in-drosophila-nephrocytes
#1
Simi Muraleedharan, Aksah Sam, Helen Skaer, Maneesha S Inamdar
Insect nephrocytes provide a valuable model for kidney disease, as they are structurally and functionally homologous to mammalian kidney podocytes. They possess an exceptional macromolecular assembly, the nephrocyte diaphragm (ND), which serves as a filtration barrier and helps maintain tissue homeostasis by filtering out wastes and toxic products. However, the elements that maintain nephrocyte architecture and the ND are not understood. We show that Drosophila nephrocytes have a unique cytoplasmic cluster of F-actin, which is maintained by the microtubule cytoskeleton and Rho-GTPases...
February 16, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457552/reciprocal-regulation-of-yap-taz-by-the-hippo-pathway-and-the-small-gtpase-pathway
#2
Ju-Won Jang, Min-Kyu Kim, Suk-Chul Bae
Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) (YAP/TAZ) are transcriptional coactivators that regulate genes involved in proliferation and transformation by interacting with DNA-binding transcription factors. Remarkably, YAP/TAZ are essential for cancer initiation or growth of most solid tumors. Their activation induces cancer stem cell attributes, proliferation, and metastasis. The oncogenic activity of YAP/TAZ is inhibited by the Hippo cascade, an evolutionarily conserved pathway that is governed by two kinases, mammalian Ste20-like kinases 1/2 (MST1/2) and Large tumor suppressor kinase 1/2 (LATS1/2), corresponding to Drosophila's Hippo (Hpo) and Warts (Wts), respectively...
February 18, 2018: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457460/stressful-surfaces-cell-metabolism-on-a-poorly-adhesive-substrate
#3
Richard L Surmaitis, Carlos J Arias, Joseph B Schlenoff
The adhesion and proliferation of cells are exquisitely sensitive to the nature of the surface to which they attach. Aside from cell counting, cell "health" on surfaces is typically established by measuring the metabolic rate with dyes that participate in the metabolic pathway or using "live/dead" assays with combinations of membrane permeable/impermeable dyes. The binary information gleaned from these tests-whether cells are attached or not, and whether they are living or dead-provides an incomplete picture of cell health...
February 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456184/quantified-f-actin-morphology-is-predictive-of-phagocytic-capacity-of-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#4
Claudia Müller, Carol Charniga, Sally Temple, Silvia C Finnemann
With stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) replacement therapies in clinical testing, establishing potency of RPE prior to transplantation is imperative. Phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segment fragments (POS) is a key indicator of RPE functionality. Comparing RPE derived from different donor human adult RPE stem cell lines, we found that cells were either high-phagocytic or low-phagocytic despite sharing phagocytic receptors and ligands, junctional ZO-1, and lack of epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
February 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453575/regulation-of-blood-testis-barrier-btb-dynamics-role-of-actin-and-microtubule-based-cytoskeletons
#5
Qing Wen, Elizabeth I Tang, Nan Li, Dolores D Mruk, Will M Lee, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis that supports meiosis and postmeiotic spermatid development since a delay in the establishment of a functional Sertoli cell barrier during postnatal development in rats or mice by 17-20 day postpartum (dpp) would lead to a delay of the first wave of meiosis. Furthermore, irreversible disruption of the BTB by toxicants also induces infertility in rodents. Herein, we summarize recent findings that BTB dynamics (i.e., disassembly, reassembly, and stabilization) are supported by the concerted efforts of the actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452280/sticholysin-ii-mediated-cytotoxicity-involves-the-activation-of-regulated-intracellular-responses-that-anticipates-cell-death
#6
Carmen Soto, Gretchen Bergado, Rancés Blanco, Tania Griñán, Hermis Rodríguez, Uris Ros, Fabiola Pazos, María Eliana Lanio, Ana María Hernández, Carlos Álvarez
Sticholysin II (StII) is a pore-forming toxin of biomedical interest that belongs to the actinoporin protein family. Sticholysins are currently under examination as an active immunomodulating component of a vaccinal platform against tumoral cells and as a key element of a nucleic acids delivery system to cell cytosol. These proteins form pores in the plasma membrane leading to ion imbalance and cell lysis. However, the intracellular mechanisms triggered by actinoporins upon binding to membranes and its consequences for cell death are barely understood...
February 13, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451682/metabolic-regulation-of-leukocyte-motility-and-migration
#7
REVIEW
Federica M Marelli-Berg, Maryam Jangani
Dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton is essential for numerous cellular processes including leukocyte migration. This process presents a substantial bioenergetic challenge to migrating cells as actin polymerization is dependent on ATP hydrolysis. Hence, migrating cells must increase ATP production to meet the increased metabolic demands of cytoskeletal reorganization. Despite this long-standing evidence, the metabolic regulation of leukocyte motility and trafficking has only recently begun to be investigated...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450740/perfluorocarbon-induces-alveolar-epithelial-cell-response-through-structural-and-mechanical-remodeling
#8
Sofia André Dias, Emmanuelle Planus, Christelle Angely, Luc Lotteau, Renaud Tissier, Marcel Filoche, Bruno Louis, Gabriel Pelle, Daniel Isabey
During total liquid ventilation, lung cells are exposed to perfluorocarbon (PFC) whose chemophysical properties highly differ from standard aqueous cell feeding medium (DMEM). We herein perform a systematic study of structural and mechanical properties of A549 alveolar epithelial cells in order to characterize their response to PFC exposure, using DMEM as control condition. Changes in F-actin structure, focal adhesion density and glycocalyx distribution are evaluated by confocal fluorescent microscopy. Changes in cell mechanics and adhesion are measured by multiscale magnetic twisting cytometry (MTC)...
February 15, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450503/the-mechanical-contribution-of-vimentin-to-cellular-stress-generation
#9
Inge A E W van Loosdregt, Giulia Weissenberger, Marc P F H L van Maris, Cees W J Oomens, Sandra Loerakker, Oscar Stassen, Carlijn V C Bouten
Contractile stress generation by adherent cells is largely determined by the interplay of forces within their cytoskeleton. It is known that actin stress fibers, connected to focal adhesions, provide contractile stress generation, while microtubules and intermediate filaments provide cells compressive stiffness. Recent studies have shown the importance of the interplay between stress fibers and the intermediate filament vimentin. Therefore, the effect of the interplay between the stress fibers and vimentin on stress generation was quantified in this study...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449961/cadherin-26-cdh26-regulates-airway-epithelial-cell-cytoskeletal-structure-and-polarity
#10
Marrah E Lachowicz-Scroggins, Erin D Gordon, Agata Wesolowska-Andersen, Nathan D Jackson, Hannah J MacLeod, Louis Z Sharp, Matthew Sun, Max A Seibold, John V Fahy
Polarization of the airway epithelial cells (AECs) in the airway lumen is critical to the proper function of the mucociliary escalator and maintenance of lung health, but the cellular requirements for polarization of AECs are poorly understood. Using human AECs and cell lines, we demonstrate that cadherin-26 (CDH26) is abundantly expressed in differentiated AECs, localizes to the cell apices near ciliary membranes, and has functional cadherin domains with homotypic binding. We find a unique and non-redundant role for CDH26, previously uncharacterized in AECs, in regulation of cell-cell contact and cell integrity through maintaining cytoskeletal structures...
2018: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449322/actin-retrograde-flow-controls-natural-killer-cell-response-by-regulating-the-conformation-state-of-shp-1
#11
Omri Matalon, Aviad Ben-Shmuel, Jessica Kivelevitz, Batel Sabag, Sophia Fried, Noah Joseph, Elad Noy, Guy Biber, Mira Barda-Saad
Natural killer (NK) cells are a powerful weapon against viral infections and tumor growth. Although the actin-myosin (actomyosin) cytoskeleton is crucial for a variety of cellular processes, the role of mechanotransduction, the conversion of actomyosin mechanical forces into signaling cascades, was never explored in NK cells. Here, we demonstrate that actomyosin retrograde flow (ARF) controls the immune response of primary human NK cells through a novel interaction between β-actin and the SH2-domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), converting its conformation state, and thereby regulating NK cell cytotoxicity...
February 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447067/regulation-of-eukaryotic-elongation-factor-1-alpha-eef1a-by-dynamic-lysine-methylation
#12
Magnus E Jakobsson, Jędrzej Małecki, Pål Ø Falnes
Lysine methylation is a frequent post-translational protein modification, which has been intensively studied in the case of histone proteins. Lysine methylations are also found on many non-histone proteins, and one prominent example is eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A). Besides its essential role in the protein synthesis machinery, a number of non-canonical functions have also been described for eEF1A, such as regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and the promotion of viral replication. The functional significance of the extensive lysine methylations on eEF1A, as well as the identity of the responsible lysine methyltransferases (KMTs), have until recently remained largely elusive...
February 15, 2018: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445221/remodeling-of-the-actin-spectrin-membrane-associated-periodic-skeleton-growth-cone-collapse-and-f-actin-decrease-during-axonal-degeneration
#13
Nicolas Unsain, Martin D Bordenave, Gaby F Martinez, Jalil Sami, Catalina von Bilderling, Federico M Barabas, Luciano A Masullo, Aaron D Johnstone, Philip A Barker, Bisbal Mariano, Fernando D Stefani, Alfredo O Cáceres
Axonal degeneration occurs in the developing nervous system for the appropriate establishment of mature circuits, and is also a hallmark of diverse neurodegenerative diseases. Despite recent interest in the field, little is known about the changes (and possible role) of the cytoskeleton during axonal degeneration. We studied the actin cytoskeleton in an in vitro model of developmental pruning induced by trophic factor withdrawal (TFW). We found that F-actin decrease and growth cone collapse (GCC) occur early after TFW; however, treatments that prevent axonal fragmentation failed to prevent GCC, suggesting independent pathways...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445102/reversal-of-stress-fibre-formation-by-nitric-oxide-mediated-rhoa-inhibition-leads-to-reduction-in-the-height-of-preformed-thrombi
#14
L Atkinson, M Z Yusuf, A Aburima, Y Ahmed, S G Thomas, K M Naseem, S D J Calaminus
Evidence has emerged to suggest that thrombi are dynamic structures with distinct areas of differing platelet activation and inhibition. We hypothesised that Nitric oxide (NO), a platelet inhibitor, can modulate the actin cytoskeleton reversing platelet spreading, and therefore reduce the capability of thrombi to withstand a high shear environment. Our data demonstrates that GSNO, DEANONOate, and a PKG-activating cGMP analogue reversed stress fibre formation and increased actin nodule formation in adherent platelets...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444849/amplification-of-pip3-signalling-by-macropinocytic-cups
#15
Robert R Kay, Thomas D Williams, Peggy Paschke
In a role distinct from and perhaps more ancient than that in signal transduction, PIP3 and Ras help to spatially organize the actin cytoskeleton into macropinocytic cups. These large endocytic structures are extended by actin polymerization from the cell surface and have at their core an intense patch of active Ras and PIP3, around which actin polymerizes, creating cup-shaped projections. We hypothesize that active Ras and PIP3 self-amplify within macropinocytic cups, in a way that depends on the structural integrity of the cup...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444420/perineurial-barrier-glia-physically-respond-to-alcohol-in-an-akap200-dependent-manner-to-promote-tolerance
#16
Sarah J Parkhurst, Pratik Adhikari, Jovana S Navarrete, Arièle Legendre, Miguel Manansala, Fred W Wolf
Ethanol is the most common drug of abuse. It exerts its behavioral effects by acting on widespread neural circuits; however, its impact on glial cells is less understood. We show that Drosophila perineurial glia are critical for ethanol tolerance, a simple form of behavioral plasticity. The perineurial glia form the continuous outer cellular layer of the blood-brain barrier and are the interface between the brain and the circulation. Ethanol tolerance development requires the A kinase anchoring protein Akap200 specifically in perineurial glia...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442467/intestinal-epithelial-barrier-the-target-for-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#17
REVIEW
Barbara Pawłowska, Beata M Sobieszczańska
Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains are included in 9 pathotypes (pathovars) that present different virulence factors responsible for the patomechanism of infections they cause. As all other intestinal pathogens, E. coli exerts a significant effect on intestinal epithelium. To initiate the infection, these microorganisms have evolved countless strategies to subvert the epithelial barrier and efficiently colonize the intestinal epithelium. The barrier function of the intestinal epithelium is achieved by the presence of a tight junction protein network surrounding individual cells around their circumference that links neighboring cells and seals the intracellular space...
December 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440662/wdr1-is-a-novel-eya3-substrate-and-its-dephosphorylation-induces-modifications-of-the-cellular-actin-cytoskeleton
#18
Mihaela Mentel, Aura E Ionescu, Ioana Puscalau-Girtu, Martin S Helm, Rodica A Badea, Silvio O Rizzoli, Stefan E Szedlacsek
Eyes absent (EYA) proteins are unusual proteins combining in a single polypeptide chain transactivation, threonine phosphatase, and tyrosine phosphatase activities. They play pivotal roles in organogenesis and are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes including innate immunity, DNA damage repair or cancer metastasis. The molecular targets of EYA tyrosine phosphatase activity are still elusive. Therefore, we sought to identify novel EYA substrates and also to obtain further insight into the tyrosine-dephosphorylating role of EYA proteins in various cellular processes...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440639/the-small-gtpase-rhou-lays-downstream-of-jak-stat-signaling-and-mediates-cell-migration-in-multiple-myeloma
#19
Sara Canovas Nunes, Martina Manzoni, Marco Pizzi, Elisa Mandato, Marilena Carrino, Laura Quotti Tubi, Renato Zambello, Fausto Adami, Andrea Visentin, Gregorio Barilà, Livio Trentin, Sabrina Manni, Antonino Neri, Gianpietro Semenzato, Francesco Piazza
Multiple myeloma is a post-germinal center B-cell neoplasm, characterized by the proliferation of malignant bone marrow plasma cells, whose survival and proliferation is sustained by growth factors and cytokines present in the bone marrow microenvironment. Among them, IL-6 triggers the signal downstream of its receptor, leading to the activation of the JAK/STAT pathway. The atypical GTPase RhoU lays downstream of STAT3 transcription factor and could be responsible for mediating its effects on cytoskeleton dynamics...
February 13, 2018: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440510/educated-natural-killer-cells-show-dynamic-movement-of-the-activating-receptor-nkp46-and-confinement-of-the-inhibitory-receptor-ly49a
#20
Elina Staaf, Per Niklas Hedde, Sunitha Bagawath Singh, Joachim Piguet, Enrico Gratton, Sofia Johansson
Educated natural killer (NK) cells have inhibitory receptors specific for self major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and kill cancer cells more efficiently than do NK cells that do not have such receptors (hyporesponsive NK cells). The mechanism behind this functional empowerment through education has so far not been fully described. In addition, distinctive phenotypic markers of educated NK cells at the single-cell level are lacking. We developed a refined version of the image mean square displacement (iMSD) method (called iMSD carpet analysis) and used it in combination with single-particle tracking to characterize the dynamics of the activating receptor NKp46 and the inhibitory receptor Ly49A on resting educated versus hyporesponsive murine NK cells...
February 13, 2018: Science Signaling
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