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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301147/exposure-to-persistent-organic-pollutants-reduces-testosterone-concentrations-and-affects-sperm-viability-and-morphology-during-the-mating-peak-period-in-a-controlled-experiment-on-farmed-arctic-foxes-vulpes-lagopus
#1
Christian Sonne, Peter A Torjesen, Eva Fuglei, Derek C G Muir, Bjorn M Jenssen, Even Jørgensen, Rune Dietz, Øystein Ahlstrøm
We investigated testosterone production and semen parameters in farmed Arctic foxes by dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for 22 months. Eight male foxes were given a diet of POP-contaminated minke whale blubber whereas their eight male siblings were fed a control diet containing pig fat as main fat source. The minke whale-based feed contained a ∑POPs concentration of 802 ng/g ww whereas the pig-based feed contained ∑POPs of 24 ng/g ww. At the end of the experiment, ∑POP concentrations in adipose tissue were 8856±2535 ng/g ww in the exposed foxes and 1264±539 ng/g ww in the control foxes...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278659/chromatographic-and-spectral-studies-of-jetsam-and-archived-ambergris
#2
Steven J Rowland, Paul A Sutton
We describe determination of the dichloromethane-soluble components of 12 samples of the natural product, ambergris, using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ambergris is produced in vivo in about 1% of Sperm whales and is used in perfumery and for odour fixation. Whilst descriptions of ambergris chemistry appeared until about 40 years ago, few accounts of analyses of whole extracts of multiple samples of ambergris by GC-MS have been published before. As expected, our analyses revealed that the major component (up to 97% of the dichloromethane-soluble material) was ambrein, with co-occurring, variable proportions of steroids...
February 16, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275880/cultural-hitchhiking-in-the-matrilineal-whales
#3
Hal Whitehead, Felicia Vachon, Timothy R Frasier
Five species of whale with matrilineal social systems (daughters remain with mothers) have remarkably low levels of mitochondrial DNA diversity. Non-heritable matriline-level demography could reduce genetic diversity but the required conditions are not consistent with the natural histories of the matrilineal whales. The diversity of nuclear microsatellites is little reduced in the matrilineal whales arguing against bottlenecks. Selective sweeps of the mitochondrial genome are feasible causes but it is not clear why these only occurred in the matrilineal species...
March 9, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274434/effect-of-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-on-myoglobin-mediated-lipid-oxidation-when-varying-histidine-content-and-hemin-affinity
#4
Eric W Grunwald, Nantawat Tatiyaborworntham, Cameron Faustman, Mark P Richards
The compound 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) dissolved in water was examined to remove potential effects of using ethanol to solubilize the aldehyde such as altering protein structure or redox properties of myoglobin (Mb). HNE became covalently bound to sperm whale Mb at up to five sites based on ESI-MS analysis. Adducted Mb promoted lipid oxidation in washed muscle more effectively than non-adducted Mb. Alkylation of P88H/Q152HMb with HNE accelerated metMb formation and subsequent lipid oxidation. P88H/Q152HMb exposed to HNE enhanced lipid oxidation compared to wild-type Mb exposed to HNE...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261000/a-versatile-system-for-high-throughput-in-situ-x-ray-screening-and-data-collection-of-soluble-and-membrane-protein-crystals
#5
Jana Broecker, Viviane Klingel, Wei-Lin Ou, Aidin R Balo, David J Kissick, Craig M Ogata, Anling Kuo, Oliver P Ernst
In recent years, in situ data collection has been a major focus of progress in protein crystallography. Here, we introduce the Mylar in situ method using Mylar-based sandwich plates that are inexpensive, easy to make and handle, and show significantly less background scattering than other setups. A variety of cognate holders for patches of Mylar in situ sandwich films corresponding to one or more wells makes the method robust and versatile, allows for storage and shipping of entire wells, and enables automated crystal imaging, screening, and goniometer-based X-ray diffraction data-collection at room temperature and under cryogenic conditions for soluble and membrane-protein crystals grown in or transferred to these plates...
November 2, 2016: Crystal Growth & Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253668/short-first-click-intervals-in-echolocation-trains-of-three-species-of-deep-diving-odontocetes
#6
Charlotte A Dunn, Peter Tyack, Patrick J O Miller, Luke Rendell
All odontocetes produce echolocation clicks as part of their vocal repertoire. In this paper the authors analysed inter-click-intervals in recordings from suction cup tags with a focus on the first inter-click interval of each click train. The authors refer to shorter first inter-click intervals as short first intervals (SFIs). The authors found that the context of SFI occurrence varies across three deep-diving species. In Blainville's beaked whales, 87% of click trains that were preceded by a terminal buzz started with SFIs...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197145/dolphin-morbillivirus-in-a-cuvier-s-beaked-whale-ziphius-cavirostris-italy
#7
Cinzia Centelleghe, Giorgia Beffagna, Giuseppe Palmisano, Giovanni Franzo, Cristina Casalone, Alessandra Pautasso, Federica Giorda, Fabio Di Nocera, Doriana Iaccarino, Mario Santoro, Giovanni Di Guardo, Sandro Mazzariol
Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) has caused several mortality events in Mediterranean striped (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins populations since 19; in the last 5 years, the virus was reported to infect new hosts in this basin, such as fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), and even a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Very recently, a calf Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) calf stranded on the Southern Italian coastline with mild pathological findings suggestive of morbilliviral infection, received the first confirmation of DMV infection in this species by biomolecular evidences on lung tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193458/inactivation-of-the-olfactory-marker-protein-omp-gene-in-river-dolphins-and-other-odontocete-cetaceans
#8
Mark S Springer, John Gatesy
Various toothed whales (Odontoceti) are unique among mammals in lacking olfactory bulbs as adults and are thought to be anosmic (lacking the olfactory sense). At the molecular level, toothed whales have high percentages of pseudogenic olfactory receptor genes, but species that have been investigated to date retain an intact copy of the olfactory marker protein gene (OMP), which is highly expressed in olfactory receptor neurons and may regulate the temporal resolution of olfactory responses. One hypothesis for the retention of intact OMP in diverse odontocete lineages is that this gene is pleiotropic with additional functions that are unrelated to olfaction...
February 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116055/the-development-of-an-intermediate-duration-tag-to-characterize-the-diving-behavior-of-large-whales
#9
Bruce R Mate, Ladd M Irvine, Daniel M Palacios
The development of high-resolution archival tag technologies has revolutionized our understanding of diving behavior in marine taxa such as sharks, turtles, and seals during their wide-ranging movements. However, similar applications for large whales have lagged behind due to the difficulty of keeping tags on the animals for extended periods of time. Here, we present a novel configuration of a transdermally attached biologging device called the Advanced Dive Behavior (ADB) tag. The ADB tag contains sensors that record hydrostatic pressure, three-axis accelerometers, magnetometers, water temperature, and light level, all sampled at 1 Hz...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983493/dolphin-morbillivirus-associated-with-a-mass-stranding-of-sperm-whales-italy
#10
Sandro Mazzariol, Cinzia Centelleghe, Andrea Di Provvido, Ludovica Di Renzo, Giusy Cardeti, Antonella Cersini, Gianluca Fichi, Antonio Petrella, Cristina Esmeralda Di Francesco, Walter Mignone, Cristina Casalone, Giovanni Di Guardo
In September 2014, seven sperm whales were stranded along Italy's Adriatic coastline. Postmortem investigations on 3 female adult whales and 1 male fetus carried by the largest female revealed molecular and immunohistochemical evidence of dolphin morbillivirus infection. A possible role of the virus in the stranding event was considered.
January 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940620/how-to-build-a-deep-diver-the-extreme-morphology-of-mesoplodonts
#11
D Ann Pabst, William A McLellan, Sentiel A Rommel
Mesoplodont beaked whales are extreme divers, diving for over 45 mins and to depths of over 800 m. These dives are of similar depth and duration to those of the giant sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) whose body mass can be 50 times larger. Velten et al. (2013) provided anatomical data that demonstrated that on-board oxygen stores were sufficient to aerobically support the extreme dives of mesoplodonts if their diving metabolic rates are low. Because no physiological data yet exist, we utilized an anatomical approach-the body composition technique-to examine the relative metabolic rates of mesoplodonts...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934434/characterization-of-ground-state-electron-configurations-of-high-spin-quintet-ferrous-heme-iron-in-deoxy-myoglobin-reconstituted-with-trifluoromethyl-group-substituted-heme-cofactors
#12
Tomokazu Shibata, Yuki Kanai, Ryu Nishimura, Liyang Xu, Yuki Moritaka, Akihiro Suzuki, Saburo Neya, Mikio Nakamura, Yasuhiko Yamamoto
We introduced trifluoromethyl (CF3) group(s) as heme side chain(s) of sperm whale myoglobin (Mb) in order to characterize the electronic nature of heme Fe(II) in deoxy Mb using (19)F NMR spectroscopy. On the basis of the anti-Curie behavior of CF3 signals, we found that the deoxy Mb is in thermal equilibrium between the (5)B2, (dxy)(2)(dxz)(dyz)(dz(2))(dx(2)-y(2)), and (5)E, (dxy)(dxz)(2)(dyz)(dz(2))(dx(2)-y(2)), states of the heme Fe(II), i.e., (5)B2 ⇆ (5)E. Analysis of the curvature in Curie plots has yielded for the first time ΔH and ΔS values of ∼-20 kJ mol(-1) and ∼-60 J K(-1) mol(-1), respectively, for the thermal equilibrium...
December 5, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908036/cetacean-acoustic-detections-from-free-floating-vertical-hydrophone-arrays-in-the-southern-california-current
#13
Emily T Griffiths, Jay Barlow
Drifting acoustic recorders were deployed in the southern California Current during Fall 2014. Two hydrophones configured as a 2-m vertical array at 100 m depth recorded using a 192 kHz sample rate on a 10% duty cycle (2 min/20 min). Beaked whales were detected in 33 of 8618 two-minute recordings. Sperm whales were detected in 185 recordings, and dolphins in 2291 recordings. Many beaked whales detected were over an abyssal plain and not associated with slope or seamount features. Results show the feasibility of using free-floating recording systems to detect a variety of cetacean species over periods of several months...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853582/cultural-turnover-among-gal%C3%A3-pagos-sperm-whales
#14
Mauricio Cantor, Hal Whitehead, Shane Gero, Luke Rendell
While populations may wax and wane, it is rare for an entire population to be replaced by a completely different set of individuals. We document the large-scale relocation of cultural groups of sperm whale off the Galápagos Islands, in which two sympatric vocal clans were entirely replaced by two different ones. Between 1985 and 1999, whales from two clans (called Regular and Plus-One) defined by cultural dialects in coda vocalizations were repeatedly photo-identified off Galápagos. Their occurrence in the area declined through the 1990s; by 2000, none remained...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794335/temporal-and-spatial-variation-of-beaked-and-sperm-whales-foraging-activity-in-hawai-i-as-determined-with-passive-acoustics
#15
Giacomo Giorli, Anna Neuheimer, Adrienne Copeland, Whitlow W L Au
Beaked and sperm whales are top predators living in the waters off the Kona coast of Hawai'i. Temporal and spatial analyses of the foraging activity of these two species were studied with passive acoustics techniques. Three passive acoustics recorders moored to the ocean floor were used to monitor the foraging activity of these whales in three locations along the Kona coast of the island of Hawaii. Data were analyzed using automatic detector/classification systems: M3R (Marine Mammal Monitoring on Navy Ranges), and custom-designed Matlab programs...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770991/mediterranean-sperm-whales-physeter-macrocephalus-the-precarious-state-of-a-lost-tribe
#16
REVIEW
L Rendell, A Frantzis
First observed in the classical era, a population of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) persists to this day in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea. Genetic and observational evidence support the notion that this is an isolated population, separated from its Atlantic neighbours. These whales depend on mesopelagic squid for food, and appear to occupy a very similar ecological niche to sperm whales in the open oceans. Recent evidence proving that individuals can pass between the eastern and western deep water basins confirms that this is a single population, not isolated into western and eastern stocks...
2016: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770981/marine-mammals-in-the-mediterranean-sea-an-overview
#17
G Notarbartolo di Sciara
Despite being a small part of the world's oceans, the Mediterranean Sea hosts a diverse marine mammal fauna, with a total of 28 different species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the region. Species currently recognised as regular in the Mediterranean-the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) and 11 cetaceans (fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus; sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus; Cuvier's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris; short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis; long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas; Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus; killer whale, Orcinus orca; striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba; rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis; common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus; harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena relicta) have adapted well to the region's environmental conditions, but their coexistence with humans is problematic...
2016: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706153/critical-decline-of-the-eastern-caribbean-sperm-whale-population
#18
Shane Gero, Hal Whitehead
Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) populations were expected to rebuild following the end of commercial whaling. We document the decline of the population in the eastern Caribbean by tracing demographic changes of well-studied social units. We address hypotheses that, over a ten-year period of dedicated effort (2005-2015), unit size, numbers of calves and/or calving rates have each declined. Across 16 units, the number of adults decreased in 12 units, increased in two, and showed no change in two. The number of adults per unit decreased at -0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703712/stretching-the-truth-length-data-highlight-falsification-of-japanese-sperm-whale-catch-statistics-in-the-southern-hemisphere
#19
Phillip J Clapham, Yulia V Ivashchenko
Falsification of reports on Japanese catches of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) is known to have occurred at both land whaling stations and in North Pacific factory fleets. Here, we conduct an analysis of pelagic sperm whale catches in the Southern Hemisphere: we compare true Soviet length data from the Yuri Dolgorukiy factory fleet during 1960-1975 to data for the same period reported to the International Whaling Commission (IWC) by Japan. Prior to implementation of the International Observer Scheme (IOS) in 1972, the Soviet fleet killed 5536 females, of which only 153 (2...
September 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687333/organometallic-myoglobins-formation-of-fe-carbon-bonds-and-distal-pocket-effects-on-aryl-ligand-conformations
#20
Bing Wang, Leonard M Thomas, George B Richter-Addo
Bioorganometallic Fe-C bonds are biologically relevant species that may result from the metabolism of natural or synthetic hydrazines. The molecular structures of four new sperm whale mutant myoglobin derivatives with Fe-aryl moieties, namely H64A-tolyl-m, H64A-chlorophenyl-p, H64Q-tolyl-m, and H64Q-chlorophenyl-p, have been determined at 1.7-1.9Å resolution. The structures reveal conformational preferences for the substituted aryls resulting from attachment of the aryl ligands to Fe at the site of net -NHNH2 release from the precursor hydrazines, and show distal pocket changes that readily accommodate these bulky ligands...
November 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
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