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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145610/transition-to-an-aquatic-habitat-permitted-the-repeated-loss-of-the-pleiotropic-klk8-gene-in-mammals
#1
Nikolai Hecker, Virag Sharma, Michael Hiller
KLK8 (also called neuropsin) is a serine protease that plays distinct roles in the skin and hippocampus. In the skin, KLK8 influences keratinocyte proliferation and desquamation, and activates antimicrobial peptides in sweat. In the hippocampus, KLK8 affects memory acquisition. Here, we examined the evolution of KLK8 in mammals and discovered that, out of 70 placental mammals, KLK8 is exclusively lost in three independent fully-aquatic lineages, comprising dolphin, killer whale, minke whale and manatee. In addition, while the sperm whale has an intact KLK8 reading frame, the gene evolves neutrally in this species...
November 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118593/stranding-survey-as-a-framework-to-investigate-rare-cetacean-records-of-the-north-and-north-eastern-brazilian-coasts
#2
Alexandra Fernandes Costa, Salvatore Siciliano, Renata Emin-Lima, Bruna Maria Lima Martins, Maura Elisabeth Moraes Sousa, Tommaso Giarrizzo, José de Sousa E Silva Júnior
Marine mammal stranding events are used as an important tool for understanding cetacean biology worldwide. Nonetheless, there are vast gaps of knowledge to be filled in for a wide range of species. Reputable information is required regarding species from large baleen whales to sperm and beaked whales, as well as pelagic dolphins. This paper describes new cetacean records from north and north-eastern Brazil, which are both the least surveyed areas regarding aquatic mammals. Regular beach surveys were conducted to recover cetacean carcasses along the coast of Pará beginning November 2005...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104176/chemically-dispersed-oil-is-cytotoxic-and-genotoxic-to-sperm-whale-skin-cells
#3
Catherine F Wise, James T F Wise, Sandra S Wise, John Pierce Wise
Two major oil crises in United States history, the 1989 Exxon-Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, drew attention to the need for toxicological experiments on oil and chemically dispersed oil. We are still learning the effects these spills had on wildlife. However, little data is known about the toxicity of these substances in marine mammals. The objective of this study is to determine the toxicity of Alaskan oil, as well as chemically dispersed oil...
November 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092606/the-influence-of-air-filled-structures-on-wave-propagation-and-beam-formation-of-a-pygmy-sperm-whale-kogia-breviceps-in-horizontal-and-vertical-planes
#4
Zhongchang Song, Yu Zhang, Steven W Thornton, Songhai Li, Jianchen Dong
The wave propagation, sound field, and transmission beam pattern of a pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps) were investigated in both the horizontal and vertical planes. Results suggested that the signals obtained at both planes were similarly characterized with a high peak frequency and a relatively narrow bandwidth, close to the ones recorded from live animals. The sound beam measured outside the head in the vertical plane was narrower than that of the horizontal one. Cases with different combinations of air-filled structures in both planes were used to study the respective roles in controlling wave propagation and beam formation...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043037/sperm-whale-dive-behavior-characteristics-derived-from-intermediate-duration-archival-tag-data
#5
Ladd Irvine, Daniel M Palacios, Jorge Urbán, Bruce Mate
Here, we describe the diving behavior of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) using the Advanced Dive Behavior (ADB) tag, which records depth data at 1-Hz resolution and GPS-quality locations for over 1 month, before releasing from the whale for recovery. A total of 27 ADB tags were deployed on sperm whales in the central Gulf of California, Mexico, during spring 2007 and 2008, of which 10 were recovered for data download. Tracking durations of all tags ranged from 0 to 34.5 days (median = 2.3 days), and 0...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020021/physiological-morphological-and-ecological-tradeoffs-influence-vertical-habitat-use-of-deep-diving-toothed-whales-in-the-bahamas
#6
Trevor W Joyce, John W Durban, Diane E Claridge, Charlotte A Dunn, Holly Fearnbach, Kim M Parsons, Russel D Andrews, Lisa T Ballance
Dive capacity among toothed whales (suborder: Odontoceti) has been shown to generally increase with body mass in a relationship closely linked to the allometric scaling of metabolic rates. However, two odontocete species tagged in this study, the Blainville's beaked whale Mesoplodon densirostris and the Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris, confounded expectations of a simple allometric relationship, with exceptionally long (mean: 46.1 min & 65.4 min) and deep dives (mean: 1129 m & 1179 m), and comparatively small body masses (med...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985367/the-novel-evolution-of-the-sperm-whale-genome
#7
Wesley C Warren, Lukas Kuderna, Alana Alexander, Julian Catchen, José G Pérez-Silva, Carlos López-Otín, Víctor Quesada, Patrick Minx, Chad Tomlinson, Michael J Montague, Fabiana H G Farias, Ronald B Walter, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Travis Glenn, Troy J Kieran, Sandra S Wise, John Pierce Wise, Robert M Waterhouse, John Pierce Wise
The sperm whale, made famous by Moby Dick, is one of the most fascinating of all ocean-dwelling species given their unique life history, novel physiological adaptations to hunting squid at extreme ocean depths, and their position as one of the earliest branching toothed whales (Odontoceti). We assembled the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) genome and resequenced individuals from multiple ocean basins to identify new candidate genes for adaptation to an aquatic environment and infer demographic history. Genes crucial for skin integrity appeared to be particularly important in both the sperm whale and other cetaceans...
September 13, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975458/integrative-taxonomy-of-anisakid-nematodes-in-stranded-cetaceans-from-brazilian-waters-an-update-on-parasite-s-hosts-and-geographical-records
#8
Maria Isabel N Di Azevedo, Vitor L Carvalho, Alena M Iñiguez
Anisakidae are represented mainly by species of Anisakis Dujardin, 1845, Pseudoterranova Krabbe, 1878, and Contracaecum Railliet and Henry, 1913. Integrative taxonomy, based on morphological and genetic approaches, can provide a precise identification of species, increasing the knowledge of their systematics, biology, and evolution. In this study, integrative taxonomy was applied in order to identify, at generic and/or specific taxonomic level, 245 anisakids from 63 cetaceans of 12 different species, which stranded in the Brazilian coast...
November 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965599/selenium-protein-identification-and-profiling-by-mass-spectrometry-a-tool-to-assess-progression-of-cardiomyopathy-in-a-whale-model
#9
Colleen E Bryan, Gregory D Bossart, Steven J Christopher, W Clay Davis, Lisa E Kilpatrick, Wayne E McFee, Terrence X O'Brien
Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy is a leading cause of congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death in humans and in some cases the etiology of cardiomyopathy can include the downstream effects of an essential element deficiency. Of all mammal species, pygmy sperm whales (Kogia breviceps) present the greatest known prevalence of cardiomyopathy with more than half of examined individuals indicating the presence of cardiomyopathy from gross and histo-pathology. Several factors such as genetics, infectious agents, contaminants, biotoxins, and inappropriate dietary intake (vitamins, selenium, mercury, and pro-oxidants), may contribute to the development of idiopathic cardiomyopathy in K...
December 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964052/combining-passive-acoustics-and-imaging-sonar-techniques-to-study-sperm-whales-foraging-strategies
#10
Giacomo Giorli, Whitlow W L Au
Sperm whales forage in the deep ocean, hunting for squid. An innovative approach for the study of sperm whale foraging behavior and habitat selection is reported in this letter. A DIDSON imaging sonar mounted on a profiler with a conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor was used to count and measure potential prey in the deep ocean during sperm whales' acoustical foraging encounters in Hawaii. Preliminary results show how this technique can be applied to the study of deep diving whale foraging and habitat selection...
September 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930082/cryptosporidium-spp-and-giardia-sp-in-aquatic-mammals-in-northern-and-northeastern-brazil
#11
João Carlos Borges, Danielle Dos Lima, Edson Moura da Silva, André Lucas de Oliveira Moreira, Miriam Marmontel, Vitor Luz Carvalho, Rodrigo de Amaral, Stella Maris Lazzarini, Leucio Câmara Alves
Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoans that can infect humans and wild and domestic animals. Due to the growing importance of diseases caused by protozoan parasites in aquatic species, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic and marine mammals in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. We collected 553 fecal samples from 15 species of wild-ranging and captive aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil. All samples were analyzed by the Kinyoun technique for identification of Cryptosporidium spp...
September 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899945/bindings-of-no-co-and-o2-to-multifunctional-globin-type-dehaloperoxidase-follow-the-sliding-scale-rule
#12
Gang Wu, Jing Zhao, Stefan Franzen, Ah-Lim Tsai
Dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin (DHP), a multifunctional globin protein, not only functions as an oxygen carrier as typical globins such as myoglobin and hemoglobin, but also as a peroxidase, a mono- and dioxygenase, peroxygenase, and an oxidase. Kinetics of DHP binding to NO, CO, and O2 were characterized for wild-type DHP A and B and the H55D and H55V DHP A mutants using stopped-flow methods. All three gaseous ligands bind to DHP significantly more weakly than sperm whale myoglobin (SWMb). Both CO and NO bind to DHP in a one-step process to form a stable six-coordinate complex...
October 5, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877500/sw-apomb-amyloid-aggregation-under-nondenaturing-conditions-the-role-of-native-structure-stability
#13
Natalya S Katina, Vitalii A Balobanov, Nelly B Ilyina, Victor D Vasiliev, Victor V Marchenkov, Anatoly S Glukhov, Alexey D Nikulin, Valentina E Bychkova
Investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying amyloid-related human diseases attracts close attention. These diseases, the number of which currently is above 40, are characterized by formation of peptide or protein aggregates containing a cross-β structure. Most of the amyloidogenesis mechanisms described so far are based on experimental studies of aggregation of short peptides, intrinsically disordered proteins, or proteins under denaturing conditions, and studies of amyloid aggregate formations by structured globular proteins under conditions close to physiological ones are still in the initial stage...
September 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863586/the-energy-based-characteristics-of-sperm-whale-clicks-using-the-hilbert-huang-transform-analysis-method
#14
Chin-Feng Lin, Yao-Ching Chung, Jin-De Zhu, Shun-Hsyung Chang, Chan-Chuan Wen, Ivan A Parinov, S N Shevtsov
In this paper, a unique analysis method for sperm whale clicks based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is proposed. Four sperm whale click samples with durations of 10 ms (defined as click I), and four sperm whale click samples with durations of 5 ms (defined as click II) were illustrated. These click samples were recorded in the Mediterranean Sea by Centro Interdisciplinare di Bioacusticae Ricerche Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Pavia. The empirical mode decomposition method was used to decompose click I samples into seven intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and one residue function (RF), and click II samples were decomposed into six IMFs and one RF...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799088/metazoan-parasites-from-odontocetes-off-new-zealand-new-records
#15
Kristina Lehnert, Haseeb Randhawa, Robert Poulin
Information about the parasite fauna of spectacled porpoises and cetaceans from New Zealand waters in general is scarce. This study takes advantage of material archived in collections of the Otago Museum in Dunedin and Massey University in Auckland, sampled from cetacean species found stranded along the New Zealand coastline between 2007 and 2014. Parasites from seven species of cetaceans (spectacled porpoise, Phocoena dioptrica (n = 2 individuals examined); pygmy sperm whale (n = 1); long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas (n = 1); Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus (n = 1); short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis (n = 7); striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba (n = 3) and dusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus (n = 2)) from the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract, cranial sinus, liver, urogenital and mammary tract, fascia and blubber were investigated...
October 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791156/mismatch-between-the-eye-and-the-optic-lobe-in-the-giant-squid
#16
Yung-Chieh Liu, Tsung-Han Liu, Chun-Chieh Yu, Chia-Hao Su, Chuan-Chin Chiao
Giant squids (Architeuthis) are a legendary species among the cephalopods. They live in the deep sea and are well known for their enormous body and giant eyes. It has been suggested that their giant eyes are not adapted for the detection of either mates or prey at distance, but rather are best suited for monitoring very large predators, such as sperm whales, at distances exceeding 120 m and at a depth below 600 m (Nilsson et al. 2012 Curr. Biol.22, 683-688. (doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.02.031)). However, it is not clear how the brain of giant squids processes visual information...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775301/high-diversity-and-unique-composition-of-gut-microbiomes-in-pygmy-kogia-breviceps-and-dwarf-k-sima-sperm-whales
#17
Patrick M Erwin, Ryan G Rhodes, Kevin B Kiser, Tiffany F Keenan-Bateman, William A McLellan, D Ann Pabst
Mammals host diverse bacterial and archaeal symbiont communities (i.e. microbiomes) that play important roles in digestive and immune system functioning, yet cetacean microbiomes remain largely unexplored, in part due to sample collection difficulties. Here, fecal samples from stranded pygmy (Kogia breviceps) and dwarf (K. sima) sperm whales were used to characterize the gut microbiomes of two closely-related species with similar diets. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed diverse microbial communities in kogiid whales dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758387/characterization-of-heme-orientational-disorder-in-a-myoglobin-reconstituted-with-a-trifluoromethyl-group-substituted-heme-cofactor
#18
Yuki Kanai, Ayaka Harada, Tomokazu Shibata, Ryu Nishimura, Kosuke Namiki, Miho Watanabe, Shunpei Nakamura, Fumiaki Yumoto, Toshiya Senda, Akihiro Suzuki, Saburo Neya, Yasuhiko Yamamoto
The orientation of a CF3-substituted heme in sperm whale myoglobin and L29F, H64L, L29F/H64Q, and H64Q variant proteins has been investigated using (19)F NMR spectroscopy to elucidate structural factors responsible for the thermodynamic stability of the heme orientational disorder, i.e., the presence of two heme orientations differing by a 180° rotation about the 5-15 meso axis, with respect to the protein moiety. Crystal structure of the met-aquo form of the wild-type myoglobin reconstituted with 13,17-bis(2-carboxylatoethyl)-3,8-diethyl-2,12,18-trimethyl-7-trifluoromethylporphyrinatoiron(III), determined at resolution of 1...
August 29, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739936/gene-culture-coevolution-in-whales-and-dolphins
#19
Hal Whitehead
Whales and dolphins (Cetacea) have excellent social learning skills as well as a long and strong mother-calf bond. These features produce stable cultures, and, in some species, sympatric groups with different cultures. There is evidence and speculation that this cultural transmission of behavior has affected gene distributions. Culture seems to have driven killer whales into distinct ecotypes, which may be incipient species or subspecies. There are ecotype-specific signals of selection in functional genes that correspond to cultural foraging behavior and habitat use by the different ecotypes...
July 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679256/application-of-dual-frequency-identification-sonar-for-the-study-of-deep-diving-odontocetes-prey-fields
#20
Giacomo Giorli, Whitlow W L Au
A dual frequency identification sonar was used to estimate density and size of potential deep diving odontocetes' prey in deep sea scattering layers in Hawaii. Size distributions data showed a bimodal pattern, with a population of data above the 50 cm of length, possibly big squids, and a population of data below 50 cm, mainly micronekton. The number of animals bigger than 50 cm was correlated with the length of the peak of the frequency distribution. Data suggest that big predators, like squids that constitute prey for beaked, pilot, and sperm whales, are more likely to be found where they have better chance to find micronectonic prey...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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