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Anıl Er, Aykut Çağlar, Fatma Akgül, Emel Ulusoy, Hale Çitlenbik, Durgül Yılmaz, Murat Duman
AIM: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a new treatment option for pediatric respiratory distress and we aimed to assess early predictive factors of unresponsiveness to HFNC therapy in a pediatric emergency department (ED). METHOD: Patients who presented with respiratory distress and were treated by HFNC, were included. The age, gender, weight, medical history, diagnosis, vital signs, oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2 /FiO2 ) ratio, modified Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument (mRDAI) scores, medical interventions, duration of HFNC therapy, time to escalation, adverse effects, and laboratory test results were obtained from medical and nursing records...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Yuko Nakamura, Yoshiaki Saito, Norika Kubota, Wataru Matsumura, Chika Hosoda, Akiko Tamasaki-Kondo, Yoko Nishimura, Yoshihide Sunada, Masuyuki Fukada, Takako Ohno, Yoshihiro Maegaki, Masafumi Matsuo, Yasuko Tokita
AIM: To report on sleep hypercapnia in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) at earlier stages than ever recognized. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study examined nocturnal hypercapnia in six young Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) patients with deletions of one or more exons of DMD gene. Clinical information, consecutive data on forced vital capacity (FVC%), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%), peak expiratory flow (PEF%), peak cough flow (PCF), average PCO2 in all-night monitoring, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were reviewed...
March 8, 2018: Brain & Development
Changsun Kim, Hansol Kim
OBJECTIVE: Comparing a point-of-care (POC) test using the capillary blood obtained from skin puncture with conventional laboratory tests. METHODS: In this study, which was conducted at the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital in April-July 2017, 232 patients were enrolled, and three types of blood samples (capillary blood from skin puncture, arterial and venous blood from blood vessel puncture) were simultaneously collected. Each blood sample was analyzed using a POC analyzer (epoc® system, USA), an arterial blood gas analyzer (pHOx®Ultra, Nova biomedical, USA) and venous blood analyzers (AU5800, DxH2401, Beckman Coulter, USA)...
December 9, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Scott E Rudkin, Craig L Anderson, Tristan R Grogan, David A Elashoff, Richard M Treger
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In severe circulatory failure agreement between arterial and mixed venous or central venous values is poor; venous values are more reflective of tissue acid-base imbalance. No prior study has examined the relationship between peripheral venous blood gas (VBG) values and arterial blood gas (ABG) values in hemodynamic compromise. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between hemodynamic parameters, specifically systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the arterial-peripheral venous (A-PV) difference for all commonly used acid-base parameters (pH, Pco2 , and bicarbonate)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Liv Knutzen, Christina Aye, Hannah Anderson-Knight, Elena Svirko, Lawrence Impey
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this paper was to determine if arteriovenous differences of pH and PCO2 are useful predictors of adverse neonatal outcome in acidemic neonates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An established database of 8759 term, singleton, non-anomalous neonates with validated cord gases and outcomes (Encephalopathy (Grade 2/ 3), Apgar <7 at 5 minutes and composite neonatal outcomes of neurological and systemic involvement) was used. Analysis was of the cohort of the 520 acidemic (arterial pH <7...
March 7, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Katja N Adamik, Rafael Obrador, Judith Howard
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a 6% hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.42) in either a buffered, electrolyte-balanced (HES-BAL) or saline (HES-SAL) carrier solution on electrolyte concentrations and acid-base parameters in healthy anaesthetized dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective randomised clinical study. ANIMALS: A group of 40 client-owned dogs undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgical procedures or diagnostic imaging. METHODS: During anaesthesia, dogs were intravenously administered 15 mL kg-1 of either HES-SAL (n = 20) or HES-BAL (n = 20) over 30-40 minutes...
January 11, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Mitra Rahimi, Somaieh Lookzadeh, Roxana Sadeghi, Kambiz Soltaninejad, Shahin Shadnia, Abdolkarim Pajoumand, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Nasim Zamani, Masoud Latifi-Pour
Introduction: Amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) such as amphetamine and methamphetamine (MA) are one of the most important causes of poisoning in the world. In this study we aimed to define the predictive factors of mortality in acute ATS poisoning patients. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study on all cases with acute ATS poisoning who were referred to a referral center for poisoning, Tehran, Iran, from April 2011 to March 2014. Using patients' medical records, demographic data, route of exposure, type and amount of ATS, the cause of poisoning, clinical presentations, and electrocardiogram (ECG) and laboratory findings, as well as patient's outcomes were collected and analyzed regarding the independent predictive factors of mortality...
2018: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
Dang Diem Tuong, Brittney Borowiec, Alexander M Clifford, Renato Filogonio, Derek Somo, Do Thi Thanh Huong, Nguyen Thanh Phuong, Tobias Wang, Mark Bayley, William K Milsom
The aim of the present study was to determine the roles of externally versus internally oriented CO2 /H+ -sensitive chemoreceptors in promoting cardiorespiratory responses to environmental hypercarbia in the facultative air-breathing fish, Chitala ornata (the clown knifefish). Fish were exposed to environmental acidosis (pH ~ 6.0) or hypercarbia (≈ 30 torr PCO2 ) that produced changes in water pH equal to the pH levels of the acidotic water to distinguish the relative roles of CO2 versus H+ . We also injected acetazolamide to elevate arterial levels of PCO2 and [H+ ] in fish in normocarbic water to distinguish between internal and external stimuli...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
A M Faria, A F Lopes, C S E Silva, S C Novais, M F L Lemos, E J Gonçalves
Fishes are currently facing novel types of anthropogenic stressors that have never experienced in their evolutionary history, such as ocean acidification. Under these stressful conditions, energetically costly processes, such as reproduction, may be sacrificed for increased chances of survival. This trade-off does not only affect the organism itself but may result in reduced offspring fitness. In the present study, the effects of exposure to high pCO2 levels were tested on the reproductive performance of a temperate species, the two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens...
February 24, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Phan Vinh Thinh, Nguyen Thanh Phuong, Colin J Brauner, Do Thi Thanh Huong, Andrew T Wood, Garfield T Kwan, Justin L Conner, Mark Bayley, Tobias Wang
Vertebrates reduce arterial blood pH (pHa) when body temperature increases. In water-breathers this response occurs primarily by reducing plasma HCO3 - levels with small changes in the partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2 ). In contrast, air-breathers mediate the decrease in pHa by increasing arterial PCO2 (PaCO2 ) at constant plasma HCO3 - by reducing lung ventilation relative to metabolic CO2 production. Much less is known in bimodal breathers that utilize both water and air. Here, we characterize the influence of temperature on arterial acid-base balance and intracellular pH (pHi) in the bimodal breathing swamp eel, Monopterus albus This teleost uses the buccopharyngeal cavity for gas exchange and has very reduced gills...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Andrew G Burton, Julie Burges, Angela Borchers, Kate Hopper
OBJECTIVE: Minimal data are available assessing the effect of acidemia on coagulation in dogs. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of in vitro acidification of canine blood on coagulation as measured via thromboelastography (TEG) and traditional tests of coagulation. We hypothesized that worsening acidemia would lead to progressive impairment on coagulation. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University teaching hospital...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Hoan N Le, Josiane Silva Quetz, Vuvi G Tran, Vien T M Le, Fábio Aguiar-Alves, Marcos G Pinheiro, Lily Cheng, Li Yu, Bret R Sellman, Charles K Stover, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Binh An Diep
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the most formidable antibiotic-resistant pathogens and a leading cause of hospital-associated infections. With dwindling options for antibiotic resistant infections, a new paradigm for treatment and disease resolution is required. MEDI3902, a bispecific antibody targeting the P. aeruginosa type-3-secretion (T3S) protein PcrV and Psl exopolysaccharide, was previously shown to mediate potent protective activity in murine infection models. With the current challenges associated with clinical development of narrow-spectrum agents, robust preclinical efficacy data in multiple animal species are desirable...
February 26, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
K M Frizzell, M J Jendral, I M Maclean, W T Dixon, C T Putman
1. Post-mortem decline in muscle pH ([H+ ]) is controlled by complex physicochemical relationships encapsulated in the Stewart Model of acid-base chemistry and is determined by three systems-independent variables - strong ion difference([SID]), total concentration of weak acids([Atot ]) and partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2 ). 2. This study investigated these systems-independent variables in post-mortem pectoralis major muscles of Shaver White (SH), Lohmann Lite (LL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) laying hens housed in conventional cages (CC) or furnished cages (FC), and evaluated the Model by comparing calculated [H+ ] with previously measured [H+ ] values (Frizzell et al...
February 26, 2018: British Poultry Science
Cátia S E Silva, Marco F L Lemos, Ana M Faria, Ana F Lopes, Susana Mendes, Emanuel J Gonçalves, Sara C Novais
Considered a major environmental concern, ocean acidification has induced a recent research boost into effects on marine biodiversity and possible ecological, physiological, and behavioural impacts. Although the majority of literature indicate negative effects of future acidification scenarios, most studies are conducted for just a few days or weeks, which may be insufficient to detect the capacity of an organism to adjust to environmental changes through phenotypic plasticity. Here, the effects and the capacity of sand smelt larvae Atherina presbyter to cope and recover (through a treatment combination strategy) from short (15 days) and long-term exposure (45 days) to increasing pCO2 levels (control: ~515 μatm, pH = 8...
February 22, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Nerea Ubierna, Anthony Gandin, Asaph B Cousins
Mesophyll conductance (gm) limits rates of C3 photosynthesis but little is known about its role in C4 photosynthesis. If gm were to limit C4 photosynthesis, it would likely be at low CO2 concentrations (pCO2). However, data on C4-gm across ranges of pCO2 are scarce. We describe the response of C4-gm to short-term variation in pCO2, at three temperatures in Setaria viridis, and at 25 °C in Zea mays. Additionally, we quantified the effect of finite gm calculations of leakiness (ϕ) and the potential limitations to photosynthesis imposed by stomata, mesophyll, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) across pCO2...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jeremiah J Minich, Megan M Morris, Matt Brown, Michael Doane, Matthew S Edwards, Todd P Michael, Elizabeth A Dinsdale
Global climate change includes rising temperatures and increased pCO2 concentrations in the ocean, with potential deleterious impacts on marine organisms. In this case study we conducted a four-week climate change incubation experiment, and tested the independent and combined effects of increased temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), on the microbiomes of a foundation species, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, and the surrounding water column. The water and kelp microbiome responded differently to each of the climate stressors...
2018: PloS One
Erwann Legrand, Pascal Riera, Olivier Bohner, Jérôme Coudret, Ferdinand Schlicklin, Marie Derrien, Sophie Martin
This study examined experimentally the combined effect of ocean acidification and warming on the productivity of rock pool multi-specific assemblages, composed of coralline algae, fleshy algae, and grazers. Natural rock pool communities experience high environmental fluctuations. This may confer physiological advantage to rock pool communities when facing predicted acidification and warming. The effect of ocean acidification and warming have been assessed at both individual and assemblage level to examine the importance of species interactions in the response of assemblages...
February 12, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Sen Xu, Rubin Jiang, Roland Mueller, Nadja Hoesli, Thomas Kretz, John Bowers, Hao Chen
Lactate metabolism variations are frequently encountered in mammalian cell culture processes, especially during process scale-up. In this study, we took a multipronged approach to investigate the impact of pH, pCO2 , osmolality, base addition, and mixing conditions on the observed lactate variations in a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) fed-batch process at 2,000 L scale. Two cultivating methods, CO2 -controlled and pH-controlled, were used to decouple the individual and synergistic effects from those factors. The individual effects from pH, pCO2 , and osmolality on lactate consumption/reproduction in the stationary phase were insignificant in the ranges studied though the initial lactate production rates varied...
February 21, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
M N Müller, A Krabbenhöft, H Vollstaedt, F P Brandini, A Eisenhauer
Marine calcifying eukaryotic phytoplankton (coccolithophores) is a major contributor to the pelagic production of CaCO3 and plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of C, Ca and other divalent cations present in the crystal structure of calcite. The geochemical signature of coccolithophore calcite is used as palaeoproxy to reconstruct past environmental conditions and to understand the underlying physiological mechanisms (vital effects) and precipitation kinetics. Here, we present the stable Sr isotope fractionation between seawater and calcite (Δ88/86 Sr) of laboratory cultured coccolithophores in individual dependence of temperature and seawater carbonate chemistry...
February 12, 2018: Geobiology
Laura S Stapp, Laura M Parker, Wayne A O'Connor, Christian Bock, Pauline M Ross, Hans O Pörtner, G Lannig
Understanding mechanisms of intraspecific variation in resilience to environmental drivers is key to predict species' adaptive potential. Recent studies show a higher CO2 resilience of Sydney rock oysters selectively bred for increased growth and disease resistance ('selected oysters') compared to the wild population. We tested whether the higher resilience of selected oysters correlates with an increased ability to compensate for CO2-induced acid-base disturbances. After 7 weeks of exposure to elevated seawater PCO2 (1100 μatm), wild oysters had a lower extracellular pH (pHe = 7...
December 18, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
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