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Killer whale

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695679/first-report-of-the-occurrence-and-whole-genome-characterization-of-edwardsiella-tarda-in-the-false-killer-whale-pseudorca-crassidens
#1
Kyunglee Lee, Hye Kwon Kim, Sung-Kyun Park, Hawsun Sohn, Yuna Cho, Young-Min Choi, Dae Gwin Jeong, Ji Hyung Kim
Although several Edwardsiella tarda infections have been reported, its pathogenic role in marine mammals has not been investigated at the genome level. We investigated the genome of E. tarda strain KC-Pc-HB1, isolated from the false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) found bycaught in South Korea. The obtained genome was similar to that of human pathogenic E. tarda strains, but distinct from other Edwardsiella species. Although type III and VI secretion systems, which are essential for the virulence of other Edwardsiella species, were absent, several virulence-related genes involved in the pathogenesis of E...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596530/establishment-and-characterization-of-pygmy-killer-whale-feresa-attenuata-dermal-fibroblast-cell-line
#2
Sun Yajing, Imran Rashid Rajput, Huang Ying, Yu Fei, Edmond Sanganyado, Li Ping, Wang Jingzhen, Liu Wenhua
The pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata) (PKW) is a tropical and subtropical marine mammal commonly found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. Since the PKWs live in offshore protected territories, they are rarely seen onshore. Hence, PKW are one of the most poorly understood oceanic species of odontocetes. The dermal tissue comes primarily from stranding events that occur along the coast of the Shantou, Guangdong, China. The sampled tissues were immediately processed and attached on collagen-coated 6-well tissue culture plate...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559642/infanticide-in-a-mammal-eating-killer-whale-population
#3
Jared R Towers, Muriel J Hallé, Helena K Symonds, Gary J Sutton, Alexandra B Morton, Paul Spong, James P Borrowman, John K B Ford
Infanticide can be an extreme result of sexual conflict that drives selection in species in which it occurs. It is a rarely observed behaviour but some evidence for its occurrence in cetaceans exists in three species of dolphin. Here we describe observations of an adult male killer whale (Orcinus orca) and his post-reproductive mother killing a neonate belonging to an unrelated female from the same population in the North Pacific. This is the first account of infanticide reported in killer whales and the only case committed jointly by an adult male and his mother outside of humans...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467271/correction-to-imitation-of-novel-conspecific-and-human-speech-sounds-in-the-killer-whale-orcinus-orca
#4
J Z Abramson, M V Hernández-Lloreda, L García, F Colmenares, F Aboitiz, J Call
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462769/high-status-of-mercury-and-selenium-in-false-killer-whales-pseudorca-crassidens-owen-1846-stranded-on-southern-south-america-a-possible-toxicological-concern
#5
Iris Cáceres-Saez, Daniela Haro, Olivia Blank, Anelio Aguayo Lobo, Catherine Dougnac, Cristóbal Arredondo, H Luis Cappozzo, Sergio Ribeiro Guevara
The study was carried out to determine Hg and Se concentrations in false killer whales stranded on the Estrecho de Magallanes, Chile, South America. Tissue samples of five mature specimens were analyzed (two females and three males). Mean Hg concentration in liver 1068 (234) μg g-1 dry weight (DW) (standard deviation in parenthesis) was markedly higher than those in kidney 272 (152) μg g-1 DW, lung 423 (325) μg g-1 DW, spleen 725 (696) μg g-1 DW, muscle 118 (94) μg g-1 DW and testicle 18.0 (2.8) μg g-1 DW...
May 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390732/comments-on-killer-whale-orcinus-orca-behavioral-audiograms-j-acoust-soc-am-141-2387-2398-2017
#6
Henry E Heffner, Rickye S Heffner
Branstetter and his colleagues present the audiograms of eight killer whales and provide a comprehensive review of previous killer whale audiograms. In their paper, they say that the present authors have reported a relationship between size and high-frequency hearing but that echolocating cetaceans might be a special case. The purpose of these comments is to clarify that the relationship of a species' high-frequency hearing is not to its size (mass) but to its "functional interaural distance" (a measure of the availability of sound-localization cues)...
January 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386364/imitation-of-novel-conspecific-and-human-speech-sounds-in-the-killer-whale-orcinus-orca
#7
José Z Abramson, Mª Victoria Hernández-Lloreda, Lino García, Fernando Colmenares, Francisco Aboitiz, Josep Call
Vocal imitation is a hallmark of human spoken language, which, along with other advanced cognitive skills, has fuelled the evolution of human culture. Comparative evidence has revealed that although the ability to copy sounds from conspecifics is mostly uniquely human among primates, a few distantly related taxa of birds and mammals have also independently evolved this capacity. Remarkably, field observations of killer whales have documented the existence of group-differentiated vocal dialects that are often referred to as traditions or cultures and are hypothesized to be acquired non-genetically...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350260/modulation-rate-transfer-functions-from-four-species-of-stranded-odontocete-stenella-longirostris-feresa-attenuata-globicephala-melas-and-mesoplodon-densirostris
#8
Adam B Smith, Aude F Pacini, Paul E Nachtigall
Odontocete marine mammals explore the environment by rapidly producing echolocation signals and receiving the corresponding echoes, which likewise return at very rapid rates. Thus, it is important that the auditory system has a high temporal resolution to effectively process and extract relevant information from click echoes. This study used auditory evoked potential methods to investigate auditory temporal resolution of individuals from four different odontocete species, including a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), and Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris)...
April 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158502/competing-tradeoffs-between-increasing-marine-mammal-predation-and-fisheries-harvest-of-chinook-salmon
#9
Brandon E Chasco, Isaac C Kaplan, Austen C Thomas, Alejandro Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Dawn P Noren, Michael J Ford, M Bradley Hanson, Jonathan J Scordino, Steven J Jeffries, Kristin N Marshall, Andrew O Shelton, Craig Matkin, Brian J Burke, Eric J Ward
Many marine mammal predators, particularly pinnipeds, have increased in abundance in recent decades, generating new challenges for balancing human uses with recovery goals via ecosystem-based management. We used a spatio-temporal bioenergetics model of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to quantify how predation by three species of pinnipeds and killer whales (Orcinus orca) on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) has changed since the 1970s along the west coast of North America, and compare these estimates to salmon fisheries...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148044/the-incidence-of-bent-dorsal-fins-in-free-ranging-cetaceans
#10
F Alves, J R Towers, R W Baird, G Bearzi, S Bonizzoni, R Ferreira, Z Halicka, A Alessandrini, A H Kopelman, C Yzoard, M H Rasmussen, C G Bertulli, E Jourdain, A Gullan, D Rocha, K Hupman, M-T Mrusczok, F I P Samarra, S Magalhães, C R Weir, J K B Ford, A Dinis
Laterally bent dorsal fins are rarely observed in free-ranging populations of cetaceans, contrary to captivity, where most killer whale Orcinus orca adult males have laterally collapsed fins. This topic has been poorly explored, and data/information on its occurrence and possible causes are limited. The present study: (i) undertakes a review of the available information on bent dorsal fins in free-ranging cetaceans, and updates it with new records, (ii) reports on the proportion of bent fins in different study populations, and (iii) discusses possible causes...
February 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145610/transition-to-an-aquatic-habitat-permitted-the-repeated-loss-of-the-pleiotropic-klk8-gene-in-mammals
#11
Nikolai Hecker, Virag Sharma, Michael Hiller
Kallikrein related peptidase 8 (KLK8; also called neuropsin) is a serine protease that plays distinct roles in the skin and hippocampus. In the skin, KLK8 influences keratinocyte proliferation and desquamation, and activates antimicrobial peptides in sweat. In the hippocampus, KLK8 affects memory acquisition. Here, we examined the evolution of KLK8 in mammals and discovered that, out of 70 placental mammals, KLK8 is exclusively lost in three independent fully-aquatic lineages, comprising dolphin, killer whale, minke whale, and manatee...
November 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127421/captive-bottlenose-dolphins-and-killer-whales-harbor-a-species-specific-skin-microbiota-that-varies-among-individuals
#12
M Chiarello, S Villéger, C Bouvier, J C Auguet, T Bouvier
Marine animals surfaces host diverse microbial communities, which play major roles for host's health. Most inventories of marine animal surface microbiota have focused on corals and fishes, while cetaceans remain overlooked. The few studies focused on wild cetaceans, making difficult to distinguish intrinsic inter- and/or intraspecific variability in skin microbiota from environmental effects. We used high-throughput sequencing to assess the skin microbiota from 4 body zones of 8 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and killer whales (Orcinus orca), housed in captivity (Marineland park, France)...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096314/predicting-the-effects-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-on-cetacean-populations-through-impacts-on-immunity-and-calf-survival
#13
Ailsa J Hall, Bernie J McConnell, Lori H Schwacke, Gina M Ylitalo, Rob Williams, Teri K Rowles
The potential impact of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the health and survival of cetaceans continues to be an issue for conservation and management, yet few quantitative approaches for estimating population level effects have been developed. An individual based model (IBM) for assessing effects on both calf survival and immunity was developed and tested. Three case study species (bottlenose dolphin, humpback whale and killer whale) in four populations were taken as examples and the impact of varying levels of PCB uptake on achievable population growth was assessed...
February 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078030/four-odontocete-species-change-hearing-levels-when-warned-of-impending-loud-sound
#14
Paul E Nachtigall, Alexander Ya Supin, Aude F Pacini, Ronald A Kastelein
Hearing sensitivity change was investigated when a warning sound preceded a loud sound in the false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the beluga whale (Delphinaperus leucas) and the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). Hearing sensitivity was measured using pip-train test stimuli and auditory evoked potential recording. When the test/warning stimuli preceded a loud sound, hearing thresholds before the loud sound increased relative to the baseline by 13 to 17 dB...
March 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074942/evaluating-anthropogenic-threats-to-endangered-killer-whales-to-inform-effective-recovery-plans
#15
Robert C Lacy, Rob Williams, Erin Ashe, Kenneth C Balcomb Iii, Lauren J N Brent, Christopher W Clark, Darren P Croft, Deborah A Giles, Misty MacDuffee, Paul C Paquet
Understanding cumulative effects of multiple threats is key to guiding effective management to conserve endangered species. The critically endangered, Southern Resident killer whale population of the northeastern Pacific Ocean provides a data-rich case to explore anthropogenic threats on population viability. Primary threats include: limitation of preferred prey, Chinook salmon; anthropogenic noise and disturbance, which reduce foraging efficiency; and high levels of stored contaminants, including PCBs. We constructed a population viability analysis to explore possible demographic trajectories and the relative importance of anthropogenic stressors...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070720/mortality-risk-and-social-network-position-in-resident-killer-whales-sex-differences-and-the-importance-of-resource-abundance
#16
S Ellis, D W Franks, S Nattrass, M A Cant, M N Weiss, D Giles, K C Balcomb, D P Croft
An individual's ecological environment affects their mortality risk, which in turn has fundamental consequences for life-history evolution. In many species, social relationships are likely to be an important component of an individual's environment, and therefore their mortality risk. Here, we examine the relationship between social position and mortality risk in resident killer whales ( Orcinus orca ) using over three decades of social and demographic data. We find that the social position of male, but not female, killer whales in their social unit predicts their mortality risk...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021158/hierarchical-temporal-structure-in-music-speech-and-animal-vocalizations-jazz-is-like-a-conversation-humpbacks-sing-like-hermit-thrushes
#17
Christopher T Kello, Simone Dalla Bella, Butovens Médé, Ramesh Balasubramaniam
Humans talk, sing and play music. Some species of birds and whales sing long and complex songs. All these behaviours and sounds exhibit hierarchical structure-syllables and notes are positioned within words and musical phrases, words and motives in sentences and musical phrases, and so on. We developed a new method to measure and compare hierarchical temporal structures in speech, song and music. The method identifies temporal events as peaks in the sound amplitude envelope, and quantifies event clustering across a range of timescales using Allan factor (AF) variance...
October 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876915/effects-of-polar-bear-and-killer-whale-derived-contaminant-cocktails-on-marine-mammal-immunity
#18
Jean-Pierre Desforges, Milton Levin, Lindsay Jasperse, Sylvain De Guise, Igor Eulaers, Robert J Letcher, Mario Acquarone, Erling Nordøy, Lars P Folkow, Trine Hammer Jensen, Carsten Grøndahl, Mads F Bertelsen, Judy St Leger, Javier Almunia, Christian Sonne, Rune Dietz
Most controlled toxicity studies use single chemical exposures that do not represent the real world situation of complex mixtures of known and unknown natural and anthropogenic substances. In the present study, complex contaminant cocktails derived from the blubber of polar bears (PB; Ursus maritimus) and killer whales (KW; Orcinus orca) were used for in vitro concentration-response experiments with PB, cetacean and seal spp. immune cells to evaluate the effect of realistic contaminant mixtures on various immune functions...
October 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767655/beluga-whale-summer-habitat-associations-in-the-nelson-river-estuary-western-hudson-bay-canada
#19
Alexander J Smith, Jeff W Higdon, Pierre Richard, Jack Orr, Warren Bernhardt, Steven H Ferguson
To understand beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) estuarine use in the Nelson River estuary, southwest Hudson Bay, we recorded and examined beluga movements and habitat associations for the July through August period in 2002-2005. We compared locations of belugas fitted with satellite transmitters ("tags") (2002-2005) and aerial-surveyed (2003 and 2005) belugas for years of differing freshwater flow from the Nelson River which is influenced by hydroelectric activity. Using the beluga telemetry location data, we estimated an early August behavioral shift in beluga distribution patterns from local estuarine use to a progressively more migratory behavior away from the estuary...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739936/gene-culture-coevolution-in-whales-and-dolphins
#20
Hal Whitehead
Whales and dolphins (Cetacea) have excellent social learning skills as well as a long and strong mother-calf bond. These features produce stable cultures, and, in some species, sympatric groups with different cultures. There is evidence and speculation that this cultural transmission of behavior has affected gene distributions. Culture seems to have driven killer whales into distinct ecotypes, which may be incipient species or subspecies. There are ecotype-specific signals of selection in functional genes that correspond to cultural foraging behavior and habitat use by the different ecotypes...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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