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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346162/household-chaos-and-sleep-disturbing-behavior-of-family-members-results-of-a-pilot-study-of-african-american-early-adolescents
#1
James C Spilsbury, Sanjay R Patel, Nathan Morris, Aida Ehayaei, Stephen S Intille
BACKGROUND: Although disorganized, chaotic households have been linked to poorer sleep outcomes, how household chaos actually manifests itself in the behaviors of others around the bedtime of a child or adolescent is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether household chaos was associated with specific, nightly sleep-disturbing activities of adolescents' family members. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six African American or multiethnic early adolescent (ages 11-12 years) and parent dyads, recruited from local schools and social-service agencies in greater Cleveland, OH...
April 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346151/bidirectional-associations-of-accelerometer-determined-sedentary-behavior-and-physical-activity-with-reported-time-in-bed-women-s-health-study
#2
Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Barbara Sternfeld, Eric J Shiroma, Adriana Pérez, Joseph Cheung, I-Min Lee
OBJECTIVE: To examine the day-to-day, bidirectional associations of accelerometer-derived sedentary behavior and physical activity (PA) with reported time in bed in a large cohort of older women. METHODS: Data are from 10086 Women's Health Study participants (aged 71.6 years; SD, 5.7) who agreed to wear an accelerometer and complete a diary for 7 consecutive days. Generalized linear (multilevel) models with repeated measures were used to examine the adjusted associations of the following: (1) reported time in bed with next-day accelerometer-determined counts and time spent sedentary and in light- and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) and (2) accelerometer estimates with reported time in bed that night, expressed as short (<7 hours), optimal (7-9 hours), and long (>9 hours) sleep...
February 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346050/perception-of-canine-welfare-concerns-among-veterinary-students-practitioners-and-behavior-specialists-in-spain
#3
Isabel Luño, Jorge Palacio, Sylvia García-Belenguer, Ángela González-Martínez, Belén Rosado
Veterinarians are well placed to supervise and ensure canine welfare. However, the perception of animal welfare among veterinarians may vary depending on the level of training and professional practice, including the specialization in animal behavior and welfare. The aim of this study was to survey the perception of canine welfare among veterinarians, including students, practitioners, and behavior specialists. A scale-based questionnaire including 12 issues affecting canine welfare was adapted from Yeates and Main and distributed to first-year (n=50) and fifth-year veterinary students (n=50), as well as veterinary practitioners (n=260) and specialists in behavioral medicine (n=50)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346027/biologically-based-mechanistic-models-of-radiation-related-carcinogenesis-applied-to-epidemiological-data
#4
W Rühm, M Eidemüller, J C Kaiser
PURPOSE: Biologically-based mechanistic models that are used in combining current understanding of human carcinogenesis with epidemiological studies were reviewed. Assessment was made of how well they fit the data, whether they account for non-linear radiobiological low-dose effects, and whether they suggest any implications for the dose response at low doses and dose rates. However, the present paper does not make an attempt to provide a complete review of the existing literature on biologically-based models and their application to epidemiological data...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345879/vibrational-probes-from-small-molecule-solvatochromism-theory-and-experiments-to-applications-in-complex-systems
#5
Bartosz Błasiak, Casey H Londergan, Lauren J Webb, Minhaeng Cho
The vibrational frequency of a chosen normal mode is one of the most accurately measurable spectroscopic properties of molecules in condensed phases. Accordingly, infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopy have provided valuable information on both distributions and ensemble-average values of molecular vibrational frequencies, and these frequencies are now routinely used to investigate structure, conformation, and even absolute configuration of chemical and biological molecules of interest. Recent advancements in coherent time-domain nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy have allowed the study of heterogeneous distributions of local structures and thermally driven ultrafast fluctuations of vibrational frequencies...
March 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345775/quantification-of-the-position-and-depth-of-the-flexor-hallucis-longus-groove-in-euarchontans-with-implications-for-the-evolution-of-primate-positional-behavior
#6
Gabriel S Yapuncich, Erik R Seiffert, Doug M Boyer
OBJECTIVE: On the talus, the position and depth of the groove for the flexor hallucis longus tendon have been used to infer phylogenetic affinities and positional behaviors of fossil primates. This study quantifies aspects of the flexor hallucis longus groove (FHLG) to test if: (1) a lateral FHLG is a derived strepsirrhine feature, (2) a lateral FHLG reflects inverted and abducted foot postures, and (3) a deeper FHLG indicates a larger muscle. METHODS: We used linear measurements of microCT-generated models from a sample of euarchontans (n = 378 specimens, 125 species) to quantify FHLG position and depth...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345443/economic-burden-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhea-retrospective-analysis-of-a-u-s-commercially-insured-population
#7
Jessica L Buono, Kush Mathur, Amelia J Averitt, David A Andrae
BACKGROUND: The economic burden associated with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: To (a) evaluate total annual all-cause, gastrointestinal (GI)-related, and symptom-related (i.e., IBS, diarrhea, abdominal pain) health care resource use and costs among IBS-D patients in a U.S. commercially insured population and (b) estimate incremental all-cause health care costs of IBS-D patients versus matched controls. METHODS: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with 12 months of continuous medical and pharmacy benefit eligibility in 2013 were identified from the Truven Health MarketScan research database...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345434/effect-of-diabetes-treatment-related-attributes-on-costs-to-type-2-diabetes-patients-in-a-real-world-population
#8
Jie Meng, Roman Casciano, Yi-Chien Lee, Lee Stern, Dmitry Gultyaev, Liyue Tong, Brice Kitio-Dschassi
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) results in a substantial economic burden on patients, health care systems, and society. Most literature assessing the cost of T2DM focuses on the long-term complications of the disease, the association between glucose control and cost, and patient characteristics resulting in poor and costly outcomes. However, it is likely that attributes specific to diabetes therapy can affect the use of costly resources. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of diabetes treatment-related attributes, such as improved efficacy, adherence, and reduced risk for hypoglycemia, on costs to T2DM patients...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344839/associations-between-body-fat-percentage-and-fitness-among-police-officers-a-statewide-study
#9
John M Violanti, Claudia C Ma, Desta Fekedulegn, Michael E Andrew, Ja K Gu, Tara A Hartley, Luenda E Charles, Cecil M Burchfiel
BACKGROUND: Police work is generally sedentary although there may be situations that require physical endurance and strength, such as foot chases and arresting suspects. Factors such as excessive body fat can impede an officer's physical ability to deal with such occurrences. Our objective was to examine associations between officers' body fat percentage (BF%) and performance on a standardized fitness protocol. METHODS: Data were obtained from fitness screening among 1,826 male and 115 female officers in a large US police agency...
March 2017: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344433/a-novel-investigation-of-a-micropolar-fluid-characterized-by-nonlinear-constitutive-diffusion-model-in-boundary-layer-flow-and-heat-transfer
#10
Jize Sui, Peng Zhao, Zhengdong Cheng, Liancun Zheng, Xinxin Zhang
The rheological and heat-conduction constitutive models of micropolar fluids (MFs), which are important non-Newtonian fluids, have been, until now, characterized by simple linear expressions, and as a consequence, the non-Newtonian performance of such fluids could not be effectively captured. Here, we establish the novel nonlinear constitutive models of a micropolar fluid and apply them to boundary layer flow and heat transfer problems. The nonlinear power law function of angular velocity is represented in the new models by employing generalized "n-diffusion theory," which has successfully described the characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids, such as shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids...
February 2017: Physics of Fluids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344336/experimental-demonstration-of-a-fully-inseparable-quantum-state-with-nonlocalizable-entanglement
#11
M Mičuda, D Koutný, M Miková, I Straka, M Ježek, L Mišta
Localizability of entanglement in fully inseparable states is a key ingredient of assisted quantum information protocols as well as measurement-based models of quantum computing. We investigate the existence of fully inseparable states with nonlocalizable entanglement, that is, with entanglement which cannot be localized between any pair of subsystems by any measurement on the remaining part of the system. It is shown, that the nonlocalizable entanglement occurs already in suitable mixtures of a three-qubit GHZ state and white noise...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343668/clinician-generated-torque-on-abutment-screws-using-different-hand-screwdrivers
#12
Marzieh Alikhasi, Mahmoud Kazemi, Hamid Jalali, Shervin Hashemzadeh, Hamide Dodangeh, Burak Yilmaz
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Many clinicians use hand screwdrivers to tighten prosthetic and abutment screws. The impact of the screwdriver type, the location of the implant, and the sex of the practitioner on the generated torque is not well understood. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the torque generated by different hand screwdrivers when used in the anterior and posterior regions and to evaluate the correlation between the applied torque and the sex and body mass index (BMI) of the practitioner...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343451/the-association-between-the-day-of-the-week-of-milestones-in-the-care-pathway-of-patients-with-hip-fracture-and-30-day-mortality-findings-from-a-prospective-national-registry-the-national-hip-fracture-database-of-england-and-wales
#13
Adrian Sayers, Michael R Whitehouse, James R Berstock, Karen A Harding, Michael B Kelly, Timothy J Chesser
BACKGROUND: Recent publications indicate increased mortality in patients admitted to hospital at the weekend, but these findings may be subject to inadequate adjustment for case-mix and the complexities of resource provision. Hip fractures generally occur in a frail comorbid population with a consistent diagnosis precipitating admission as an emergency. We therefore aimed to examine the association between the day of the week of milestones in the care pathway and 30-day mortality in this population...
March 27, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342349/evaluation-of-individual-and-area-level-factors-as-modifiers-of-the-association-between-warm-season-temperature-and-pediatric-asthma-morbidity-in-atlanta-ga
#14
Cassandra R O'Lenick, Andrea Winquist, Howard H Chang, Michael R Kramer, James A Mulholland, Andrew Grundstein, Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have found associations between respiratory morbidity and high temperatures; however, few studies have explored associations in potentially sensitive sub-populations. METHODS: We evaluated individual and area-level factors as modifiers of the association between warm-season (May-Sept.) temperature and pediatric respiratory morbidity in Atlanta. Emergency department (ED) visit data were obtained for children, 5-18 years old, with primary diagnoses of asthma or respiratory disease (diagnoses of upper respiratory infections, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, or wheeze) in 20-county Atlanta during 1993-2012...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341901/hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-is-not-associated-with-worse-clinical-or-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-than-other-cardiac-pathologies-after-the-norwood-sano-operation
#15
Billie-Jean Martin, I De Villiers Jonker, Ari R Joffe, Gwen Y Bond, Bryan V Acton, David B Ross, Charlene M T Robertson, Ivan M Rebeyka, Joseph Atallah
There is evidence to suggest that patients undergoing a Norwood for non-HLHS anatomy may have lower mortality than classic HLHS, but differences in neurodevelopmental outcome have not been assessed. Our objective was to compare survival and neurodevelopmental outcome during the same surgical era in a large, well-described cohort. All subjects who underwent a Norwood-Sano operation between 2005 and 2014 were included. Follow-up clinical, neurological, and developmental data were obtained from the Western Canadian Complex Pediatric Therapies Follow-up Program database...
March 24, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340855/no-mediating-effects-of-glycemic-control-and-inflammation-on-the-association-between-vitamin-d-and-lung-function-in-the-general-population
#16
Anne Kaul, Sven Gläser, Anke Hannemann, Beate Stubbe, Stefan B Felix, Matthias Nauck, Ralf Ewert, Nele Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is discussed to be associated with lung health. While former studies focused on subjects suffering from pulmonary diseases, we aimed to investigate the association of 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] with lung function in the general population and examined whether mediating effects of inflammation, glycemic control or renal function exist. METHODS: 1404 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania with pulmonary function testing assessed by expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity and Krogh index were used...
April 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340479/additive-effects-prevail-the-response-of-biota-to-multiple-stressors-in-an-intensively-monitored-watershed
#17
Alexander Gieswein, Daniel Hering, Christian K Feld
Freshwater ecosystems are impacted by a range of stressors arising from diverse human-caused land and water uses. Identifying the relative importance of single stressors and understanding how multiple stressors interact and jointly affect biology is crucial for River Basin Management. This study addressed multiple human-induced stressors and their effects on the aquatic flora and fauna based on data from standard WFD monitoring schemes. For altogether 1095 sites within a mountainous catchment, we used 12 stressor variables covering three different stressor groups: riparian land use, physical habitat quality and nutrient enrichment...
March 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340444/comparative-effectiveness-of-dual-action-versus-single-action-antidepressants-for-the-treatment-of-depression-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#18
Jon C Mills, Jeffrey S Harman, Robert L Cook, Nicole M Marlow, Christopher A Harle, R Paul Duncan, Angela M Bengtson, Brian W Pence
BACKGROUND: Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little is known about the comparative effectiveness between different types of antidepressants used to treat depression in this population. We compared the effectiveness of dual-action and single-action antidepressants in PLWHA for achieving remission from depression. METHODS: We used data from the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinic Systems to identify 1175 new user dual-action or single-action antidepressant treatment episodes occurring from 2005 to 2014 for PLWHA diagnosed with depression...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340224/the-association-of-context-specific-sitting-time-and-physical-activity-intensity-to-working-memory-capacity-and-academic-achievement-in-young-adults
#19
Mireia Felez-Nobrega, Charles H Hillman, Eva Cirera, Anna Puig-Ribera
To examine combined associations between self-reported context-specific sitting time (ST) and physical activity (PA) with working memory capacity (WMC) and academic achievement in a sample of Spanish adults. Undergraduate students ( n = 371; 21 years ± 3 years, 44% female) were recruited from University of Vic-Central University of Catalonia. Participants completed a 54-item survey that assessed socio-demographic variables (e.g. age, gender, academic year), min/week of light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) intensity PA (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), min/day of domain-specific ST (Last 7 days sedentary behavior questionnaire) and academic performance (grade point average)...
March 18, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339686/movement-patterns-in-women-at-risk-for-perinatal-depression-use-of-a-mood-monitoring-mobile-application-in-pregnancy
#20
Laura J Faherty, Liisa Hantsoo, Dina Appleby, Mary D Sammel, Ian M Bennett, Douglas J Wiebe
Objectives: To examine, using a smartphone application, whether mood is related to daily movement patterns in pregnant women at risk for perinatal depression. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six women with elevated depression symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 5) in pregnancy used the application for 8 weeks. Mood was reported using application-administered surveys daily (2 questions) and weekly (PHQ-9 and GAD-7). The application measured daily mobility (distance travelled on foot) and travel radius...
February 19, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
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