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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446693/lipid-consumption-in-coral-larvae-differs-among-sites-a-consideration-of-environmental-history-in-a-global-ocean-change-scenario
#1
Emily B Rivest, Chii-Shiarng Chen, Tung-Yung Fan, Hsing-Hui Li, Gretchen E Hofmann
The success of early life-history stages is an environmentally sensitive bottleneck for many marine invertebrates. Responses of larvae to environmental stress may vary due to differences in maternal investment of energy stores and acclimatization/adaptation of a population to local environmental conditions. In this study, we compared two populations from sites with different environmental regimes (Moorea and Taiwan). We assessed the responses of Pocillopora damicornis larvae to two future co-occurring environmental stressors: elevated temperature and ocean acidification...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445779/the-acute-cardiorespiratory-effects-of-centrally-injected-arachidonic-acid-the-mediation-of-prostaglandin-e-d-and-f2%C3%AE
#2
Leman Gizem Erkan, Burcin Altinbas, Gokcen Guvenc, Begum Aydin, Nasir Niaz, Murat Yalcin
Arachidonic acid (AA), which is released from synaptic membrane phospholipid by neuroreceptor-initiated activation of phospholipase A2, is abundant in the brain and works as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the central nervous system. Recently we reported that centrally injected AA generated pressor and hyperventilation effects by activating thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway. The present study was designed to investigate the mediation of other metabolites of AA such as prostaglandin (PG) D, PGE and PGF2α alongside TXA2 in the AA-evoked cardiorespiratory effects in anaesthetized rats...
April 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437707/effect-of-pco2-on-direct-flue-gas-mineral-carbonation-at-pilot-scale
#3
Ikbel Mouedhen, Nassima Kemache, Louis-César Pasquier, Emmanuelle Cecchi, Jean-François Blais, Guy Mercier
Concerns about global warming phenomena induced the development of research about the control of anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions. The current work studies on the scaling up of aqueous mineral carbonation route to reduce the CO2 emissions at the chimney of industrial emitters. The reactivity of serpentinite in a stirred tank reactor was studied for several partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2) (0.4, 0.7, 1.3 and 1.6 bar). Prior to carbonation, the feedstock was finely grinded and dehydroxyled at 650 °C by a thermal treatment...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432665/systemic-and-microcirculatory-effects-of-blood-transfusion-in-experimental-hemorrhagic-shock
#4
Gonzalo Ferrara, Vanina S Kanoore Edul, Héctor S Canales, Enrique Martins, Carlos Canullán, Gastón Murias, Mario O Pozo, Juan F Caminos Eguillor, María G Buscetti, Can Ince, Arnaldo Dubin
BACKGROUND: The microvascular reperfusion injury after retransfusion has not been completely characterized. Specifically, the question of heterogeneity among different microvascular beds needs to be addressed. In addition, the identification of anaerobic metabolism is elusive. The venoarterial PCO2 to arteriovenous oxygen content difference ratio (Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2) might be a surrogate for respiratory quotient, but this has not been validated. Therefore, our goal was to characterize sublingual and intestinal (mucosal and serosal) microvascular injury after blood resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock and its relation with O2 and CO2 metabolism...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430186/independence-of-nutrient-limitation-and-carbon-dioxide-impacts-on-the-southern-ocean-coccolithophore-emiliania-huxleyi
#5
Marius N Müller, Thomas W Trull, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff
Future oceanic conditions induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions include warming, acidification and reduced nutrient supply due to increased stratification. Some parts of the Southern Ocean are expected to show rapid changes, especially for carbonate mineral saturation. Here we compare the physiological response of the model coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (strain EHSO 5.14, originating from 50(o)S, 149(o)E) with pH/CO2 gradients (mimicking ocean acidification ranging from 1 to 4 × current pCO2 levels) under nutrient-limited (nitrogen and phosphorus) and -replete conditions...
April 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429509/co2-permeability-and-carbonic-anhydrase-activity-of-rat-cardiomyocytes
#6
Mariela Arias-Hidalgo, Samer Al-Samir, Natalie Weber, Cornelia Geers-Knörr, Gerolf Gros, Volker Endeward
AIM: We determine here the CO2 permeability (PCO2 ) of plasma membranes of cardiomyocytes. These cells were chosen because heart possesses the highest rate of O2 -consumption/CO2 -production in the body. METHODS: Cardiomyocytes were isolated from rat hearts using the Langendorff technique. Cardiomyocyte suspensions exhibited a vitality of 2-14% and were studied by the previously described mass spectrometric (18) O-exchange-technique deriving PCO2 . We show by mass spectrometry and by carbonic anhydrase (CA)-staining that non-vital cardiomyocytes are free of CA and thus do not contribute to the mass spectrometric signal, which is determined exclusively by the fully functional vital cardiomyocytes...
April 20, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426768/abundance-of-the-iron-containing-biomolecule-heme-b-during-the-progression-of-a-spring-phytoplankton-bloom-in-a-mesocosm-experiment
#7
Jessica Bellworthy, Martha Gledhill, Mario Esposito, Eric P Achterberg
Concentrations of heme b were determined in a mesocosm experiment situated in Gullmar Fjord off Sweden. The mesocosm experiment lasted for ca. one hundred days and was characterised by the growth of a primary nutrient replete and a secondary nutrient deplete phytoplankton bloom. Heme b varied between 40 ± 10 pmol L-1 in the prebloom period up to a maximum of 700 ± 400 pmol L-1 just prior to the time of the primary chlorophyll a maximum. Thereafter, heme b concentrations decreased again to an average of 120 ± 60 pmol L-1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420042/determination-of-reference-intervals-of-acid-base-parameters-in-clinically-healthy-dogs
#8
Ivana Vanova-Uhrikova, Leona Rauserova-Lexmaulova, Kristina Rehakova, Peter Scheer, Jaroslav Doubek
OBJECTIVE: To establish reference intervals for traditionally- and Stewart's approach-determined acid-base parameters in a population of clinically healthy dogs. DESIGN: Prospective study (June 2011-September 2012). SETTING: Veterinary teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Two hundred twenty-four client-owned, clinically healthy dogs. INTERVENTIONS: Blood was collected from the jugular vein and the dorsal pedal artery...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417842/blood-injection-injury-b-i-i-specific-phobia-affects-the-outcome-of-hypoxic-challenge-testing
#9
Kristofer J Spurling, Veronica P McGoldrick
BACKGROUND: Blood-injection-injury (B-I-I) phobia is capable of producing inaccurate hypoxic challenge testing results due to anxiety-induced hyperventilation. CASE REPORT: A 69-yr-old woman with a history of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, restrictive spirometry, exercise desaturation requiring supplementary oxygen on mobilizing, reduced DLco, and B-I-I phobia was referred for hypoxic challenge testing (HCT) to assess in-flight oxygen requirements. HCT was performed by breathing a 15% FIo2 gas mixture, simulating the available oxygen in ambient air onboard aircraft pressurized to an equivalent altitude of 8000 ft...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416963/mitochondrial-acclimation-potential-to-ocean-acidification-and-warming-of-polar-cod-boreogadus-saida-and-atlantic-cod-gadus-morhua
#10
Elettra Leo, Kristina L Kunz, Matthias Schmidt, Daniela Storch, Hans-O Pörtner, Felix C Mark
BACKGROUND: Ocean acidification and warming are happening fast in the Arctic but little is known about the effects of ocean acidification and warming on the physiological performance and survival of Arctic fish. RESULTS: In this study we investigated the metabolic background of performance through analyses of cardiac mitochondrial function in response to control and elevated water temperatures and PCO2 of two gadoid fish species, Polar cod (Boreogadus saida), an endemic Arctic species, and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), which is a temperate to cold eurytherm and currently expanding into Arctic waters in the wake of ocean warming...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414453/global-proteome-profiling-of-a-marine-copepod-and-the-mitigating-effect-of-ocean-acidification-on-mercury-toxicity-after-multigenerational-exposure
#11
Minghua Wang, Jae-Seong Lee, Yan Li
Previously, we found that ocean acidification (OA) mitigates mercury (Hg) toxicity to marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus under multigenerational exposure (four generations, F0-F3). To determine the response mechanisms of T. japonicus against long-term exposure to OA and Hg pollution, we investigated the proteome of F3 copepods after multigenerational exposure to four conditions: pCO2 400 μatm + control; pCO2 1000 μatm + control; pCO2 400 μatm + 1.0 µg/L Hg; and pCO2 1000 μatm + 1.0 µg/L Hg. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that OA enhanced the copepod's energy production mainly by increasing protein assimilation and proteolysis as a compensatory strategy, which explained its physiological resilience to reduced pH...
April 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413647/nigella-sativa-seed-extract-attenuates-the-fatigue-induced-by-exhaustive-swimming-in-rats
#12
Mahbubur Rahman, Dong Kwon Yang, Gi-Beum Kim, Sei-Jin Lee, Shang-Jin Kim
In previous studies, Nigella sativa (NS) has been studied due to its various physiological and pharmacological activities. However, evidence on the effects of NS on physical fatigue following exhaustive swimming remains limited. In the present study, the authors evaluated the potential beneficial effects of NS against the fatigue activity following exhaustive swimming. Rats were orally administered with NS extract (2 g/kg/day) for 21 days, and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise...
April 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410436/ocean-acidification-effects-on-mesozooplankton-community-development-results-from-a-long-term-mesocosm-experiment
#13
María Algueró-Muñiz, Santiago Alvarez-Fernandez, Peter Thor, Lennart T Bach, Mario Esposito, Henriette G Horn, Ursula Ecker, Julia A F Langer, Jan Taucher, Arne M Malzahn, Ulf Riebesell, Maarten Boersma
Ocean acidification may affect zooplankton directly by decreasing in pH, as well as indirectly via trophic pathways, where changes in carbon availability or pH effects on primary producers may cascade up the food web thereby altering ecosystem functioning and community composition. Here, we present results from a mesocosm experiment carried out during 113 days in the Gullmar Fjord, Skagerrak coast of Sweden, studying plankton responses to predicted end-of-century pCO2 levels. We did not observe any pCO2 effect on the diversity of the mesozooplankton community, but a positive pCO2 effect on the total mesozooplankton abundance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407823/-application-of-humidified-high-flow-nasal-cannula-in-neonates-with-meconium-aspiration-syndrome-and-pulmonary-hypertension-after-extubation
#14
Xiao-Yan Gao, Lin Feng, Yu-Fen Qiu, Xin-Nian Pan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical value of humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) as a respiratory support after extubation by comparing it with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). METHODS: A total of 78 neonates with MAS and PPHN were randomly administered with HHFNC or NCPAP immediately after extubation. The following indices were compared between the two groups: blood gas parameters, duration of noninvasive ventilation, rate of extubation failure, and incidence of complications, such as nasal damage, abdominal distension, and intraventricular hemorrhage...
April 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406813/effects-of-hypercapnia-and-hypercapnic-acidosis-on-hospital-mortality-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#15
Ravindranath Tiruvoipati, David Pilcher, Hergen Buscher, John Botha, Michael Bailey
OBJECTIVES: Lung-protective ventilation is used to prevent further lung injury in patients on invasive mechanical ventilation. However, lung-protective ventilation can cause hypercapnia and hypercapnic acidosis. There are no large clinical studies evaluating the effects of hypercapnia and hypercapnic acidosis in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Multicenter, binational, retrospective study aimed to assess the impact of compensated hypercapnia and hypercapnic acidosis in patients receiving mechanical ventilation...
April 12, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401503/shedding-light-on-venoarterial-pco2-gradient
#16
EDITORIAL
Arnaldo Dubin, Mario Omar Pozo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401218/dual-po2-pco2-fibre-optic-sensing-film
#17
John J Davenport, Michelle Hickey, Justin P Phillips, Panayiotis A Kyriacou
A fibre optic multi-sensor has been developed for biomedical sensing applications using a tip coating solution sensitive to both oxygen and carbon dioxide. An oxygen sensitive phosphorescence quenching complex based on platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) was combined with a carbon dioxide sensitive phosphorescence compound based on 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS). When excited by blue light (470 nm), the resultant coating had two fluorescent peaks at 515 nm (green) and 645 nm (red) which responded to partial pressure of CO2 and O2 respectively...
April 12, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400704/effects-of-dystocia-on-blood-gas-parameters-acid-base-balance-and-serum-lactate-concentration-in-heavy-draft-newborn-foals
#18
Yuki Kimura, Takahiro Aoki, Akiko Chiba, Yasuo Nambo
Dystocia is often lethal for neonatal foals; however, its clinicopathological features remain largely unknown. We investigated the effect of dystocia on the foal blood profile. Venous blood samples were collected from 35 foals (5 Percheron and 30 crossbreds between Percheron, Belgian, and Breton heavy draft horses) at 0 hr, 1 hr, 12 hr and 1 day after birth. Dystocia was defined as prolonged labor >30 min with strong fetal traction with or without fetal displacement. The dystocia group (n=13) showed lower mean values for pH (P<0...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399186/trophic-transfer-of-essential-elements-in-the-clownfish-amphiprion-ocellaris-in-the-context-of-ocean-acidification
#19
Hugo Jacob, Simon Pouil, David Lecchini, François Oberhänsli, Peter Swarzenski, Marc Metian
Little information exists on the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on the digestive and post-digestive processes in marine fish. Here, we investigated OA impacts (Δ pH = 0.5) on the trophic transfer of select trace elements in the clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris using radiotracer techniques. Assimilation efficiencies of three essential elements (Co, Mn and Zn) as well as their other short-term and long-term kinetic parameters in juvenile clownfish were not affected by this experimental pH change. In complement, their stomach pH during digestion were not affected by the variation in seawater pH...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398346/chemical-microenvironments-and-single-cell-carbon-and-nitrogen-uptake-in-field-collected-colonies-of-trichodesmium-under-different-pco2
#20
Meri J Eichner, Isabell Klawonn, Samuel T Wilson, Sten Littmann, Martin J Whitehouse, Matthew J Church, Marcel Mm Kuypers, David M Karl, Helle Ploug
Gradients of oxygen (O2) and pH, as well as small-scale fluxes of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and O2 were investigated under different partial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in field-collected colonies of the marine dinitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Microsensor measurements indicated that cells within colonies experienced large fluctuations in O2, pH and CO2 concentrations over a day-night cycle. O2 concentrations varied with light intensity and time of day, yet colonies exposed to light were supersaturated with O2 (up to ~200%) throughout the light period and anoxia was not detected...
April 11, 2017: ISME Journal
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