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General Linear Model

Guillaume Huguet, Catherine Schramm, Elise Douard, Lai Jiang, Aurélie Labbe, Frédérique Tihy, Géraldine Mathonnet, Sonia Nizard, Emmanuelle Lemyre, Alexandre Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Eva Loth, Roberto Toro, Gunter Schumann, Patricia Conrod, Zdenka Pausova, Celia Greenwood, Tomas Paus, Thomas Bourgeron, Sébastien Jacquemont
Importance;: Copy number variants (CNVs) classified as pathogenic are identified in 10% to 15% of patients referred for neurodevelopmental disorders. However, their effect sizes on cognitive traits measured as a continuum remain mostly unknown because most of them are too rare to be studied individually using association studies. Objective: To measure and estimate the effect sizes of recurrent and nonrecurrent CNVs on IQ. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study identified all CNVs that were 50 kilobases (kb) or larger in 2 general population cohorts (the IMAGEN project and the Saguenay Youth Study) with measures of IQ...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Mehrdad Shahmohammadi Beni, D Krstic, D Nikezic, K N Yu
X-ray and γ-ray photons have been widely used for studying radiobiological effects of ionizing radiations. Photons are indirectly ionizing radiations so they need to set in motion electrons (which are a directly ionizing radiation) to perform the ionizations. When the photon dose decreases to below a certain limit, the number of electrons set in motion will become so small that not all cells in an "exposed" cell population can get at least one electron hit. When some cells in a cell population are not hit by a directly ionizing radiation (in other words not irradiated), there will be rescue effect between the irradiated cells and non-irradiated cells, and the resultant radiobiological effect observed for the "exposed" cell population will be different...
2018: PloS One
Allah Bukhsh, Muhammad Sarfraz Nawaz, Hafiz Sajjad Ahmed, Tahir Mehmood Khan
BACKGROUND: Diabetes self-care activities, like, healthy diet, regular exercise, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and rational use of medicines are considered to play a vital role in establishing euglycemia. Health literacy among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Pakistan is very low, which is the most likely cause for poor clinical outcomes. This study is designed to investigate the impact of pharmacist-led educational intervention on glycemic control, self-care activities and disease knowledge among T2DM patients in Pakistan...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Arthur H Owora
Contradictory evidence exists on the role of Major depression disorder (MDD) as a predictor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, particularly regarding the effect of MDD presence versus pattern of illness. The objective of this study was to examine whether MDD status and pattern of illness differentially predict HIV disease progression. Retrospective cohort data from a six-year follow-up of HIV patients at an outpatient clinic were analyzed. MDD trajectories were identified by latent class growth analysis and generalized linear mixed models were used to examine their relation to low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts (<200 cells/μL) during follow-up...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kenneth Jay, Lars L Andersen
Work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress are both highly prevalent in the working environment and relate well to the biopsychosocial model. While the onset of musculoskeletal pain is often dependent on the biological element of the biopsychosocial model, chronic pain is often influenced by psychological and social factors. Similarly, stress is also influenced by biological, psychological, and social factors. This study investigates the possibility of social capital being a buffer for stress and musculoskeletal pain in a group of female laboratory technicians...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andrée-Anne Fafard St-Germain, Valerie Tarasuk
OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity is a potent determinant of health and indicator of material deprivation in many affluent countries. Food insecurity is associated with compromises in food and housing expenditures, but how it relates to other expenditures is unknown. The present study described households' resource allocation over a 12-month period by food insecurity status. DESIGN: Expenditure data from the 2010 Survey of Household Spending were aggregated into four categories (basic needs, other necessities, discretionary, investments/assets) and ten sub-categories (food, clothing, housing, transportation, household/personal care, health/education, leisure, miscellaneous, personal insurance/pension, durables/assets)...
March 21, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Jennifer L Reed, Christie A Cole, Madeleine C Ziss, Heather E Tulloch, Jennifer Brunet, Heather Sherrard, Robert D Reid, Andrew L Pipe
A disconcerting proportion of Canadian nurses are physically inactive and report poor cardiovascular health. Web-based interventions incorporating feedback and group features may represent opportune, convenient, and cost-effective methods for encouraging physical activity (PA) in order to improve the levels of PA and cardiovascular health of nurses. The purpose of this parallel-group randomized trial was to examine the impact of an intervention providing participants with feedback from an activity monitor coupled with a web-based individual, friend or team PA challenge, on the PA and cardiovascular health of nurses working in a cardiovascular setting...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ping Sun, Torsten Wronski, Jean D Bariyanga, Ann Apio
The distribution of gastro-intestinal (GI) parasites across landscapes is closely related to the spatial distribution of hosts. In GI parasites with environmental life stages, the vitality of parasites is also affected by ecological and landscape-related components of the environment. This is particularly relevant for domestic livestock species that are often kept across habitats with varying degrees of degradation, exposing them to a wide range of environmentally robust parasite species. In our study, we examined the effect of environmental and anthropogenic factors on the prevalence and intensity of GI parasites across a free-ranging stock of Ankole cattle in the Mutara rangelands of northeastern Rwanda...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Caroline Jacobson, Rongchang Yang, Andrew Williams, Graham E Gardner, Ian Carmichael, Angus J D Campbell, Una Ryan
Associations between faecal shedding of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica (based on the yst virulence gene) with growth, carcass weight and diarrhoea were investigated using an observational longitudinal study of 1200 crossbred prime (meat) lambs on eight Australian farms. Live weight, breech faecal soiling score (scale 1-5) and faecal consistency score (FCS; scale 1-5) were recorded, and faecal samples collected from each lamb on three sampling occasions; weaning (≈12 weeks of age), post-weaning (≈19 weeks) and pre-slaughter (≈29 weeks)...
April 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Morgan K Richards, Adam B Goldin, Peter F Ehrlich, Elizabeth A Beierle, John J Doski, Melanie Goldfarb, Monica Langer, Jed G Nuchtern, Sanjeev Vasudevan, Kenneth W Gow
Standard of care for unilateral nephroblastoma includes total nephrectomy (TN) with nodal sampling. We sought to compare the outcomes of TN and partial nephrectomy (PN). We performed a retrospective cohort study of TN and PN for nephroblastoma using the National Cancer Data Base. The outcomes included nodal sampling frequency, margin status, and survival. Categorical and continuous data were evaluated with χ2 and t tests, respectively (P < 0.05). Generalized linear models evaluated nodal sampling and margin status...
March 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Pierre Onodje Agbani, Konoutan Médard Kafoutchoni, Kolawolé Valère Salako, Rodrigue Castro Gbedomon, Ahuéfa Mauricel Kégbé, Hahn Karen, Brice Sinsin
BACKGROUND: Atakora mountains in Benin are a unique but fragile ecosystem, harboring many endemic plant species. The ecosystem is undergoing degradation, and the woody vegetation is dramatically declining due to high anthropogenic actions and recurrent drought. This study aimed to (i) assess the diversity of threatened woody species and (ii) identify their potential substitutes in the three regions of the Atakora mountains namely East Atakora, Central Atakora, and West Atakora. METHODS: The data were collected during expeditions on surveyed localities through semi-structured individual interviews...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Rachel Reed, Michele Barletta, Janet Grimes, Jennifer Mumaw, Hea Jin Park, Steeve Giguère, Michael Azain, Xi Fang, Jane Quandt
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of an oscillometric blood pressure monitor in anesthetized pigs. Invasive blood pressure (IBP) and noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) measurements were taken using a DRE Waveline Pro multiparameter monitor at four different time points in 17 pigs undergoing injectable anesthesia. NIBP measurements were taken on both the thoracic and pelvic limbs. Bland Altman analysis was used to assess agreement between methods and a linear mixed-effects model was used to evaluate the effect of cuff position and blood pressure on bias...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Janet Baack Kukreja, Qiuling Shi, Courtney M Chang, Mohamed A Seif, Brandon M Sterling, Ting-Yu Chen, Kelly M Creel, Ashish M Kamat, Colin P Dinney, Neema Navai, Jay B Shah, Xin Shelley Wang
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is a disease of the elderly that is associated with high morbidity in those treated with radical cystectomy. In this observational study of patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy, we analyzed and compared patient-reported outcomes from those treated with Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) methods versus those who received traditional perioperative care. METHODS: We enrolled patients who underwent radical cystectomy at a high-volume tertiary care referral center from November 2013 to December 2016, when the ERAS concept was being introduced into postoperative care at our institution...
March 1, 2018: Surgical Innovation
Yuan Cheng, Haiying Song, Xiaoqing Pan, Hong Xue, Yifei Wan, Tao Wang, Zhongmin Tian, Entai Hou, Ian R Lanza, Pengyuan Liu, Yong Liu, Purushottam W Laud, Kristie Usa, Yongcheng He, Mingyu Liang
Dietary salt intake has significant effects on arterial blood pressure and the development of hypertension. Mechanisms underlying salt-dependent changes in blood pressure remain poorly understood, and it is difficult to assess blood pressure salt-sensitivity clinically. Methods: We examined urinary levels of metabolites in 103 participants of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium trial after nearly 30 days on a defined diet containing high sodium (targeting 150 mmol sodium intake per day) or low sodium (50 mmol per day)...
2018: Theranostics
Benjamin W Chrisinger, Michael J Kallan, Eliza D Whiteman, Amy Hillier
Food shopping decisions are pathways between food environment, diet and health outcomes, including chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. The choices of where to shop and what to buy are interrelated, though a better understanding of this dynamic is needed. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's nationally representative Food Acquisitions and Purchase Survey food-at-home dataset was joined with other databases of retailer characteristics and Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) of purchases. We used linear regression models with general estimating equations to assess relationships between trip, store, and shopper characteristics with trip HEI scores...
March 16, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Cassandra L Pattinson, Simon S Smith, Sally L Staton, Stewart G Trost, Karen J Thorpe
OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between sleep parameters and weight status in a large sample of preschool children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey data from the Effective Early Educational Experiences for children (E4Kids) study were analyzed. PARTICIPANTS: 1111 children aged 3 to 6 years from Queensland and Victoria, Australia. MEASUREMENTS: General linear modeling, with adjustment for significant control variables, assessed the impact of night sleep duration, total sleep duration, napping frequency, sleep timing (onset, offset and midpoint), and severity of sleep problems on standardized body mass index (BMI z score)...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Mariana Castro Martins, Mandy J Peffers, Katie Lee, Luis M Rubio-Martinez
BACKGROUND: Intra-articular administration of stanozolol has shown promising results by improving the clinical management of lameness associated with naturally-occurring osteoarthritis (OA) in horses, and by decreasing osteophyte formation and subchondral bone reaction in sheep following surgically induced OA. However, there is limited evidence on the anti-inflammatory and modulatory properties of stanozolol on articular tissues. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of stanozolol on chondrocyte viability and gene expression in normal equine chondrocytes and an inflammatory in vitro system of OA (interleukin-1β (IL-1β) treated chondrocytes)...
March 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Albert Herrero, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Olga Vigiak, Stefanie Lutz, Rohini Kumar, David Gampe, Verena Huber-García, Ralf Ludwig, Ramon Batalla, Sergi Sabater
Multiple abiotic stressors affect the ecological status of water bodies. The status of waterbodies in the Ebro catchment (NE Spain) is evaluated using the biological quality elements (BQEs) of diatoms, invertebrates and macrophytes. The multi-stressor influence on the three BQEs was evaluated using the monitoring dataset available from the catchment water authority. Nutrient concentrations, especially total phosphorus (TP), affected most of the analyzed BQEs, while changes in mean discharge, water temperature, or river morphology did not show significant influences...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
M Janik, P Bossew, O Kurihara
Machine learning is a class of statistical techniques which has proven to be a powerful tool for modelling the behaviour of complex systems, in which response quantities depend on assumed controls or predictors in a complicated way. In this paper, as our first purpose, we propose the application of machine learning to reconstruct incomplete or irregularly sampled data of time series indoor radon (222 Rn). The physical assumption underlying the modelling is that Rn concentration in the air is controlled by environmental variables such as air temperature and pressure...
March 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Stefanie Bachnick, Dietmar Ausserhofer, Marianne Baernholdt, Michael Simon
BACKGROUND: Patient-centered care is a key element of high-quality healthcare and determined by individual, structural and process factors. Patient-centered care is associated with improved patient-reported, clinical and economic outcomes. However, while hospital-level characteristics influence patient-centered care, little evidence is available on the association of patient-centered care with characteristic such as the nurse work environment or implicit rationing of nursing care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe patient-centered care in Swiss acute care hospitals and to explore the associations with nurse work environment factors and implicit rationing of nursing care...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
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