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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679256/application-of-dual-frequency-identification-sonar-for-the-study-of-deep-diving-odontocetes-prey-fields
#1
Giacomo Giorli, Whitlow W L Au
A dual frequency identification sonar was used to estimate density and size of potential deep diving odontocetes' prey in deep sea scattering layers in Hawaii. Size distributions data showed a bimodal pattern, with a population of data above the 50 cm of length, possibly big squids, and a population of data below 50 cm, mainly micronekton. The number of animals bigger than 50 cm was correlated with the length of the peak of the frequency distribution. Data suggest that big predators, like squids that constitute prey for beaked, pilot, and sperm whales, are more likely to be found where they have better chance to find micronectonic prey...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654758/looking-into-a-whale-s-heart-investigating-a-genetic-basis-for-cardiomyopathy-in-a-non-model-species
#2
Amelia Viricel, Patricia E Rosel
Understanding the pathogenesis of complex diseases can benefit from multi-species comparative studies. Yet these studies rarely include natural populations of non-model species. Here, we focused on the cause of a heart muscle disease, cardiomyopathy (CM), affecting multiple mammalian species including humans, cats, dogs, and certain species of whales. Mutations in genes coding for sarcomeric proteins have been identified as a leading cause for CM in humans, and some were also revealed to be responsible for CM in cats...
June 27, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606113/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-computed-tomography-as-tools-for-the-investigation-of-sperm-whale-physeter-macrocephalus-teeth-and-eye
#3
Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup, Ole Lajord Munk, Trine Hammer Jensen, Lasse Fast Jensen, Abdi Hedayat, Brian Hansen
BACKGROUND: Scanning techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are useful tools in veterinary and human medicine. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of these techniques in the study of the anatomy of wild marine mammals as part of a necropsy. MRI and CT scans of sperm whale teeth (n = 4) were performed. The methods were compared and further compared to current standard methods for evaluation of tooth layering. For MRI a zero echo time sequence was used, as previously done for imaging of intact human teeth...
June 12, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601072/intermediate-states-of-apomyoglobin-are-they-parts-of-the-same-area-of-conformations-diagram
#4
V A Balobanov, N S Katina, A V Finkelstein, V E Bychkova
Several research teams have reported detection and characterization of various apomyoglobin intermediate states different in their accumulation mode, thus putting a natural question as to proportions of these intermediates. The current report presents spectral properties of sperm whale apomyoglobin studied over a wide range of conditions with the use of circular dichroism and fluorescence techniques. Based on the experimental data, a diagram of apomyoglobin conformational states has been constructed. It shows that though induced by various denaturants, all the observed intermediates belong to one and the same area in the diagram...
May 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574374/nitrophorins-and-nitrobindins-structure-and-function
#5
REVIEW
Giovanna De Simone, Paolo Ascenzi, Alessandra di Masi, Fabio Polticelli
Classical all α-helical globins are present in all living organisms and are ordered in three lineages: (i) flavohemoglobins and single domain globins, (ii) protoglobins and globin coupled sensors and (iii) truncated hemoglobins, displaying the 3/3 or the 2/2 all α-helical fold. However, over the last two decades, all β-barrel and mixed α-helical-β-barrel heme-proteins displaying heme-based functional properties (e.g. ligand binding, transport and sensing) closely similar to those of all α-helical globins have been reported...
May 24, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500397/analysis-of-lethal-and-sublethal-impacts-of-environmental-disasters-on-sperm-whales-using-stochastic-modeling
#6
Azmy S Ackleh, Ross A Chiquet, Baoling Ma, Tingting Tang, Hal Caswell, Amy Veprauskas, Natalia Sidorovskaia
Mathematical models are essential for combining data from multiple sources to quantify population endpoints. This is especially true for species, such as marine mammals, for which data on vital rates are difficult to obtain. Since the effects of an environmental disaster are not fixed, we develop time-varying (nonautonomous) matrix population models that account for the eventual recovery of the environment to the pre-disaster state. We use these models to investigate how lethal and sublethal impacts (in the form of reductions in the survival and fecundity, respectively) affect the population's recovery process...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487524/vertebral-bone-microarchitecture-and-osteocyte-characteristics-of-three-toothed-whale-species-with-varying-diving-behaviour
#7
Tim Rolvien, Michael Hahn, Ursula Siebert, Klaus Püschel, Hans-Joachim Wilke, Björn Busse, Michael Amling, Ralf Oheim
Although vertebral bone microarchitecture has been studied in various tetrapods, limited quantitative data are available on the structural and compositional changes of vertebrae in marine mammals. Whales exhibit exceptional swimming and diving behaviour, and they may not be immune to diving-associated bone pathologies. Lumbar vertebral bodies were analysed in three toothed whale species: the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), orca (Orcinus orca) and harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). The bone volume fraction (BV/TV) did not scale with body size, although the trabeculae were thicker, fewer in number and further apart in larger whale species than in the other two species...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440286/size-and-shape-variations-of-the-bony-components-of-sperm-whale-cochleae
#8
Joseph G Schnitzler, Bruno Frédérich, Sven Früchtnicht, Tobias Schaffeld, Johannes Baltzer, Andreas Ruser, Ursula Siebert
Several mass strandings of sperm whales occurred in the North Sea during January and February 2016. Twelve animals were necropsied and sampled around 48 h after their discovery on German coasts of Schleswig Holstein. The present study aims to explore the morphological variation of the primary sensory organ of sperm whales, the left and right auditory system, using high-resolution computerised tomography imaging. We performed a quantitative analysis of size and shape of cochleae using landmark-based geometric morphometrics to reveal inter-individual anatomical variations...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437554/molecular-identification-of-cetaceans-from-the-west-atlantic-using-the-e3-i5-region-of-coi
#9
L H O Falcão, A S Campos, J E P Freitas, M A A Furtado-Neto, V V Faria
Molecular identification is very useful in cases where morphology-based species identification is not possible. Examples for its application in cetaceans include the identification of carcasses of stranded animals in advanced state of decomposition and body parts that are illegally traded. One DNA region that is often used for molecular identification is the Folmer region of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) (locus 48 to 705 bp). This locus has been used for the identification of several animal species, including whales and dolphins...
April 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405350/quantifying-the-energy-stores-of-capital-breeding-humpback-whales-and-income-breeding-sperm-whales-using-historical-whaling-records
#10
Lyn G Irvine, Michele Thums, Christine E Hanson, Clive R McMahon, Mark A Hindell
Cetacean energy stores are known to vary according to life history, reproductive status and time of year; however, the opportunity to quantify these relationships is rare. Using a unique set of historical whaling records from Western Australia (1952-1963), we investigated energy stores of large cetaceans with differing life histories, and quantified the relationship between total body lipid and length for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) (n = 905) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) (n = 1961)...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401960/sperm-whale-long-range-echolocation-sounds-revealed-by-antares-a-deep-sea-neutrino-telescope
#11
M André, A Caballé, M van der Schaar, A Solsona, L Houégnigan, S Zaugg, A M Sánchez, J V Castell, M Solé, F Vila, D Djokic, S Adrián-Martínez, A Albert, M Anghinolfi, G Anton, M Ardid, J-J Aubert, T Avgitas, B Baret, J Barrios-Martí, S Basa, V Bertin, S Biagi, R Bormuth, M C Bouwhuis, R Bruijn, J Brunner, J Busto, A Capone, L Caramete, J Carr, S Celli, T Chiarusi, M Circella, A Coleiro, R Coniglione, H Costantini, P Coyle, A Creusot, A Deschamps, G De Bonis, C Distefano, I Di Palma, C Donzaud, D Dornic, D Drouhin, T Eberl, I El Bojaddaini, D Elsässer, A Enzenhöfer, K Fehn, I Felis, L A Fusco, S Galatà, P Gay, S Geißelsöder, K Geyer, V Giordano, A Gleixner, H Glotin, R Gracia-Ruiz, K Graf, S Hallmann, H van Haren, A J Heijboer, Y Hello, J J Hernandez-Rey, J Hößl, J Hofestädt, C Hugon, G Illuminati, C W James, M de Jong, M Jongen, M Kadler, O Kalekin, U Katz, D Kießling, A Kouchner, M Kreter, I Kreykenbohm, V Kulikovskiy, C Lachaud, R Lahmann, D Lefèvre, E Leonora, S Loucatos, M Marcelin, A Margiotta, A Marinelli, J A Martínez-Mora, A Mathieu, K Melis, T Michael, P Migliozzi, A Moussa, C Mueller, E Nezri, G E Păvălaş, C Pellegrino, C Perrina, P Piattelli, V Popa, T Pradier, C Racca, G Riccobene, K Roensch, M Saldaña, D F E Samtleben, M Sanguineti, P Sapienza, J Schnabel, F Schüssler, T Seitz, C Sieger, M Spurio, Th Stolarczyk, A Sánchez-Losa, M Taiuti, A Trovato, M Tselengidou, D Turpin, C Tönnis, B Vallage, C Vallée, V Van Elewyck, D Vivolo, S Wagner, J Wilms, J D Zornoza, J Zuñiga
Despite dedicated research has been carried out to adequately map the distribution of the sperm whale in the Mediterranean Sea, unlike other regions of the world, the species population status is still presently uncertain. The analysis of two years of continuous acoustic data provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope revealed the year-round presence of sperm whales in the Ligurian Sea, probably associated with the availability of cephalopods in the region. The presence of the Ligurian Sea sperm whales was demonstrated through the real-time analysis of audio data streamed from a cabled-to-shore deep-sea observatory that allowed the hourly tracking of their long-range echolocation behaviour on the Internet...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358284/molecular-cloning-of-porcine-sun5-gene-and-association-between-a-snp-with-litter-size-trait
#12
Zhenhua Zhao, Yonggang Liu
SUN domain-containing protein 5 (SUN5) is an important reproduction related gene. In this study, we cloned the full-length coding sequence of porcine SUN5 gene through RT-PCR. Sequence analysis of this gene revealed that the pig SUN5 gene encodes a protein of 383 amino acids that has high homology with the SUN5 protein of eight species: wild Bactrian camel (95%), alpaca (95%), Yangtze River dolphin (94%), sperm whale (94%), sheep (93%), black flying fox (93%), goat (92%), and horse (91%). This gene is structured into 13 exons and 12 introns as revealed by computer-assisted analysis...
March 30, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301147/exposure-to-persistent-organic-pollutants-reduces-testosterone-concentrations-and-affects-sperm-viability-and-morphology-during-the-mating-peak-period-in-a-controlled-experiment-on-farmed-arctic-foxes-vulpes-lagopus
#13
Christian Sonne, Peter A Torjesen, Eva Fuglei, Derek C G Muir, Bjørn Munro Jenssen, Even H Jørgensen, Rune Dietz, Øystein Ahlstrøm
We investigated testosterone production and semen parameters in farmed Arctic foxes by dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for 22 months. Eight male foxes were given a diet of POP-contaminated minke whale blubber, whereas their eight male siblings were fed a control diet containing pig fat as the main fat source. The minke whale-based feed contained a ∑POPs concentration of 802 ng/g ww, whereas the pig-based feed contained ∑POPs of 24 ng/g ww. At the end of the experiment, ∑POP concentrations in adipose tissue were 8856 ± 2535 ng/g ww in the exposed foxes and 1264 ± 539 ng/g ww in the control foxes...
March 30, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278659/chromatographic-and-spectral-studies-of-jetsam-and-archived-ambergris
#14
Steven J Rowland, Paul A Sutton
We describe determination of the dichloromethane-soluble components of 12 samples of the natural product, ambergris, using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ambergris is produced in vivo in about 1% of Sperm whales and is used in perfumery and for odour fixation. Whilst descriptions of ambergris chemistry appeared until about 40 years ago, few accounts of analyses of whole extracts of multiple samples of ambergris by GC-MS have been published before. As expected, our analyses revealed that the major component (up to 97% of the dichloromethane-soluble material) was ambrein, with co-occurring, variable proportions of steroids...
February 16, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275880/cultural-hitchhiking-in-the-matrilineal-whales
#15
Hal Whitehead, Felicia Vachon, Timothy R Frasier
Five species of whale with matrilineal social systems (daughters remain with mothers) have remarkably low levels of mitochondrial DNA diversity. Non-heritable matriline-level demography could reduce genetic diversity but the required conditions are not consistent with the natural histories of the matrilineal whales. The diversity of nuclear microsatellites is little reduced in the matrilineal whales arguing against bottlenecks. Selective sweeps of the mitochondrial genome are feasible causes but it is not clear why these only occurred in the matrilineal species...
March 9, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274434/effect-of-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-on-myoglobin-mediated-lipid-oxidation-when-varying-histidine-content-and-hemin-affinity
#16
Eric W Grunwald, Nantawat Tatiyaborworntham, Cameron Faustman, Mark P Richards
The compound 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) dissolved in water was examined to remove potential effects of using ethanol to solubilize the aldehyde such as altering protein structure or redox properties of myoglobin (Mb). HNE became covalently bound to sperm whale Mb at up to five sites based on ESI-MS analysis. Adducted Mb promoted lipid oxidation in washed muscle more effectively than non-adducted Mb. Alkylation of P88H/Q152HMb with HNE accelerated metMb formation and subsequent lipid oxidation. P88H/Q152HMb exposed to HNE enhanced lipid oxidation compared to wild-type Mb exposed to HNE...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261000/a-versatile-system-for-high-throughput-in-situ-x-ray-screening-and-data-collection-of-soluble-and-membrane-protein-crystals
#17
Jana Broecker, Viviane Klingel, Wei-Lin Ou, Aidin R Balo, David J Kissick, Craig M Ogata, Anling Kuo, Oliver P Ernst
In recent years, in situ data collection has been a major focus of progress in protein crystallography. Here, we introduce the Mylar in situ method using Mylar-based sandwich plates that are inexpensive, easy to make and handle, and show significantly less background scattering than other setups. A variety of cognate holders for patches of Mylar in situ sandwich films corresponding to one or more wells makes the method robust and versatile, allows for storage and shipping of entire wells, and enables automated crystal imaging, screening, and goniometer-based X-ray diffraction data-collection at room temperature and under cryogenic conditions for soluble and membrane-protein crystals grown in or transferred to these plates...
November 2, 2016: Crystal Growth & Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253668/short-first-click-intervals-in-echolocation-trains-of-three-species-of-deep-diving-odontocetes
#18
Charlotte A Dunn, Peter Tyack, Patrick J O Miller, Luke Rendell
All odontocetes produce echolocation clicks as part of their vocal repertoire. In this paper the authors analysed inter-click-intervals in recordings from suction cup tags with a focus on the first inter-click interval of each click train. The authors refer to shorter first inter-click intervals as short first intervals (SFIs). The authors found that the context of SFI occurrence varies across three deep-diving species. In Blainville's beaked whales, 87% of click trains that were preceded by a terminal buzz started with SFIs...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197145/dolphin-morbillivirus-in-a-cuvier-s-beaked-whale-ziphius-cavirostris-italy
#19
Cinzia Centelleghe, Giorgia Beffagna, Giuseppe Palmisano, Giovanni Franzo, Cristina Casalone, Alessandra Pautasso, Federica Giorda, Fabio Di Nocera, Doriana Iaccarino, Mario Santoro, Giovanni Di Guardo, Sandro Mazzariol
Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) has caused several mortality events in Mediterranean striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins populations since 19; in the last 5 years, the virus was reported to infect new hosts in this basin, such as fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), and even a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Very recently, a calf Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) calf stranded on the Southern Italian coastline with mild pathological findings suggestive of morbilliviral infection, received the first confirmation of DMV infection in this species by biomolecular evidences on lung tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193458/inactivation-of-the-olfactory-marker-protein-omp-gene-in-river-dolphins-and-other-odontocete-cetaceans
#20
Mark S Springer, John Gatesy
Various toothed whales (Odontoceti) are unique among mammals in lacking olfactory bulbs as adults and are thought to be anosmic (lacking the olfactory sense). At the molecular level, toothed whales have high percentages of pseudogenic olfactory receptor genes, but species that have been investigated to date retain an intact copy of the olfactory marker protein gene (OMP), which is highly expressed in olfactory receptor neurons and may regulate the temporal resolution of olfactory responses. One hypothesis for the retention of intact OMP in diverse odontocete lineages is that this gene is pleiotropic with additional functions that are unrelated to olfaction...
February 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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