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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212418/experimental-evidence-of-formation-of-transparent-exopolymer-particles-tep-and-poc-export-provoked-by-dust-addition-under-current-and-high-pco2-conditions
#1
Justine Louis, Maria Luiza Pedrotti, Frédéric Gazeau, Cécile Guieu
The evolution of organic carbon export to the deep ocean, under anthropogenic forcing such as ocean warming and acidification, needs to be investigated in order to evaluate potential positive or negative feedbacks on atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and therefore on climate. As such, modifications of aggregation processes driven by transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) formation have the potential to affect carbon export. The objectives of this study were to experimentally assess the dynamics of organic matter, after the simulation of a Saharan dust deposition event, through the measurement over one week of TEP abundance and size, and to evaluate the effects of ocean acidification on TEP formation and carbon export following a dust deposition event...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208067/low-ph-conditions-impair-module-capacity-to-regenerate-in-a-calcified-colonial-invertebrate-the-bryozoan-cryptosula-pallasiana
#2
Chiara Lombardi, Paul D Taylor, Silvia Cocito, Camilla Bertolini, Piero Calosi
Many aquatic animals grow into colonies of repeated, genetically identical, modules (zooids). Zooid interconnections enable colonies to behave as integrated functional units, while plastic responses to environmental changes may affect individual zooids. Plasticity includes the variable partitioning of resources to sexual reproduction, colony growth and maintenance. Maintenance often involves regeneration, which is also a routine part of the life history in some organisms, such as bryozoans. Here we investigate changes in regenerative capacity in the encrusting bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana when cultured at different seawater pCO2 levels...
February 7, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202652/effects-of-elevated-carbon-dioxide-and-temperature-on-locomotion-and-the-repeatability-of-lateralization-in-a-keystone-marine-mollusc
#3
Paolo Domenici, Rodrigo Torres, Patricio H Manríquez
Recent work has shown that the behaviour of marine organisms can be affected by elevated PCO2 , although little is known about the effect of multiple stressors. We therefore investigated the effect of elevated PCO2  and temperature on locomotion and behaviour during prey searching in the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas, a predator characteristic of the southeastern Pacific coast. Movement duration, decision time, route finding and lateralization were measured using a T-maze tank with a prey positioned behind a barrier...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192893/non-invasive-ventilation-improves-respiratory-distress-in-children-with-acute-viral-bronchiolitis-a-systematic-review
#4
Yann Combret, Guillaume Prieur, Pascal LE Roux, Clément Médrinal
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a common treatment for bronchiolitis. However, consensus concerning its efficacy is lacking. The aim of this systematic review was to assess NIV effectiveness to reduce respiratory distress. Secondary objectives were to summarize the effects of NIV, identify predictive factors for failure and describe settings and applications. METHODS: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE Pubmed, PEDro, COCHRANE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Up-todate and Sudoc from 1990 to April 2015...
February 13, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192243/the-influence-of-mechanical-ventilation-on-physiological-parameters-in-ball-pythons-python-regius
#5
Sashia L Jakobsen, Catherine J A Williams, Tobias Wang, Mads F Bertelsen
Mechanical ventilation is widely recommended for reptiles during anesthesia, and while it is well-known that their low ectothermic metabolism requires much lower ventilation than in mammals, very little is known about the influence of ventilation protocol on the recovery from anesthesia. Here, 15 ball pythons (Python regius) were induced and maintained with isoflurane for 60min at one of three ventilation protocols (30, 125, or 250ml min(-1)kg(-1) body mass) while an arterial catheter was inserted, and ventilation was then continued on 100% oxygen at the specified rate until voluntary extubation...
February 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185018/efficacy-and-safety-of-durotomy-after-decompressive-hemicraniectomy-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
R B Moringlane, N Keric, F B Freimann, D Mielke, R Burger, D Duncker, V Rohde, K L V Eckardstein
Decompressive hemicraniectomy (DH) plus duroplasty was demonstrated to be effective for treating critically elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). In order to shorten operation time and to avoid the use of autologous or heterologous material, durotomy has been introduced as an alternative to duroplasty. Only limited data is available on the effect of DH and durotomy on the increased ICP in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Therefore, we collected consecutive intraoperative ICP readings during the different steps of DH and durotomy in TBI patients...
February 9, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183170/physico-chemical-properties-of-late-incubation-egg-amniotic-fluid-and-a-potential-in-ovo-feed-supplement
#7
Apeh A Omede, Momenuzzaman M Bhuiyan, Fakrul A Islam, Paul A Iji
This study explored the physico-chemical properties of late-incubation egg amniotic fluid and a potential in ovo feed (IOF) supplement. Amniotic fluid was collected from broiler breeders (Ross 308, 51 weeks and Cobb 500, 35 weeks) on day 17 after incubation. A mixture of high-quality soy protein supplement - Hamlet Protein AviStart (HPA) was serially diluted in MilliQ water to obtain solutions ranging from 150 to 9.375 mg/ml. The mixtures were heat-treated (0, 30, 60 minutes) in a waterbath (80 oC) and then centrifuged to obtain supernatants...
January 26, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180121/hemodynamic-changes-following-routine-fluid-resuscitation-in-patients-with-blunt-trauma
#8
Shahram Paydar, Hamed Kabiri, Maryam Barhaghtalab, Fariborz Ghaffarpasand, Saeed Safari, Alireza Baratloo
BACKGROUND: The management of trauma patients is often difficult. The American college of surgeons suggests using advanced trauma life support (ATLS) measures. ATLS is regarded as the gold standard for the resuscitation of cases with acute life threatening injuries. OBJECTIVES: To assess the change in base excess (BE) values and central venous pressure (CVP) one and six hours after injection of 1000 cc normal saline in trauma patients admitted to the ICU. PATIENTS AND METHODS: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients were randomly selected to participate in the project...
September 2016: Trauma Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179409/spatio-temporal-environmental-variation-mediates-geographical-differences-in-phenotypic-responses-to-ocean-acidification
#9
Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Paola A Villanueva, Jorge Lopez, Rodrigo Torres, Jorge M Navarro, Leonardo D Bacigalupe
Phenotypic plasticity is expected to play a major adaptive role in the response of species to ocean acidification (OA), by providing broader tolerances to changes in pCO2 conditions. However, tolerances and sensitivities to future OA may differ among populations within a species because of their particular environmental context and genetic backgrounds. Here, using the climatic variability hypothesis (CVH), we explored this conceptual framework in populations of the sea urchin Loxechinus albus across natural fluctuating pCO2/pH environments...
February 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178268/influence-of-ocean-acidification-on-plankton-community-structure-during-a-winter-to-summer-succession-an-imaging-approach-indicates-that-copepods-can-benefit-from-elevated-co2-via-indirect-food-web-effects
#10
Jan Taucher, Mathias Haunost, Tim Boxhammer, Lennart T Bach, María Algueró-Muñiz, Ulf Riebesell
Plankton communities play a key role in the marine food web and are expected to be highly sensitive to ongoing environmental change. Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) causes pronounced shifts in marine carbonate chemistry and a decrease in seawater pH. These changes-summarized by the term ocean acidification (OA)-can significantly affect the physiology of planktonic organisms. However, studies on the response of entire plankton communities to OA, which also include indirect effects via food-web interactions, are still relatively rare...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176180/prevention-of-hypoxemia-during-apnea-testing-a-comparison-of-oxygen-insufflation-and-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#11
Andreas H Kramer, Philippe Couillard, Ryan Bader, Peter Dhillon, Demetrios J Kutsogiannis, Christopher J Doig
BACKGROUND: Apnea testing is an essential step in the clinical diagnosis of brain death. Current international guidelines recommend placement of an oxygen (O2) insufflation catheter into the endotracheal tube to prevent hypoxemia, but use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) valve may be more effective at limiting arterial partial pressure of O2 (PO2) reduction. METHODS: We performed a multicenter study assessing consecutive apnea tests in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in two cities utilizing differing protocols...
February 7, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167765/low-hesperian-pco2-constrained-from-in-situ-mineralogical-analysis-at-gale-crater-mars
#12
Thomas F Bristow, Robert M Haberle, David F Blake, David J Des Marais, Jennifer L Eigenbrode, Alberto G Fairén, John P Grotzinger, Kathryn M Stack, Michael A Mischna, Elizabeth B Rampe, Kirsten L Siebach, Brad Sutter, David T Vaniman, Ashwin R Vasavada
Carbon dioxide is an essential atmospheric component in martian climate models that attempt to reconcile a faint young sun with planetwide evidence of liquid water in the Noachian and Early Hesperian. In this study, we use mineral and contextual sedimentary environmental data measured by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover Curiosity to estimate the atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) coinciding with a long-lived lake system in Gale Crater at ∼3.5 Ga. A reaction-transport model that simulates mineralogy observed within the Sheepbed member at Yellowknife Bay (YKB), by coupling mineral equilibria with carbonate precipitation kinetics and rates of sedimentation, indicates atmospheric PCO2 levels in the 10s mbar range...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165859/exercise-induced-hypoxemia-in-juvenile-thyroid-carcinoma-with-lung-metastases
#13
Florian J Segerer, Johannes Biko, Christoph Reiners, Clemens Wirth, Helge Hebestreit
PURPOSE: Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) has been reported in patients with juvenile thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine for lung metastases. This retrospective study tested the hypothesis that EIAH is due to ventilation-perfusion-mismatch in this rare pulmonary condition. METHOD: 50 patients (age 13 -23 years) treated for juvenile thyroid carcinoma and lung metastasis with 131I and 24 controls with thyroid cancer but without lung metastases and prior 131I-treatment were assessed in a state of acute hypothyroidism by computed tomography of the lungs, pulmonary function testing, cardiopulmonary exercise test with measurements of gas exchange, oxygen saturation, alveolar-arterial difference in pO2 (p(A-a)O2) and pCO2 (p(ET-a)CO2)...
February 6, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163425/elective-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-to-support-respiration-after-prolonged-ventilation-in-infants-after-congenital-cardiac-surgery
#14
Hemang Gandhi, Amit Mishra, Rajesh Thosani, Himanshu Acharya, Ritesh Shah, Jigar Surti, Alpesh Sarvaia
BACKGROUND: We sought to compare the effectiveness of oxygen (O2) treatment administered by an O2 mask and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in infants after congenital cardiac surgery. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, 54 infants undergoing corrective cardiac surgery were enrolled. According to the anesthesiologist's preference, the patients ventilated for more than 48 h were either put on NCPAP or O2 mask immediately after extubation...
January 2017: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149822/a-profile-of-metabolic-acidosis-in-patients-with-sepsis-in-an-intensive-care-unit-setting
#15
Kartik Ganesh, R N Sharma, Jaicob Varghese, M G K Pillai
CONTEXT: Metabolic acidosis is frequently found in patients with severe sepsis. An understanding of types of acidosis in sepsis and their evolution over the course of treatment may give us insight into the behavior of acid-base balance in these patients. AIMS: To describe at Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and over the first 5 days the composition of metabolic acidosis in patients with sepsis and to evaluate and compare acidosis patterns in survivors and nonsurvivors...
October 2016: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149350/the-influence-of-high-altitude-acclimatization-on-ventilatory-and-blood-oxygen-saturation-responses-during-normoxic-and-hypoxic-testing
#16
Anton Ušaj, Stojan Burnik
We investigated how acclimatization effects achieved during a high-altitude alpinist expedition influence endurance performance, ventilation ([Formula: see text]) and blood oxygen saturation (SaO2) in normoxic (NOR) and hypoxic conditions (HYP). An incremental testing protocol on a cycle ergometer was used to determine the power output corresponding to the Lactate (PLT) and Ventilatory Threshold (PVT) in NOR and HYP (FiO2=0.13) as indirect characteristics of endurance performance in both conditions. Furthermore, changes in [Formula: see text], SaO2, blood pH and Pco2 were measured at a similar absolute exercise intensity of 180 W in NOR and HYP conditions...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148970/co2-dependent-carbon-isotope-fractionation-in-dinoflagellates-relates-to-their-inorganic-carbon-fluxes
#17
Mirja Hoins, Tim Eberlein, Dedmer B Van de Waal, Appy Sluijs, Gert-Jan Reichart, Björn Rost
Carbon isotope fractionation (εp) between the inorganic carbon source and organic matter has been proposed to be a function of pCO2. To understand the CO2-dependency of εp and species-specific differences therein, inorganic carbon fluxes in the four dinoflagellate species Alexandrium fundyense, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Gonyaulax spinifera and Protoceratium reticulatum have been measured by means of membrane-inlet mass spectrometry. In-vivo assays were carried out at different CO2 concentrations, representing a range of pCO2 from 180 to 1200 μatm...
August 2016: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148831/geographical-gradients-in-selection-can-reveal-genetic-constraints-for-evolutionary-responses-to-ocean-acidification
#18
REVIEW
Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Dustin Marshall, Sam Dupont, Leonardo D Bacigalupe, Levente Bodrossy, Alistair J Hobday
Geographical gradients in selection can shape different genetic architectures in natural populations, reflecting potential genetic constraints for adaptive evolution under climate change. Investigation of natural pH/pCO2 variation in upwelling regions reveals different spatio-temporal patterns of natural selection, generating genetic and phenotypic clines in populations, and potentially leading to local adaptation, relevant to understanding effects of ocean acidification (OA). Strong directional selection, associated with intense and continuous upwellings, may have depleted genetic variation in populations within these upwelling regions, favouring increased tolerances to low pH but with an associated cost in other traits...
February 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148830/does-sex-really-matter-explaining-intraspecies-variation-in-ocean-acidification-responses
#19
Robert P Ellis, William Davison, Ana M Queirós, Kristy J Kroeker, Piero Calosi, Sam Dupont, John I Spicer, Rod W Wilson, Steve Widdicombe, Mauricio A Urbina
Ocean acidification (OA) poses a major threat to marine ecosystems globally, having significant ecological and economic importance. The number and complexity of experiments examining the effects of OA has substantially increased over the past decade, in an attempt to address multi-stressor interactions and long-term responses in an increasing range of aquatic organisms. However, differences in the response of males and females to elevated pCO2 have been investigated in fewer than 4% of studies to date, often being precluded by the difficulty of determining sex non-destructively, particularly in early life stages...
February 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130958/a-definition-of-gentle-ventilation-in-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-a-survey-of-neonatologists-and-pediatric-surgeons
#20
Christiana Farkouh-Karoleski, Tasnim Najaf, Julia Wynn, Gudrun Aspelund, Wendy K Chung, Charles J Stolar, George B Mychaliska, Brad W Warner, Amy J Wagner, Robert A Cusick, Foong-Yen Lim, David T Schindel, Douglas Potoka, Kenneth Azarow, C Michael Cotten, Anthony Hesketh, Samuel Soffer, Timothy Crombleholme, Howard Needelman
Ventilation practices have changed significantly since the initial reports in the mid 1980 of successful use of permissive hypercapnia and spontaneous ventilation [often called gentle ventilation (GV)] in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). However, there has been little standardization of these practices or of the physiologic limits that define GV. We sought to ascertain among Diaphragmatic Hernia Research and Exploration; Advancing Molecular Science (DHREAMS) centers' GV practices in the neonatal management of CDH...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
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