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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500397/analysis-of-lethal-and-sublethal-impacts-of-environmental-disasters-on-sperm-whales-using-stochastic-modeling
#1
Azmy S Ackleh, Ross A Chiquet, Baoling Ma, Tingting Tang, Hal Caswell, Amy Veprauskas, Natalia Sidorovskaia
Mathematical models are essential for combining data from multiple sources to quantify population endpoints. This is especially true for species, such as marine mammals, for which data on vital rates are difficult to obtain. Since the effects of an environmental disaster are not fixed, we develop time-varying (nonautonomous) matrix population models that account for the eventual recovery of the environment to the pre-disaster state. We use these models to investigate how lethal and sublethal impacts (in the form of reductions in the survival and fecundity, respectively) affect the population's recovery process...
May 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487524/vertebral-bone-microarchitecture-and-osteocyte-characteristics-of-three-toothed-whale-species-with-varying-diving-behaviour
#2
Tim Rolvien, Michael Hahn, Ursula Siebert, Klaus Püschel, Hans-Joachim Wilke, Björn Busse, Michael Amling, Ralf Oheim
Although vertebral bone microarchitecture has been studied in various tetrapods, limited quantitative data are available on the structural and compositional changes of vertebrae in marine mammals. Whales exhibit exceptional swimming and diving behaviour, and they may not be immune to diving-associated bone pathologies. Lumbar vertebral bodies were analysed in three toothed whale species: the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), orca (Orcinus orca) and harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). The bone volume fraction (BV/TV) did not scale with body size, although the trabeculae were thicker, fewer in number and further apart in larger whale species than in the other two species...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440286/size-and-shape-variations-of-the-bony-components-of-sperm-whale-cochleae
#3
Joseph G Schnitzler, Bruno Frédérich, Sven Früchtnicht, Tobias Schaffeld, Johannes Baltzer, Andreas Ruser, Ursula Siebert
Several mass strandings of sperm whales occurred in the North Sea during January and February 2016. Twelve animals were necropsied and sampled around 48 h after their discovery on German coasts of Schleswig Holstein. The present study aims to explore the morphological variation of the primary sensory organ of sperm whales, the left and right auditory system, using high-resolution computerised tomography imaging. We performed a quantitative analysis of size and shape of cochleae using landmark-based geometric morphometrics to reveal inter-individual anatomical variations...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437554/molecular-identification-of-cetaceans-from-the-west-atlantic-using-the-e3-i5-region-of-coi
#4
L H O Falcão, A S Campos, J E P Freitas, M A A Furtado-Neto, V V Faria
Molecular identification is very useful in cases where morphology-based species identification is not possible. Examples for its application in cetaceans include the identification of carcasses of stranded animals in advanced state of decomposition and body parts that are illegally traded. One DNA region that is often used for molecular identification is the Folmer region of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) (locus 48 to 705 bp). This locus has been used for the identification of several animal species, including whales and dolphins...
April 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405350/quantifying-the-energy-stores-of-capital-breeding-humpback-whales-and-income-breeding-sperm-whales-using-historical-whaling-records
#5
Lyn G Irvine, Michele Thums, Christine E Hanson, Clive R McMahon, Mark A Hindell
Cetacean energy stores are known to vary according to life history, reproductive status and time of year; however, the opportunity to quantify these relationships is rare. Using a unique set of historical whaling records from Western Australia (1952-1963), we investigated energy stores of large cetaceans with differing life histories, and quantified the relationship between total body lipid and length for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) (n = 905) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) (n = 1961)...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401960/sperm-whale-long-range-echolocation-sounds-revealed-by-antares-a-deep-sea-neutrino-telescope
#6
M André, A Caballé, M van der Schaar, A Solsona, L Houégnigan, S Zaugg, A M Sánchez, J V Castell, M Solé, F Vila, D Djokic, S Adrián-Martínez, A Albert, M Anghinolfi, G Anton, M Ardid, J-J Aubert, T Avgitas, B Baret, J Barrios-Martí, S Basa, V Bertin, S Biagi, R Bormuth, M C Bouwhuis, R Bruijn, J Brunner, J Busto, A Capone, L Caramete, J Carr, S Celli, T Chiarusi, M Circella, A Coleiro, R Coniglione, H Costantini, P Coyle, A Creusot, A Deschamps, G De Bonis, C Distefano, I Di Palma, C Donzaud, D Dornic, D Drouhin, T Eberl, I El Bojaddaini, D Elsässer, A Enzenhöfer, K Fehn, I Felis, L A Fusco, S Galatà, P Gay, S Geißelsöder, K Geyer, V Giordano, A Gleixner, H Glotin, R Gracia-Ruiz, K Graf, S Hallmann, H van Haren, A J Heijboer, Y Hello, J J Hernandez-Rey, J Hößl, J Hofestädt, C Hugon, G Illuminati, C W James, M de Jong, M Jongen, M Kadler, O Kalekin, U Katz, D Kießling, A Kouchner, M Kreter, I Kreykenbohm, V Kulikovskiy, C Lachaud, R Lahmann, D Lefèvre, E Leonora, S Loucatos, M Marcelin, A Margiotta, A Marinelli, J A Martínez-Mora, A Mathieu, K Melis, T Michael, P Migliozzi, A Moussa, C Mueller, E Nezri, G E Păvălaş, C Pellegrino, C Perrina, P Piattelli, V Popa, T Pradier, C Racca, G Riccobene, K Roensch, M Saldaña, D F E Samtleben, M Sanguineti, P Sapienza, J Schnabel, F Schüssler, T Seitz, C Sieger, M Spurio, Th Stolarczyk, A Sánchez-Losa, M Taiuti, A Trovato, M Tselengidou, D Turpin, C Tönnis, B Vallage, C Vallée, V Van Elewyck, D Vivolo, S Wagner, J Wilms, J D Zornoza, J Zuñiga
Despite dedicated research has been carried out to adequately map the distribution of the sperm whale in the Mediterranean Sea, unlike other regions of the world, the species population status is still presently uncertain. The analysis of two years of continuous acoustic data provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope revealed the year-round presence of sperm whales in the Ligurian Sea, probably associated with the availability of cephalopods in the region. The presence of the Ligurian Sea sperm whales was demonstrated through the real-time analysis of audio data streamed from a cabled-to-shore deep-sea observatory that allowed the hourly tracking of their long-range echolocation behaviour on the Internet...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358284/molecular-cloning-of-porcine-sun5-gene-and-association-between-a-snp-with-litter-size-trait
#7
Zhenhua Zhao, Yonggang Liu
SUN domain-containing protein 5 (SUN5) is an important reproduction related gene. In this study, we cloned the full-length coding sequence of porcine SUN5 gene through RT-PCR. Sequence analysis of this gene revealed that the pig SUN5 gene encodes a protein of 383 amino acids that has high homology with the SUN5 protein of eight species: wild Bactrian camel (95%), alpaca (95%), Yangtze River dolphin (94%), sperm whale (94%), sheep (93%), black flying fox (93%), goat (92%), and horse (91%). This gene is structured into 13 exons and 12 introns as revealed by computer-assisted analysis...
March 30, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301147/exposure-to-persistent-organic-pollutants-reduces-testosterone-concentrations-and-affects-sperm-viability-and-morphology-during-the-mating-peak-period-in-a-controlled-experiment-on-farmed-arctic-foxes-vulpes-lagopus
#8
Christian Sonne, Peter A Torjesen, Eva Fuglei, Derek C G Muir, Bjørn Munro Jenssen, Even H Jørgensen, Rune Dietz, Øystein Ahlstrøm
We investigated testosterone production and semen parameters in farmed Arctic foxes by dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for 22 months. Eight male foxes were given a diet of POP-contaminated minke whale blubber, whereas their eight male siblings were fed a control diet containing pig fat as the main fat source. The minke whale-based feed contained a ∑POPs concentration of 802 ng/g ww, whereas the pig-based feed contained ∑POPs of 24 ng/g ww. At the end of the experiment, ∑POP concentrations in adipose tissue were 8856 ± 2535 ng/g ww in the exposed foxes and 1264 ± 539 ng/g ww in the control foxes...
March 30, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278659/chromatographic-and-spectral-studies-of-jetsam-and-archived-ambergris
#9
Steven J Rowland, Paul A Sutton
We describe determination of the dichloromethane-soluble components of 12 samples of the natural product, ambergris, using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ambergris is produced in vivo in about 1% of Sperm whales and is used in perfumery and for odour fixation. Whilst descriptions of ambergris chemistry appeared until about 40 years ago, few accounts of analyses of whole extracts of multiple samples of ambergris by GC-MS have been published before. As expected, our analyses revealed that the major component (up to 97% of the dichloromethane-soluble material) was ambrein, with co-occurring, variable proportions of steroids...
February 16, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275880/cultural-hitchhiking-in-the-matrilineal-whales
#10
Hal Whitehead, Felicia Vachon, Timothy R Frasier
Five species of whale with matrilineal social systems (daughters remain with mothers) have remarkably low levels of mitochondrial DNA diversity. Non-heritable matriline-level demography could reduce genetic diversity but the required conditions are not consistent with the natural histories of the matrilineal whales. The diversity of nuclear microsatellites is little reduced in the matrilineal whales arguing against bottlenecks. Selective sweeps of the mitochondrial genome are feasible causes but it is not clear why these only occurred in the matrilineal species...
March 9, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274434/effect-of-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-on-myoglobin-mediated-lipid-oxidation-when-varying-histidine-content-and-hemin-affinity
#11
Eric W Grunwald, Nantawat Tatiyaborworntham, Cameron Faustman, Mark P Richards
The compound 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) dissolved in water was examined to remove potential effects of using ethanol to solubilize the aldehyde such as altering protein structure or redox properties of myoglobin (Mb). HNE became covalently bound to sperm whale Mb at up to five sites based on ESI-MS analysis. Adducted Mb promoted lipid oxidation in washed muscle more effectively than non-adducted Mb. Alkylation of P88H/Q152HMb with HNE accelerated metMb formation and subsequent lipid oxidation. P88H/Q152HMb exposed to HNE enhanced lipid oxidation compared to wild-type Mb exposed to HNE...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261000/a-versatile-system-for-high-throughput-in-situ-x-ray-screening-and-data-collection-of-soluble-and-membrane-protein-crystals
#12
Jana Broecker, Viviane Klingel, Wei-Lin Ou, Aidin R Balo, David J Kissick, Craig M Ogata, Anling Kuo, Oliver P Ernst
In recent years, in situ data collection has been a major focus of progress in protein crystallography. Here, we introduce the Mylar in situ method using Mylar-based sandwich plates that are inexpensive, easy to make and handle, and show significantly less background scattering than other setups. A variety of cognate holders for patches of Mylar in situ sandwich films corresponding to one or more wells makes the method robust and versatile, allows for storage and shipping of entire wells, and enables automated crystal imaging, screening, and goniometer-based X-ray diffraction data-collection at room temperature and under cryogenic conditions for soluble and membrane-protein crystals grown in or transferred to these plates...
November 2, 2016: Crystal Growth & Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253668/short-first-click-intervals-in-echolocation-trains-of-three-species-of-deep-diving-odontocetes
#13
Charlotte A Dunn, Peter Tyack, Patrick J O Miller, Luke Rendell
All odontocetes produce echolocation clicks as part of their vocal repertoire. In this paper the authors analysed inter-click-intervals in recordings from suction cup tags with a focus on the first inter-click interval of each click train. The authors refer to shorter first inter-click intervals as short first intervals (SFIs). The authors found that the context of SFI occurrence varies across three deep-diving species. In Blainville's beaked whales, 87% of click trains that were preceded by a terminal buzz started with SFIs...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197145/dolphin-morbillivirus-in-a-cuvier-s-beaked-whale-ziphius-cavirostris-italy
#14
Cinzia Centelleghe, Giorgia Beffagna, Giuseppe Palmisano, Giovanni Franzo, Cristina Casalone, Alessandra Pautasso, Federica Giorda, Fabio Di Nocera, Doriana Iaccarino, Mario Santoro, Giovanni Di Guardo, Sandro Mazzariol
Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) has caused several mortality events in Mediterranean striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins populations since 19; in the last 5 years, the virus was reported to infect new hosts in this basin, such as fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), and even a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Very recently, a calf Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) calf stranded on the Southern Italian coastline with mild pathological findings suggestive of morbilliviral infection, received the first confirmation of DMV infection in this species by biomolecular evidences on lung tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193458/inactivation-of-the-olfactory-marker-protein-omp-gene-in-river-dolphins-and-other-odontocete-cetaceans
#15
Mark S Springer, John Gatesy
Various toothed whales (Odontoceti) are unique among mammals in lacking olfactory bulbs as adults and are thought to be anosmic (lacking the olfactory sense). At the molecular level, toothed whales have high percentages of pseudogenic olfactory receptor genes, but species that have been investigated to date retain an intact copy of the olfactory marker protein gene (OMP), which is highly expressed in olfactory receptor neurons and may regulate the temporal resolution of olfactory responses. One hypothesis for the retention of intact OMP in diverse odontocete lineages is that this gene is pleiotropic with additional functions that are unrelated to olfaction...
February 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116055/the-development-of-an-intermediate-duration-tag-to-characterize-the-diving-behavior-of-large-whales
#16
Bruce R Mate, Ladd M Irvine, Daniel M Palacios
The development of high-resolution archival tag technologies has revolutionized our understanding of diving behavior in marine taxa such as sharks, turtles, and seals during their wide-ranging movements. However, similar applications for large whales have lagged behind due to the difficulty of keeping tags on the animals for extended periods of time. Here, we present a novel configuration of a transdermally attached biologging device called the Advanced Dive Behavior (ADB) tag. The ADB tag contains sensors that record hydrostatic pressure, three-axis accelerometers, magnetometers, water temperature, and light level, all sampled at 1 Hz...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983493/dolphin-morbillivirus-associated-with-a-mass-stranding-of-sperm-whales-italy
#17
Sandro Mazzariol, Cinzia Centelleghe, Andrea Di Provvido, Ludovica Di Renzo, Giusy Cardeti, Antonella Cersini, Gianluca Fichi, Antonio Petrella, Cristina Esmeralda Di Francesco, Walter Mignone, Cristina Casalone, Giovanni Di Guardo
In September 2014, seven sperm whales were stranded along Italy's Adriatic coastline. Postmortem investigations on 3 female adult whales and 1 male fetus carried by the largest female revealed molecular and immunohistochemical evidence of dolphin morbillivirus infection. A possible role of the virus in the stranding event was considered.
January 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940620/how-to-build-a-deep-diver-the-extreme-morphology-of-mesoplodonts
#18
D Ann Pabst, William A McLellan, Sentiel A Rommel
Mesoplodont beaked whales are extreme divers, diving for over 45 mins and to depths of over 800 m. These dives are of similar depth and duration to those of the giant sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) whose body mass can be 50 times larger. Velten et al. (2013) provided anatomical data that demonstrated that on-board oxygen stores were sufficient to aerobically support the extreme dives of mesoplodonts if their diving metabolic rates are low. Because no physiological data yet exist, we utilized an anatomical approach-the body composition technique-to examine the relative metabolic rates of mesoplodonts...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934434/characterization-of-ground-state-electron-configurations-of-high-spin-quintet-ferrous-heme-iron-in-deoxy-myoglobin-reconstituted-with-trifluoromethyl-group-substituted-heme-cofactors
#19
Tomokazu Shibata, Yuki Kanai, Ryu Nishimura, Liyang Xu, Yuki Moritaka, Akihiro Suzuki, Saburo Neya, Mikio Nakamura, Yasuhiko Yamamoto
We introduced trifluoromethyl (CF3) group(s) as heme side chain(s) of sperm whale myoglobin (Mb) in order to characterize the electronic nature of heme Fe(II) in deoxy Mb using (19)F NMR spectroscopy. On the basis of the anti-Curie behavior of CF3 signals, we found that the deoxy Mb is in thermal equilibrium between the (5)B2, (dxy)(2)(dxz)(dyz)(dz(2))(dx(2)-y(2)), and (5)E, (dxy)(dxz)(2)(dyz)(dz(2))(dx(2)-y(2)), states of the heme Fe(II), i.e., (5)B2 ⇆ (5)E. Analysis of the curvature in Curie plots has yielded for the first time ΔH and ΔS values of ∼-20 kJ mol(-1) and ∼-60 J K(-1) mol(-1), respectively, for the thermal equilibrium...
December 5, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908036/cetacean-acoustic-detections-from-free-floating-vertical-hydrophone-arrays-in-the-southern-california-current
#20
Emily T Griffiths, Jay Barlow
Drifting acoustic recorders were deployed in the southern California Current during Fall 2014. Two hydrophones configured as a 2-m vertical array at 100 m depth recorded using a 192 kHz sample rate on a 10% duty cycle (2 min/20 min). Beaked whales were detected in 33 of 8618 two-minute recordings. Sperm whales were detected in 185 recordings, and dolphins in 2291 recordings. Many beaked whales detected were over an abyssal plain and not associated with slope or seamount features. Results show the feasibility of using free-floating recording systems to detect a variety of cetacean species over periods of several months...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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