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Yang Yuan, Shan-Shan Pan
BACKGROUND: Late exercise preconditioning (LEP) is confirmed to have a protective effect on acute cardiovascular stress. However, the mechanisms by which mitophagy participates in EP-induced cardioprotection remain unclear. LEP may involve mitophagy mediated by the receptors PARK2 gene-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase (Parkin) and BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (Bnip3) to scavenge damaged mitochondria. METHODS: Our exercise preconditioning (EP) protocol involved four 10-minute periods of running, separated by 10-minute recovery intervals, plus a period of exhaustive running at 24 hours after EP...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Zhong Lei, Huijie Duan, Tengfei Zhao, Yuxiang Zhang, Guoqi Li, Jiahong Meng, Suzhan Zhang, Weiqi Yan
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor mainly occurring in children and adolescents. In past decades, studies revealed that PARK2 was a vital tumor suppressor gene in many malignant solid tumors. However, the role of PARK2 in OS remains largely unclear. Therefore, we assessed PARK2 expression in OS tissue and adjacent non-tumor tissues by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis, and evaluated PARK2 mRNA expression in OS cell lines by real-time PCR analysis. The HOS and U2OS cell lines were employed to establish a PARK2 overexpression model...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Viorica Chelban, Ekawat Vichayanrat, Lucia Schottlaende, Valeria Iodice, Henry Houlden
The discovery of genetic links between alpha-synuclein and PD has opened unprecedented opportunities for research into a new group of diseases, now collectively known as synucleinopathies. Autonomic dysfunction, including cardiac sympathetic denervation, has been reported in familial forms of synucleinopathies that have Lewy bodies at the core of their pathogenesis. SNCA mutations and multiplications, LRRK2 disease with Lewy bodies as well as other common, sporadic forms of idiopathic PD, MSA, pure autonomic failure, and dementia with Lewy bodies have all been associated with dysautonomia...
March 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Juliana Cackovic, Susana Gutierrez-Luke, Gerald B Call, Amber Juba, Stephanie O'Brien, Charles H Jun, Lori M Buhlman
Selective degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic (DA) neurons is a hallmark pathology of familial Parkinson's disease (PD). While the mechanism of degeneration is elusive, abnormalities in mitochondrial function and turnover are strongly implicated. An Autosomal Recessive-Juvenile Parkinsonism (AR-JP) Drosophila melanogaster model exhibits DA neurodegeneration as well as aberrant mitochondrial dynamics and function. Disruptions in mitophagy have been observed in parkin loss-of-function models, and changes in mitochondrial respiration have been reported in patient fibroblasts...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jin Tan, Qi Xie, Shuling Song, Yuyang Miao, Qiang Zhang
BACKGROUND Albumin, as a major urinary protein component, is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease progression. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main causes of albumin-induced proximal tubule cells injury. Mitophagy is considered as a pivotal protective mechanism for the elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria. The objective of this research was to determine whether albumin overload-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can activate PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs)...
March 1, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Yukari Suda, Naoko Kuzumaki, Takefumi Sone, Michiko Narita, Kenichi Tanaka, Yusuke Hamada, Chizuru Iwasawa, Masahiro Shibasaki, Aya Maekawa, Miri Matsuo, Wado Akamatsu, Nobutaka Hattori, Hideyuki Okano, Minoru Narita
Ghrelin exerts a wide range of physiological actions throughout the body and appears to be a promising target for disease therapy. Endogenous ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) are present in extrahypothalamic sites including the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), which is related to phenotypic dysregulation or frank degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we found a dramatic decrease in the expression of GHSR in PD-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived dopaminergic (DAnergic) neurons generated from patients carrying parkin gene (PARK2) mutations compared to those from healthy controls...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Brain
Jickssa M Gemechu, Akhil Sharma, Dongyue Yu, Yuran Xie, Olivia M Merkel, Anna Moszczynska
Mutations in parkin gene (Park2) are linked to early-onset autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD) and young-onset sporadic PD. Park2 knockout (PKO) rodents; however, do not display neurodegeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway, suggesting age-dependent compensatory changes. Our goal was to examine dopaminergic (DAergic) system in the striatum of 2 month-old PKO rats in order to characterize compensatory mechanisms that may have occurred within the system. The striata form wild type (WT) and PKO Long Evans male rats were assessed for the levels of DAergic markers, for monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B activities and levels, and for the levels of their respective preferred substrates, serotonin (5-HT) and ß-phenylethylamine (ß-PEA)...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ana Marote, Yuriy Pomeshchik, Stefano Goldwurm, Anna Collin, Nuno J Lamas, Luísa Pinto, António J Salgado, Laurent Roybon
Mutations in the PARK2 gene, which encodes PARKIN, are the most frequent cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line from a 78-year-old patient carrying a compound heterozygous mutation (c.823C>T and EX6del) in the PARK2 gene. Skin fibroblasts were reprogrammed using the non-integrating Sendai virus technology to deliver OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 factors. The generated cell line CSC-44 exhibits expression of common pluripotency markers, in vitro differentiation into the three germ layers and normal karyotype...
January 4, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Cristian Setz, Anne-Sophie Benischke, Anna Catharina Pinho Ferreira Bento, Yves Brand, Soledad Levano, Franziska Paech, Katharina Leitmeyer, Daniel Bodmer
Autophagy is a highly evolutionary conserved quality control defense mechanism within cells, which has also been implicated in cell death processes. In the mammalian inner ear, autophagy has been shown to play a role during early morphogenesis as well as in adult cochlear hair cells exposed to ototoxic insults. Mitophagy, a selective autophagic cell process targeting mitochondria, hasn't been studied in the inner ear so far. On this work, we searched for molecular indicators of mitophagy within House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti-1 (HEI-OC1) cells as well as in the organ of Corti (OC)...
January 11, 2018: Hearing Research
Ashish Kumar, Chandrima Shaha
Mitophagy, the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy, is crucial for the maintenance of healthy mitochondrial pool in cells. The critical event in mitophagy is the translocation of cytosolic Parkin, a ubiquitin ligase, to the surface of defective mitochondria. This study elucidates a novel role of SESN2/Sestrin2, a stress inducible protein, in mitochondrial translocation of PARK2/Parkin during mitophagy. The data demonstrates that SESN2 downregulation inhibits BECN1/Beclin1 and Parkin interaction, thereby preventing optimum mitochondrial accumulation of Parkin...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Steven R Bentley, Stephanie Bortnick, Ilaria Guella, Javed Y Fowdar, Peter A Silburn, Stephen A Wood, Matthew J Farrer, George D Mellick
INTRODUCTION: Family based study designs provide an informative resource to identify disease-causing mutations. The Queensland Parkinson's Project (QPP) has been involved in numerous genetic screening studies; however, details of the families enrolled into the register have not been comprehensively reported. This article characterises the families enrolled in the QPP and summarises monogenic forms of hereditary Parkinsonism found in the register. METHOD: The presence of pathogenic point mutations and copy number variations (CNVs) were, generally, screened in a sample of over 1000 PD patients from the total of 1725...
January 3, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder, with the clinical main symptoms caused by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, corpus striatum and brain cortex. Over 90% of patients with PD have sporadic PD and occur in people with no known family history of the disorder. Currently there is no cure for PD. Treatment with medications to increase dopamine relieves the symptoms but does not slow down or reverse the damage to neurons in the brain. Increasing evidence points to inflammation as a chief mediator of PD with inflammatory response mechanisms, involving microglia and leukocytes, activated following loss of dopaminergic neurons...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
Guo-Bing Li, Hong-Wei Zhang, Ruo-Qiu Fu, Xiao-Ye Hu, Lei Liu, Yu-Nong Li, Yan-Xia Liu, Xin Liu, Jin-Jiao Hu, Qin Deng, Qing-Song Luo, Rong Zhang, Ning Gao
Mitochondria fission and mitophagy are fundamentally crucial to cellular physiology and play important roles in cancer progression. Developing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial fission and mitophagy will provide novel strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. Actin has been shown to participate in mitochondrial fission and mitophagy regulation. Cofilin is best known as an actin-depolymerizing factor. However, the molecular mechanism by which cofilin regulates mitochondrial fission and mitophagy remains largely unknown...
January 11, 2018: Oncogene
Weihong Zhang, Linlin Xin, Ying Lu
BACKGROUND Emerging data have established links between systemic metabolic dysfunction, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS), with neurocognitive impairment, including dementia. The common gene signature and the associated signaling pathways of MetS, diabetes, and dementia have not been widely studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS We exploited the translational bioinformatics approach to choose the common gene signatures for both dementia and MetS. For this we employed "DisGeNET discovery platform"...
December 12, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Milena Pinto, Nadee Nissanka, Carlos T Moraes
PARK2 is the most common gene mutated in monogenic recessive familial cases of Parkinson's disease (PD). Pathogenic mutations cause a loss of function of the encoded protein Parkin. ParkinKO mice, however, poorly represent human PD symptoms as they only exhibit mild motor phenotypes, minor dopamine metabolism abnormalities, and no signs of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Parkin has been shown to participate in mitochondrial turnover, by targeting damaged mitochondria with low membrane potential to mitophagy...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Amit Gupta, Sara Anjomani-Virmouni, Nikos Koundouros, George Poulogiannis
Cancer and Parkinson disease (PD) derive from distinct alterations in cellular processes, yet there are pathogenic mutations that are unequivocally linked to both diseases. Here we expand on our recent findings that loss of parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase ( PRKN , best known as PARK2 )-which is genetically linked to PD-promotes cancer progression via redox-mediated inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) by S-nitrosylation.
2017: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Chengyuan Tang, Hailong Han, Mingjuan Yan, Shiyao Zhu, Jing Liu, Zhiwen Liu, Liyu He, Jieqiong Tan, Yu Liu, Hong Liu, Lin Sun, Shaobin Duan, Youming Peng, Fuyou Liu, Xiao-Ming Yin, Zhuohua Zhang, Zheng Dong
Damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria are toxic to the cell by producing reactive oxygen species and releasing cell death factors. Therefore, timely removal of these organelles is critical to cellular homeostasis and viability. Mitophagy is the mechanism of selective degradation of mitochondria via autophagy. The significance of mitophagy in kidney diseases, including ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI), has yet to be established, and the involved pathway of mitophagy remains poorly understood. Here, we show that mitophagy is induced in renal proximal tubular cells in both in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic AKI...
February 17, 2018: Autophagy
Chang-Ki Oh, Abdullah Sultan, Joseph Platzer, Nima Dolatabadi, Frank Soldner, Daniel B McClatchy, Jolene K Diedrich, John R Yates, Rajesh Ambasudhan, Tomohiro Nakamura, Rudolf Jaenisch, Stuart A Lipton
Mutations in PARK6 (PINK1) and PARK2 (Parkin) are linked to rare familial cases of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in these genes result in pathological dysregulation of mitophagy, contributing to neurodegeneration. Here, we report that environmental factors causing a specific posttranslational modification on PINK1 can mimic these genetic mutations. We describe a molecular mechanism for impairment of mitophagy via formation of S-nitrosylated PINK1 (SNO-PINK1). Mitochondrial insults simulating age- or environmental-related stress lead to increased SNO-PINK1, inhibiting its kinase activity...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
Alexander F Schubert, Christina Gladkova, Els Pardon, Jane L Wagstaff, Stefan M V Freund, Jan Steyaert, Sarah L Maslen, David Komander
Autosomal-recessive juvenile Parkinsonism (AR-JP) is caused by mutations in a number of PARK genes, in particular the genes encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin (PARK2, also known as PRKN) and its upstream protein kinase PINK1 (also known as PARK6). PINK1 phosphorylates both ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-like domain of Parkin on structurally protected Ser65 residues, triggering mitophagy. Here we report a crystal structure of a nanobody-stabilized complex containing Pediculus humanus corporis (Ph)PINK1 bound to ubiquitin in the 'C-terminally retracted' (Ub-CR) conformation...
December 7, 2017: Nature
Qiuyun Wu, Tiantian Xu, Yi Liu, Yan Li, Jiali Yuan, Wenxi Yao, Qi Xu, Weiwen Yan, Chunhui Ni
Silicosis is associated with fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition in lung tissues. The dysregulation of miR-1224-5p has been implicated in several human cancers; however, the expression and function of miR-1224-5p in silicosis is unknown. The mitochondrial dysfunctions play critical roles in some diseases, but how these processes are regulated in silicosis remains limited. Here, we explored the role of miR-1224-5p in a mouse model of silicosis. We showed that the expression of miR-1224-5p is increased both in lung tissues of silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis and fibroblasts exposed to TGF-β1...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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