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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319329/extracellular-acidosis-and-very-low-na-inhibit-nbcn1-and-nhe1-mediated-net-acid-extrusion-from-mouse-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#1
Lisbeth Bonde, Ebbe Boedtkjer
AIM: The electroneutral Na(+) ,HCO3(-) -cotransporter NBCn1 and Na(+) /H(+) -exchanger NHE1 regulate acid-base balance in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and modify artery function and structure. Pathological conditions-notably ischemia-can dramatically perturb intracellular (i) and extracellular (o) pH and [Na(+) ]. We examined effects of low [Na(+) ]o and pHo on NBCn1 and NHE1 activity in VSMCs of small arteries. METHODS: We measured pHi by 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein-based fluorescence microscopy of mouse mesenteric arteries and induced intracellular acidification by NH4(+) -prepulse technique...
March 20, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318889/non-invasive-liver-ablation-using-histotripsy-preclinical-safety-study-in-an-in%C3%A2-vivo-porcine-model
#2
Eli Vlaisavljevich, Gabe Owens, Jonathan Lundt, Dejan Teofilovic, Kimberly Ives, Alexander Duryea, Jim Bertolina, Theodore H Welling, Zhen Xu
This study investigates the safety profile for use of histotripsy, a non-invasive ultrasonic ablation method currently being developed for the treatment of liver cancer, for liver ablation in an in vivo porcine model. Histotripsy treatments were applied to the liver and hepatic veins of 22 porcine subjects, with half of the subjects receiving systemic heparinization. Vital signs (heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, electrocardiogram and SpO2) were monitored throughout the procedure and for 1 h post-treatment...
March 16, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318362/carbonic-anhydrase-inhibitors-modify-intracellular-ph-transients-and-contractions-of-rat-middle-cerebral-arteries-during-co2-hco3-fluctuations
#3
Jacob K Rasmussen, Ebbe Boedtkjer
The CO2/HCO3(-) buffer minimizes pH changes in response to acid-base loads, HCO3(-) provides substrate for Na(+),HCO3(-)-cotransporters and Cl(-)/HCO3(-)-exchangers, and H(+) and HCO3(-) modify vasomotor responses during acid-base disturbances. We show here that rat middle cerebral arteries express cytosolic, mitochondrial, extracellular, and secreted carbonic anhydrase isoforms that catalyze equilibration of the CO2/HCO3(-) buffer. Switching from CO2/HCO3(-)-free to CO2/HCO3(-)-containing extracellular solution results in initial intracellular acidification due to hydration of CO2 followed by gradual alkalinization due to cellular HCO3(-) uptake...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303943/increased-chemical-weathering-during-the-deglacial-to-mid-holocene-summer-monsoon-intensification
#4
Pavan Miriyala, N P Sukumaran, B Nagender Nath, P B Ramamurty, A V Sijinkumar, B Vijayagopal, V Ramaswamy, Tyson Sebastian
Chemical weathering and the ensuing atmospheric carbon dioxide consumption has long been considered to work on geological time periods until recently when some modelling and natural records have shown that the weathering-related CO2 consumption can change at century to glacial-interglacial time scale. Last glacial to interglacial transition period is a best test case to understand the interplay between Pco2-temperature-chemical weathering when a pulse of rapid chemical weathering was initiated. Here we show, from a high resolution 54 ka record from the Andaman Sea in the northern Indian Ocean, that the chemical weathering responds to deglacial to mid-Holocene summer monsoon intensification in the Myanmar watersheds...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298360/stimulation-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-by-metabolic-acidosis-requires-osteoblastic-intracellular-calcium-signaling-and-prostaglandin-synthesis
#5
Nancy S Krieger, David A Bushinsky
Serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) increases progressively in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with increased mortality. FGF23 is synthesized in osteoblasts and osteocytes; however, the factors regulating its production are not clear. Patients with CKD have decreased renal acid excretion leading to metabolic acidosis (MET). During MET, acid is buffered by bone with release of mineral calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P). MET increases intracellular Ca signaling and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)-induced prostaglandin production in the osteoblast leading to decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294471/ultra-brief-behavioral-skills-trainings-for-blood-injection-injury-phobia
#6
Alicia E Meuret, Erica Simon, Lavanya Bhaskara, Thomas Ritz
BACKGROUND: Blood injection injury (BII) phobia is common, with debilitating consequences to the health and well being of many of its sufferers. BII phobia presents with a unique fear response that can involve drops in blood pressure and ultimately fainting. The aim of this study was to provide proof of concept for a line of brief, easy to implement, video-based interventions for reducing phobic avoidance and fears in BII sufferers. One of the interventions was a novel Hypoventilation Respiratory Training (HRT) aimed at reducing the exaggerated ventilation response (hyperventilation) seen in BII phobia...
March 15, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287153/a-significant-net-sink-for-co2-in-tokyo-bay
#7
Atsushi Kubo, Yosaku Maeda, Jota Kanda
Most estuaries and inland waters are significant source for atmospheric CO2 because of input of terrestrial inorganic carbon and mineralization of terrestrially supplied organic carbon. In contrast to most coastal waters, some estuaries with small freshwater discharge are weak source or sometimes sink for CO2. Extensive surveys of pCO2 in Tokyo Bay showed that the overall bay acts as a strong net sink for atmospheric CO2. Although small area was a consistent source for CO2, active photosynthesis driven by nutrient loading from the land overwhelmed the CO2 budget in the bay...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283796/white-sturgeon-acipenser-transmontanus-acid-base-regulation-differs-in-response-to-different-types-of-acidoses
#8
Ryan B Shartau, Dan W Baker, Colin J Brauner
White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) completely protect intracellular tissue pH (pHi) despite large reductions in extracellular (blood) pH (pHe), termed preferential pHi regulation, in response to elevated environmental PCO2 (hypercarbia) and in general appear to be relatively resilient to stressors. Preferential pHi regulation is thought to be associated with hypercarbia tolerance in general, but has also recently been observed to protect pHi against metabolic acidoses induced by exhaustive exercise and anoxia in a tropical air breathing catfish...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279497/hyperoxia-at-what-level-of-spo2-is-a-patient-safe-a-study-in-mechanically-ventilated-icu-patients
#9
E M J Durlinger, A M E Spoelstra-de Man, B Smit, H J de Grooth, A R J Girbes, H M Oudemans-van Straaten, Y M Smulders
BACKGROUND: Concerns have been expressed regarding a possible association between arterial hyperoxia and adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. Oxygen status is commonly monitored noninvasively by peripheral saturation monitoring (SpO2). However, the risk of hyperoxia above specific SpO2 levels in critically ill patients is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine a threshold value of SpO2 above which the prevalence of arterial hyperoxia distinctly increases. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in adult mechanically ventilated intensive care patients in a tertiary referral center...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273107/effects-of-ocean-acidification-on-primary-production-in-a-coastal-north-sea-phytoplankton-community
#10
Tim Eberlein, Sylke Wohlrab, Björn Rost, Uwe John, Lennart T Bach, Ulf Riebesell, Dedmer B Van de Waal
We studied the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on a coastal North Sea plankton community in a long-term mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (BIOACID II long-term mesocosm study). From March to July 2013, 10 mesocosms of 19 m length with a volume of 47.5 to 55.9 m3 were deployed in the Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. CO2 concentrations were enriched in five mesocosms to reach average CO2 partial pressures (pCO2) of 760 μatm. The remaining five mesocosms were used as control at ambient pCO2 of 380 μatm. Our paper is part of a PLOS collection on this long-term mesocosm experiment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270737/comparison-of-comfort-and-effectiveness-of-total-face-mask-and-oronasal-mask-in-noninvasive-positive-pressure-ventilation-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-failure-a-clinical-trial
#11
Somayeh Sadeghi, Atefeh Fakharian, Peiman Nasri, Arda Kiani
Background. There is a growing controversy about the use of oronasal masks (ONM) or total facemask (TFM) in noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), so we designed a trial to compare the uses of these two masks in terms of effectiveness and comfort. Methods. Between February and November 2014, a total of 48 patients with respiratory failure were studied. Patients were randomized to receive NPPV via ONM or TFM. Data were recorded at 60 minutes and six and 24 hours after intervention. Patient comfort was assessed using a questionnaire...
2017: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263176/enhancing-uniformity-and-overall-quality-of-red-cell-concentrate-with-anaerobic-storage
#12
Tatsuro Yoshida, Abbejane Blair, Angelo D'alessandro, Travis Nemkov, Michael Dioguardi, Christopher C Silliman, Andrew Dunham
BACKGROUND: Recent research focused on understanding stored red blood cell (RBC) quality has demonstrated high variability in measures of RBC function and health across units. Studies have historically linked this high variability to variations in processing, storage method, and age. More recently, a large number of studies have focused on differences in donor demographics, donor iron sufficiency, and genetic predisposition of the donor to poor storage, particularly through mechanisms of accelerated oxidative damage...
March 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259422/the-acclimation-process-of-phytoplankton-biomass-carbon-fixation-and-respiration-to-the-combined-effects-of-elevated-temperature-and-pco2-in-the-northern-south-china-sea
#13
Guang Gao, Peng Jin, Nana Liu, Futian Li, Shanying Tong, David A Hutchins, Kunshan Gao
We conducted shipboard microcosm experiments at both off-shore (SEATS) and near-shore (D001) stations in the northern South China Sea (NSCS) under three treatments, low temperature and low pCO2 (LTLC), high temperature and low pCO2 (HTLC), and high temperature and high pCO2 (HTHC). Biomass of phytoplankton at both stations were enhanced by HT. HTHC did not affect phytoplankton biomass at station D001 but decreased it at station SEATS. HT alone increased net primary productivity by 234% at station SEATS and by 67% at station D001 but the stimulating effect disappeared when HC was combined...
March 1, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257422/elevated-pco2-enhances-bacterioplankton-removal-of-organic-carbon
#14
Anna K James, Uta Passow, Mark A Brzezinski, Rachel J Parsons, Jennifer N Trapani, Craig A Carlson
Factors that affect the removal of organic carbon by heterotrophic bacterioplankton can impact the rate and magnitude of organic carbon loss in the ocean through the conversion of a portion of consumed organic carbon to CO2. Through enhanced rates of consumption, surface bacterioplankton communities can also reduce the amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) available for export from the surface ocean. The present study investigated the direct effects of elevated pCO2 on bacterioplankton removal of several forms of DOC ranging from glucose to complex phytoplankton exudate and lysate, and naturally occurring DOC...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250175/intertidal-oysters-reach-their-physiological-limit-in-a-future-high-co2-world
#15
Elliot Scanes, Laura M Parker, Wayne A O'Connor, Laura S Stapp, Pauline M Ross
Sessile marine molluscs living in the intertidal zone experience periods of internal acidosis when exposed to air (emersion) during low tide. Relative to other marine organisms, molluscs have been identified as vulnerable to future ocean acidification; however, paradoxically it has also been shown that molluscs exposed to high CO2 environments are more resilient compared with those molluscs naive to CO2 exposure. Two competing hypotheses were tested using a novel experimental design incorporating tidal simulations to predict the future intertidal limit of oysters in a high-CO2 world; either high-shore oysters will be more tolerant of elevated PCO2 because of their regular acidosis, or elevated PCO2  will cause high-shore oysters to reach their limit...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245682/-hypothermia-treatment-in-asphyxiated-neonates-a-single-center-experience-in-hungary
#16
Kata Kovács, Enikő Szakmár, Ünőke Méder, Márton Kolossváry, Zsolt Bagyura, Lilla Lamboy, Zsuzsanna Élő, Attila Szabó, Miklós Szabó, Ágnes Jermendy
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: We aimed to analyze patient characteristics of term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia at the 3rd level Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the 1st Department of Pediatrics, Semmelweis University. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis between 2013-2015, including 97 asphyxiated neonates with HIE who received hypothermia treatment, using our in-house developed novel registry database. RESULTS: 59...
March 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243581/impact-of-changing-clinical-practices-on-early-blood-gas-analyses-in-very-preterm-infants-and-their-associated-inpatient-outcomes
#17
Hongmei Huang, Po-Yin Cheung, Megan O'Reilly, Sylvia van Os, Anne Lee Solevåg, Khalid Aziz, Georg M Schmölzer
BACKGROUND: Early studies suggest an association of abnormal carbon dioxide (PCO2) or oxygen (PO2) levels with adverse inpatient outcomes in very preterm babies. Recent resuscitation practice changes, such as targeted oxygen therapy, end-expiratory pressure, and rescue surfactant may influence these associations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the range of the initial partial pressures of PCO2 and PO2 in preterm neonates <33 weeks gestational age after birth and their correlation to inpatient neonatal outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224985/episodic-release-of-co2-from-the-high-latitude-north-atlantic-ocean-during-the-last-135%C3%A2-kyr
#18
Mohamed M Ezat, Tine L Rasmussen, Bärbel Hönisch, Jeroen Groeneveld, Peter deMenocal
Antarctic ice cores document glacial-interglacial and millennial-scale variability in atmospheric pCO2 over the past 800 kyr. The ocean, as the largest active carbon reservoir on this timescale, is thought to have played a dominant role in these pCO2 fluctuations, but it remains unclear how and where in the ocean CO2 was stored during glaciations and released during (de)glacial millennial-scale climate events. The evolution of surface ocean pCO2 in key locations can therefore provide important clues for understanding the ocean's role in Pleistocene carbon cycling...
February 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223465/assessment-of-bohr-and-enghoff-dead-space-equations-in-mechanically-ventilated-children
#19
Pierre Bourgoin, Florent Baudin, David Brossier, Guillaume Emeriaud, Marc Wysocki, Philippe Jouvet
BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest that using alveolar PCO2 (PACO2 ) estimated by volumetric capnography in the Bohr equation instead of PaCO2 (Enghoff modification) could be appropriate for the calculation of physiological dead space to tidal volume ratio (VD/VT Bohr and VD/VT Enghoff, respectively). We aimed to describe the relationship between these 2 measurements in mechanically ventilated children and their significance in cases of ARDS. METHODS: From June 2013 to December 2013, mechanically ventilated children with various respiratory conditions were included in this study...
February 21, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215555/intertidal-pool-fish-girella-laevifrons-kyphosidae-shown-strong-physiological-homeostasis-but-shy-personality-the-cost-of-living-in-hypercapnic-habitats
#20
S Benítez, C Duarte, T Opitz, N A Lagos, J M Pulgar, C A Vargas, M A Lardies
Tide pools habitats are naturally exposed to a high degree of environmental variability. The consequences of living in these extreme habitats are not well established. In particular, little it is known about of the effects of hypercanic seawater (i.e. high pCO2 levels) on marine vertebrates such as intertidal pool fish. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increased pCO2 on the physiology and behavior in juveniles of the intertidal pool fish Girella laevifrons. Two nominal pCO2 concentrations (400 and 1600μatm) were used...
February 16, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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