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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913023/in-stream-metabolism-and-atmospheric-carbon-sequestration-in-a-groundwater-fed-karst-stream
#1
Junbing Pu, Jianhong Li, Mitra B Khadka, Jonathan B Martin, Tao Zhang, Shi Yu, Daoxian Yuan
Atmospheric carbon sequestered in karst systems through dissolution of carbonate minerals is considered to have no net effect on long-term regional and global carbon budgets because precipitation of dissolved carbonate minerals emits CO2 back to the atmosphere. Even though recent studies have implied that rapid kinetics of carbonate dissolution coupled with the aquatic photosynthetic uptake of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) could facilitate a stable atmospheric C sink in karst rivers and streams, little is known about the magnitudes and long-term stability of this C sink...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911338/sleepiness-and-sleep-related-breathing-disorders-in-myotonic-dystrophy-and-responses-to-treatment-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Sophie D West, Hanns Lochmüller, Joan Hughes, Antonio Atalaia, Chiara Marini-Bettolo, Simon V Baudouin, Kirstie N Anderson
OBJECTIVE: We conducted prospective assessments in people with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) with daytime sleepiness, provided targeted therapies and assessed response. METHODS: Patients had overnight sleep assessments. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for OSA, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for respiratory failure, modafinil for excessive daytime sleepiness were commenced. RESULTS: 120 people were studied: mean age 46...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905827/modeling-pn2-through-geological-time-implications-for-planetary-climates-and-atmospheric-biosignatures
#3
E E Stüeken, M A Kipp, M C Koehler, E W Schwieterman, B Johnson, R Buick
Nitrogen is a major nutrient for all life on Earth and could plausibly play a similar role in extraterrestrial biospheres. The major reservoir of nitrogen at Earth's surface is atmospheric N2, but recent studies have proposed that the size of this reservoir may have fluctuated significantly over the course of Earth's history with particularly low levels in the Neoarchean-presumably as a result of biological activity. We used a biogeochemical box model to test which conditions are necessary to cause large swings in atmospheric N2 pressure...
December 1, 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905514/seagrass-posidonia-oceanica-seedlings-in-a-high-co2-world-from-physiology-to-herbivory
#4
Gema Hernán, Laura Ramajo, Lorena Basso, Antonio Delgado, Jorge Terrados, Carlos M Duarte, Fiona Tomas
Under future increased CO2 concentrations, seagrasses are predicted to perform better as a result of increased photosynthesis, but the effects in carbon balance and growth are unclear and remain unexplored for early life stages such as seedlings, which allow plant dispersal and provide the potential for adaptation under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, the outcome of the concomitant biochemical changes in plant-herbivore interactions has been poorly studied, yet may have important implications in plant communities...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903867/in-situ-developmental-responses-of-tropical-sea-urchin-larvae-to-ocean-acidification-conditions-at-naturally-elevated-pco2-vent-sites
#5
Miles D Lamare, Michelle Liddy, Sven Uthicke
Laboratory experiments suggest that calcifying developmental stages of marine invertebrates may be the most ocean acidification (OA)-sensitive life-history stage and represent a life-history bottleneck. To better extrapolate laboratory findings to future OA conditions, developmental responses in sea urchin embryos/larvae were compared under ecologically relevant in situ exposures on vent-elevated pCO2 and ambient pCO2 coral reefs in Papua New Guinea. Echinometra embryos/larvae were reared in meshed chambers moored in arrays on either venting reefs or adjacent non-vent reefs...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903208/early-experience-of-a-new-extracorporeal-carbon-dioxide-removal-device-for-acute-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure
#6
Ravindranath Tiruvoipati, Hergen Buscher, James Winearls, Jeff Breeding, Debasish Ghosh, Shimonti Chaterjee, Gary Braun, Eldho Paul, John F Fraser, John Botha
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the technology of extracorporeal respiratory assist systems have led to a renewed interest in extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCOR). The Hemolung is a new, low-flow, venovenous, minimally invasive, partial ECCOR device that has recently been introduced to clinical practice to aid in avoiding invasive ventilation or to facilitate lung-protective ventilation. OBJECTIVE: We report our early experience on use, efficacy and safety of the Hemolung in three Australian intensive care units...
December 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901314/effects-of-hypoxia-and-hypercapnic-hypoxia-on-oxygen-transport-and-acid-base-status-in-the-atlantic-blue-crab-callinectes-sapidus-during-exercise
#7
Mark P Lehtonen, Louis E Burnett
The responses of estuarine invertebrates to hypoxic conditions are well established. However, many studies have investigated hypoxia as an isolated condition despite its frequent co-occurrence with hypercapnia (elevated CO2 ). Although many studies suggest deleterious effects, hypercapnia has been observed to improve blue crab walking performance in hypoxia. To investigate the physiological effects of combined hypercapnic hypoxia, we measured Po2 , pH, [l-lactate], Pco2 , and total O2 in pre- and postbranchial hemolymph sampled from blue crabs during walking exercise...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894055/indirect-effects-of-climate-changes-on-cadmium-bioavailability-and-biological-effects-in-the-mediterranean-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#8
Alessandro Nardi, Luana Fiorella Mincarelli, Maura Benedetti, Daniele Fattorini, Giuseppe d'Errico, Francesco Regoli
Despite the great interest in the consequences of climate change on the physiological functioning of marine organisms, indirect and interactive effects of rising temperature and pCO2 on bioaccumulation and responsiveness to environmental pollutants are still poorly explored, particularly in terms of cellular mechanisms. According to future projections of temperature and pH/pCO2, this study investigated the main cellular pathways involved in metal detoxification and oxidative homeostasis in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, exposed for 4 weeks to various combinations of two levels of pH/pCO2 (8...
November 25, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890436/respiratory-acid-base-disorders-in-the-critical-care-unit
#9
REVIEW
Kate Hopper
The incidence of respiratory acid-base abnormalities in the critical care unit (CCU) is unknown, although respiratory alkalosis is suspected to be common in this population. Abnormal carbon dioxide tension can have many physiologic effects, and changes in Pco2 may have a significant impact on outcome. Monitoring Pco2 in CCU patients is an important aspect of critical patient assessment, and identification of respiratory acid-base abnormalities can be valuable as a diagnostic tool. Treatment of respiratory acid-base disorders is largely focused on resolution of the primary disease, although mechanical ventilation may be indicated in cases with severe respiratory acidosis...
November 24, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884773/an-intelligent-prognostic-system-for-analyzing-patients-with-paraquat-poisoning-using-arterial-blood-gas-indexes
#10
Lufeng Hu, Feiyan Lin, Huaizhong Li, Changfei Tong, Zhifang Pan, Jun Li, Huiling Chen
The arterial blood gas (ABG) test is used to assess gas exchange in the lung, and the acid-base level in the blood. However, it is still unclear whether or not ABG test indexes correlate with paraquat (PQ) poisoning. This study investigates the predictive value of ABG tests in prognosing patients with PQ poisoning; it also identifies the most significant indexes of the ABG test. An intelligent machine learning-based system was established to effectively give prognostic analysis of patients with PQ poisoning based on ABG indexes...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884326/appropriate-timing-of-blood-sampling-for-blood-gas-analysis-in-the-ventilated-rabbit
#11
Kiguna Sei, Masanori Fujita, Shinpei Okawa, Takeshi Hirasawa, Toshihiro Kushibiki, Hidenori Sasa, Kenichi Furuya, Miya Ishihara
BACKGROUND: Arterial and venous blood gas analyses (BGAs) are essential to evaluate devices that measure biological oxygenation. The appropriate timing of blood sampling for BGA after respiratory rate (RR) change in animal experiments has not been reported. This study investigated the appropriate timing of blood sampling for BGA in ventilated rabbits and whether venous samples are an alternative to arterial samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Under general anesthesia, 14 rabbits (body weight, 3...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882073/standard-versus-abdominal-lifting-and-compression-cpr
#12
Sisen Zhang, Qing Liu, Shupeng Han, Ziran Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yahua Liu, Jing Li, Lixiang Wang
Background. This study compared outcomes of abdominal lifting and compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ALP-CPR) with standard CPR (STD-CPR). Materials and Methods. Patients with cardiac arrest seen from April to December 2014 were randomized to receive standard CPR or ALP-CPR performed with a novel abdominal lifting/compression device. The primary outcome was return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Results. Patients were randomized to receive ALP-CPR (n = 40) and STD-CPR (n = 43), and the groups had similar baseline characteristics...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881667/a-mechanistic-physicochemical-model-of-carbon-dioxide-transport-in-blood
#13
David Patrick O'Neill, Peter A Robbins
A number of mathematical models have been produced that, given the Pco2 and Po2 of blood, will calculate the total concentrations for CO2 and O2 in blood. However, all these models contain at least some empirical features, and thus do not represent all of the underlying physicochemical processes in an entirely mechanistic manner. The aim of this study was to develop a physicochemical model of CO2 carriage by the blood to determine whether our understanding of the physical chemistry of the major chemical components of blood together with their interactions is sufficiently strong to predict the physiological properties of CO2 carriage by whole blood...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878795/transcutaneous-versus-blood-carbon-dioxide-monitoring-during-acute-noninvasive-ventilation-in-the-emergency-department-a-retrospective-analysis
#14
Christian Michael Horvath, Martin Hugo Brutsche, Florent Baty, Jochen Julius Rüdiger
QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: Transcutaneous measurement of carbon dioxide (PtCO2) has been suggested as an alternative to invasively obtained PaCO2 for the monitoring of patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Current data on monitoring in hypoxaemic respiratory failure are scarce and show conflicting results in hypercapnic patients in the emergency department. METHODS AND SETTING: We performed a retrospective comparison of real-time PtCO2 (SenTec Digital Monitor) and arterial/venous carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2/PvCO2) measurements in patients with severe hypoxaemic and/or hypercapnic respiratory failure during NIV...
2016: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876762/the-stable-microbiome-of-inter-and-sub-tidal-anemone-species-under-increasing-pco2
#15
Erinn M Muller, Maoz Fine, Kim B Ritchie
Increasing levels of pCO2 within the oceans will select for resistant organisms such as anemones, which may thrive under ocean acidification conditions. However, increasing pCO2 may alter the bacterial community of marine organisms, significantly affecting the health status of the host. A pH gradient associated with a natural volcanic vent system within Levante Bay, Vulcano Island, Italy, was used to test the effects of ocean acidification on the bacterial community of two anemone species in situ, Anemonia viridis and Actinia equina using 16 S rDNA pyrosequencing...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870388/glycidol-an-hydroxyl-containing-epoxide-playing-the-double-role-of-substrate-and-catalyst-for-co2-cycloaddition-reactions
#16
Francesco Della Monica, Antonio Buonerba, Alfonso Grassi, Carmine Capacchione, Stefano Milione
Glycidol is converted into glycerol carbonate (GC) by coupling with CO2 in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) under mild reaction conditions (T=60 °C, PCO2 =1 MPa) in excellent yields (99 %) and short reaction time (t=3 h). The unusual reactivity of this substrate compared to other epoxides, such as propylene oxide, under the same reaction conditions is clearly related to the presence of a hydroxyl functionality on the oxirane ring. Density functional theory calculations (DFT) supported by (1) H NMR experiments reveal that the unique behavior of this substrate is a result of the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds into a dimeric structure, activating this molecule to nucleophilic attack, and allowing the formation of GC...
November 21, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867552/prognostic-value-of-on-admission-arterial-pco2-in-hospitalized-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#17
Zeynab Yassin, Mohammad Saadat, Hamidreza Abtahi, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Soheil Peiman
BACKGROUND: There is little data about the correlation between the outcome of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the hypercapnic type respiratory failure. In this study we prospectively investigated the prognostic significance of first arterial CO2 tension in patients hospitalized with CAP. METHODS: In this prospective study patients with CAP, admitted to a general hospital were included. PaCO2 was measured for each subject in an arterial blood sample drawn in the first 2 hours and its correlations with three major outcomes were evaluated: intensive care unit (ICU) admission, duration of admission and mortality in 30 days...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865121/physiological-responses-of-a-population-of-sargassum-vulgare-phaeophyceae-to-high-pco2-low-ph-implications-for-its-long-term-distribution
#18
Lucia Porzio, Maria Cristina Buia, Maurizio Lorenti, Anna De Maio, Carmen Arena
Ocean Acidification (OA) is likely to affect macroalgal diversity in the future with species-specific responses shaping macroalgal communities. In this framework, it is important to focus research on the photosynthetic response of habitat-forming species which have an important structural and functional role in coastal ecosystems. Most of the studies on the impacts of OA involve short-term laboratory or micro/mesocosm experiments. It is more challenging to assess the adaptive responses of macroalgal community to decreasing ocean pH over long-term periods, as they represent the basis of trophic dynamics in marine environments...
November 16, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857520/secondary-elements-of-blood-ph-variation-can-influence-the-effort-effectiveness-based-on-adaptive-changes-within-a-group-of-elite-athletes
#19
Ştefan Adrian Martin, Valeriu Tomescu, Septimiu Voidăzan
AIM: pH is the direct indicator of the body reaction following the activities performed. Establishing precise correlations between pH and blood biochemical parameters might support the balancing of values during periods of marked physical activity. METHOD: We conducted a case study in a group of elite rowers. Twelve athletes were included in the study. Monitoring was carried out by collecting biological samples several times a day: in the morning, 80 minutes pre-workout, 12 hours after the last physical effort performed, at two different times, 10 days apart...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850675/1037-apnea-testing-for-brain-death-arterial-versus-venous-pco2
#20
Ezekiel Tayler, Helen Stutz, Sophia Socaris, Michael Gruenthal, Raymond Walsh, Paul Feustel, Kareem Kassel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
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