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tumor biology

Mariella G Filbin, Dominik Sturm
Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms in children and adolescents and are thought to arise from their glial progenitors or stem cells. Although the exact cells of origin for most pediatric gliomas remain to be identified, our current understanding is that specific cell populations during CNS development are susceptible to particular oncogenic events during certain time windows and thus give rise to pediatric gliomas with distinct histological, molecular, and clinical features...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Elizabeth R Gerstner, Kristian W Pajtler
Ependymoma can arise throughout the whole neuraxis. In children, tumors predominantly occur intracranially, whereas the spine is the most prevalent location in adults. Significant variance in the grade II versus grade III distinction of ependymomas has led to the acknowledgment that the clinical utility of histopathological classification is limited. Epigenomic profiling efforts have identified molecularly distinct groups of ependymomas that adequately reflect the biological, clinical, and histopathological heterogeneities across anatomical compartments, age groups, and grades...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Zachary J Reitman, Frank Winkler, Andrew E H Elia
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system. The current standard of care for GBM is maximal resection followed by postoperative radiation with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide. Despite this multimodality treatment, the median survival for GBM remains marginally better than 1 year. In the past decade, genome-wide analyses have uncovered new molecular features of GBM that have refined its classification and provided new insights into the molecular basis for GBM pathogenesis...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Julie J Miller, Wolfgang Wick
The majority of World Health Organization grade II and grade III gliomas harbor heterozygous mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), and tumors with an IDH wild-type status show molecular features of a glioblastoma and simply may constitute a separate disease entity. This discovery has led to a profound shift in the way that gliomas are classified and, consequently, how treatment decisions are made. We will review the current understanding of IDH- mutant gliomagenesis and the preclinical models being used to investigate the underlying biology of these tumors and to explore new therapeutic options for these patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Philipp Kickingereder, Ovidiu Cristian Andronesi
Magnetic resonance imaging plays a key role in diagnosis and treatment monitoring of brain tumors. Novel imaging techniques that specifically interrogate aspects of underlying tumor biology and biochemical pathways have great potential in neuro-oncology. This review focuses on the emerging role of 2-hydroxyglutarate-targeted magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as radiomics and radiogenomics in establishing diagnosis for isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant gliomas, and for monitoring treatment response and predicting prognosis of this group of brain tumor patients...
February 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Edouard Louis
Biologic treatments have revolutionized the way we treat inflammatory bowel disease patients (IBD). Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) antibodies are superior to conventional therapies to achieve sustained remission without steroids and mucosal healing. The objective of IBD treatment has evolved from symptom alleviation to a combination of absence of symptoms and intestinal healing. Nevertheless, biologics are expensive and are associated with an increased risk of infections and possibly skin cancers. Therefore, the duration of these treatments may be questioned, and stopping them may be contemplated by some patients and clinicians, while it is sometimes even imposed by some jurisdictions across the world...
March 14, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
P D Tar, N A Thacker, M Babur, Y Watson, S Cheung, R A Little, R G Gieling, K J Williams, J P B O'Connor
Motivation: Imaging demonstrates that preclinical and human tumors are heterogeneous, i.e. a single tumor can exhibit multiple regions that behave differently during both normal development and also in response to treatment. The large variations observed in control group tumors can obscure detection of significant therapeutic effects due to the ambiguity in attributing causes of change. This can hinder development of effective therapies due to limitations in experimental design, rather than due to therapeutic failure...
March 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
Silvia Salerno, Aída Nelly García-Argáez, Elisabetta Barresi, Sabrina Taliani, Francesca Simorini, Concettina La Motta, Giorgio Amendola, Stefano Tomassi, Sandro Cosconati, Ettore Novellino, Federico Da Settimo, Anna Maria Marini, Lisa Dalla Via
Inhibition of angiogenesis via blocking vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) signaling pathway emerged as an established approach in anticancer therapy. So far, many monoclonal antibodies and ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitors have been clinically validated and approved. In this study, structure-activity relationships (SAR) within the 2-phenylamino-substituted benzothiopyrano[4,3-d]pyrimidine class of kinase inhibitors were further refined by the synthesis and biological evaluation of new compounds 1-21 featuring different substitution patterns on the pendant phenyl moiety, combined with H, OCH3 , or Cl at 8-position...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Asmaa E Kassab, Ehab M Gedawy
As we are interested in synthetizing biologically active leads with dual anticancer and antibacterial activity, we adopted biology oriented drug synthesis (BIODS) strategy to synthesize a series of novel ciprofloxacin (CP) hybrids. The National Cancer Institute (USA) selected seventeen newly synthesized compounds for anticancer evaluation against 59 different human tumor cell lines. Five compounds 3e, 3f, 3h, 3o and 3p were further studied through determination of IC50 values against the most sensitive cancer cell lines...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Charles Hellec, Maxime Delos, Mathieu Carpentier, Agnès Denys, Fabrice Allain
Heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferases (HS3STs) catalyze the final maturation step of heparan sulfates. Although seven HS3ST isozymes have been described in human, 3-O-sulfation is a relatively rare modification, and only a few biological processes have been described to be influenced by 3-O-sulfated motifs. A conflicting literature has recently reported that HS3ST2, 3A, 3B and 4 may exhibit either tumor-promoting or anti-oncogenic properties, depending on the model used and cancer cell phenotype. Hence, we decided to compare the consequences of the overexpression of each of these HS3STs in the same cellular model...
2018: PloS One
Renata Gruszka, Magdalena Zakrzewska
The fundamental function of ribonucleic acids is to transfer genetic information from DNA to protein during translation process, however, this is not the only way connecting active RNA sequences with essential biological processes. Up until now, many RNA subclasses of different size, structure, and biological function were identified. Among them, there are non-coding single-stranded microRNAs (miRNAs). This subclass comprises RNAs of 19-25 nucleotides in length that modulate the activity of well-defined coding RNAs and play a crucial role in many physiological and pathological processes...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sweet Ping Ng, Joseph M Herman
Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with poor survival outcomes. Recent studies have shown that the addition of radiotherapy to chemotherapy in the setting of locally advanced pancreatic cancer did not improve overall survival outcome. These studies commonly utilize conventional radiotherapy treatment fractionation and technique (typically 3-D conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy). Although no clear benefit in overall survival was demonstrated in those studies, those who received radiotherapy did have a clear benefit in terms of local control...
March 16, 2018: Cancers
Maria Luz Fernandez, Minu Sara Thomas, Bruno S Lemos, Diana M DiMarco, Amanda Missimer, Melissa Melough, Ock K Chun, Ana Gabriela Murillo, Hana Alyousef, Isabel Medina-Vera
BACKGROUND: Telomerase Activator 65 (TA-65), a compound extracted from Astragalus membranaceus has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for extending life span. Scarce information exists on the effects of TA-65 on parameters of metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: We recruited 40 patients with MetS to determine the effects of TA-65 on dyslipidemias, hypertension, and oxidative stress in this at-risk population. The study was a double-blind, randomized crossover design in which patients were allocated to consume either 16 mg daily of a TA-65 supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks...
March 15, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Milad Moloudizargari, Esmaeil Mortaz, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Ian M Adcock, Frank A Redegeld, Johan Garssen
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have well established anti-cancer properties. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are among this biologically active family of macromolecules for which various anti-cancer effects have been explained. These PUFAs have a high safety profile and can induce apoptosis and inhibit growth of cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo , following a partially selective manner. They also increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents by increasing the sensitivity of different cell lines to specific anti-neoplastic drugs...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
J James Frost, Kenneth J Pienta, Donald S Coffey
Symmetry and symmetry breaking concepts from physics and biology are applied to the problem of cancer. Three categories of symmetry breaking in cancer are examined: combinatorial, geometric, and functional. Within these categories, symmetry breaking is examined for relevant cancer features, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); tumor heterogeneity; tensegrity; fractal geometric and information structure; functional interaction networks; and network stabilizability and attack tolerance. The new cancer symmetry concepts are relevant to homeostasis loss in cancer and to its origin, spread, treatment and resistance...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Yuanshan Yao, Haibo Shen, Yinjie Zhou, Zhenhua Yang, Tianjun Hu
The present study investigated the expression of microRNA (miR)-215 in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) at tissue and cellular levels, as well as its biological functions and mechanism of action. A total of 56 patients with NSCLC were included in the present study. NSCLC tissues and tumor-adjacent normal tissues were resected and collected. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression of miR-215. Following transfection with miR-215 mimics, A549 cell proliferation, migration and invasion were determined using a Cell Counting Kit-8 and Transwell assay...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Dan-Dan Wang, Qing-Xi Wu, Wen-Juan Pan, Sajid Hussain, Shomaila Mehmood, Yan Chen
Background: Polysaccharides extracted from fungus that have been used widely in the food and drugs industries due to biological activities. Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the tumor-suppressive activity and mechanism of a novel polysaccharide (SAP) extracted from Sarcodon aspratus . Methods: The SAP was extracted and purified using Sepharose CL-4B gel from S. aspratus . The cytotoxicity of SAP on cell lines was determined by MTT method...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Jingxiao Wang, Xinjie Yang, Haibo Han, Limin Wang, Weiqian Bao, Shanshan Wang, Robert M Hoffman, Meng Yang, Hui Qi, Chao An, Kaiwen Hu
Objective: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is highly invasive and metastatic, which is in urgent need of transformative therapeutics. Tubeimu (TBM), the rhizome of Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim.) Franquet, is one of the Chinese medicinal herbs used for breast diseases since the ancient times. The present study evaluated the efficacy, especially the anti-metastatic effects of the dichloromethane extract of Tubeimu (ETBM) on TNBC orthotopic mouse models and cell lines. Methods: We applied real-time imaging on florescent orthotopic TNBC mice model and tested cell migration and invasion abilities with MDA-MB-231 cell line...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Barry H Smith, Lawrence S Gazda, Thomas J Fahey, Angelica Nazarian, Melissa A Laramore, Prithy Martis, Zoe P Andrada, Joanne Thomas, Tapan Parikh, Sudipta Sureshbabu, Nathaniel Berman, Allyson J Ocean, Richard D Hall, David J Wolf
Objective: The complexity, heterogeneity and capacity of malignant neoplastic cells and tumors for rapid change and evolution suggest that living-cell-based biological-systems approaches to cancer treatment are merited. Testing this hypothesis, the tumor marker, metabolic activity, and overall survival (OS) responses, to the use of one such system, implantable macrobeads [RENCA macrobeads (RMBs)], in phase I and IIa clinical trials in advanced, treatment-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are described here...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Sheng Zhang, Chengrong Xie, Honghe Li, Kang Zhang, Jie Li, Xiaomin Wang, Zhenyu Yin
Ubiquitin-specific protease 11 (USP11) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that exerts its biological functions by regulating multiple signaling pathways such as p53, NF-κB, TGF-β, and Hippo. A large body of evidence supports a link between UPS11 and tumorigenesis. However, the clinical significance and biological function of USP11 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here, USP11 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in a pilot series of 71 HCC clinical samples, and the association between USP11 expression and clinicopathological features and overall survival time was analyzed...
March 15, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
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