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ischaemic preconditionning

G T C Wong, E Y P Lee, M G Irwin
Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is traditionally associated with outpatient imaging studies. More recently, patients afflicted with vascular pathologies are increasingly undergoing endovascular treatments that require the use of iodinated contrast media (CM) agents, thus placing them as risk of developing CIN. As perioperative physicians, anaesthetists should be aware of the risk factors and measures that might minimize acute kidney injury caused by CM. This review evaluates recent data regarding preventive measures against CIN and where possible, places the evidence in the context of the patient receiving endovascular surgical treatment...
September 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Francis P Robertson, Louise J Magill, Graham P Wright, Barry Fuller, Brian R Davidson
Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) is a strategy to reduce ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Its benefit in human liver transplantation is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyse the current evidence for donor IPC in liver transplantation. Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies involving IPC of liver transplant donors. Ovid Medline, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched up until January 2015. Data retrieved included the primary outcomes of 1-year mortality, incidence of primary graft non-function (PGNF) and retransplantation...
August 26, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Nicholas Gilbo, Giorgia Catalano, Mauro Salizzoni, Renato Romagnoli
Liver transplantation is the successful treatment of end-stage liver disease; however, the ischaemia-reperfusion injury still jeopardizes early and long-term post-transplant outcomes. In fact, ischaemia-reperfusion is associated with increased morbidity and graft dysfunction, especially when suboptimal donors are utilized. Strategies to reduce the severity of ischaemia-reperfusion can be applied at different steps of the transplantation process: organ procurement, preservation phase or before revascularization...
July 9, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Lucio Barile, Tiziano Moccetti, Eduardo Marbán, Giuseppe Vassalli
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin which have emerged as key mediators of intercellular communication. All major cardiac cell types-including cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts-release exosomes that modulate cellular functions. Exosomes released from human cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are cardioprotective and improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction to an extent comparable with that achieved by their parent cells. Cardiac progenitor cell-derived exosomes are enriched in cardioprotective microRNAs, particularly miR-146a-3p...
July 21, 2016: European Heart Journal
Carl A James, Ashley G B Willmott, Alan J Richardson, Peter W Watt, Neil S Maxwell
PURPOSE: Ischaemic preconditioning (IP) has been shown to be ergogenic for endurance performance in normothermic conditions and alleviate physiological strain under hypoxia, potentially through haemodynamic and/or metabolic mechanisms. Exertional hyperthermia is characterised by competition for blood flow between the muscles and skin, an enhanced metabolic strain and impaired endurance performance. This study investigated the effect of IP on the determinants of endurance performance, through an incremental exercise test in the heat...
September 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Louise E See Hoe, Jan M Schilling, Anna R Busija, Kristofer J Haushalter, Victoria Ozberk, Malik M Keshwani, David M Roth, Eugene Du Toit, John P Headrick, Hemal H Patel, Jason N Peart
β-adrenoceptor antagonists are commonly used in ischaemic heart disease (IHD) patients, yet may impair signalling and efficacy of 'cardioprotective' interventions. We assessed effects of chronic β1-adrenoceptor antagonism on myocardial resistance to ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and the ability of cardioprotective interventions [classic ischaemic preconditioning (IPC); novel sustained ligand-activated preconditioning (SLP)] to reduce IR injury in murine hearts. Young male C57Bl/6 mice were untreated or received atenolol (0...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Gerd Heusch, Bernard J Gersh
The incidence of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has decreased over the last two decades in developed countries, but mortality from STEMI despite widespread access to reperfusion therapy is still substantial as is the development of heart failure, particularly among an expanding older population. In developing countries, the incidence of STEMI is increasing and interventional reperfusion is often not available. We here review the pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion, notably the temporal and spatial evolution of ischaemic and reperfusion injury, the different modes of cell death, and the resulting coronary microvascular dysfunction...
June 26, 2016: European Heart Journal
Jürgen Peters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Basic Research in Cardiology
Anders R Knudsen, Kasper J Andersen, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Jens R Nyengaard, Frank V Mortensen
Circulating liver enzymes such as alanine transaminase are often used as markers of hepatocellular damage. Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an inevitable consequence of prolonged liver ischaemia. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between liver enzymes and volume of liver cell necrosis after ischaemia/reperfusion injuries, using design-unbiased stereological methods. Forty-seven male Wistar rats were subjected to 1 h of partial liver ischaemia, followed by either 4 or 24 h of reperfusion...
April 2016: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
A Zarbock, J Kellum, H Van Aken, C Schmidt, S Martens, D Görlich, M Meersch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Sam Man Lee, Mark Hutchinson, David A Saint
Cardiac ischaemic-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains the primary cause of mortality throughout the developed world. Molecular mechanisms underlying IRI are complex and are often interlinked with each other driving a synergistic response. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an immunosurveillance receptor, is known to enhance tissue injury during IRI by enhancing the inflammatory response. The release of endogenous components during IRI bind onto TLR4 leading to the activation of multiple signalling kinases. Once this event occurs these proteins are defined as danger associated molecular patterns molecules (DAMPs) or alarmins...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
B P Budiono, L E See Hoe, A R Brunt, J N Peart, J P Headrick, L J Haseler
AIMS: We examined coupling of myocardial ischaemic tolerance to physical activity and inactivity, and whether this involves modulation of survival (AKT, AMPK, ERK1/2, HSP27, EGFR) and injury (GSK3β) proteins implicated in ischaemic preconditioning and calorie restriction. METHODS: Proteomic modifications were assessed in ventricular myocardium, and tolerance to 25-min ischaemia in ex vivo perfused hearts from C57Bl/6 mice subjected to 14-day voluntary activity in running-naïve animals (Active); 7 days of subsequent inactivity (Inactive); brief (day 3) restoration of running (Re-Active); or time-matched inactivity...
October 2016: Acta Physiologica
R M Bell, H E Bøtker, R D Carr, S M Davidson, J M Downey, D P Dutka, G Heusch, B Ibanez, R Macallister, C Stoppe, M Ovize, A Redington, J M Walker, D M Yellon
In the 30 years since the original description of ischaemic preconditioning, understanding of the pathophysiology of ischaemia/reperfusion injury and concepts of cardioprotection have been revolutionised. In the same period of time, management of patients with coronary artery disease has also been transformed: coronary artery and valve surgery are now deemed routine with generally excellent outcomes, and the management of acute coronary syndromes has seen decade on decade reductions in cardiovascular mortality...
July 2016: Basic Research in Cardiology
Annette L Mazzone, Robert A Baker, Jonathan M Gleadle
The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and serious complication of cardiac surgery. In 2013, 95% of cardiac surgical procedures performed in Australia and New Zealand used cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). AKI following CPB is well known, yet the perioperative factors contributing to its development are incompletely understood. AKI following CPB has significant implications on both short-term and long-term outcomes. The techniques for conducting CPB have evolved, moving towards evidence-based practice; however, there is still no generally accepted definition of optimal perfusion and its conduct...
October 2016: Nephrology
Cherry X Cheung, Donagh A Healy, Stewart R Walsh
Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) is an attractive cardioprotective strategy. Although results from animal studies and phase II study on humans are convincing, it cannot have a role in clinical practice until benefits in clinical outcomes are proven in phase III study. Two phase III studies were recently published [Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for Heart Surgery (RIPHeart) and Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (ERICCA)] and this article discusses their design, results and implications...
March 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Arzu Akcal, Selami Serhat Sirvan, Semra Karsidag, Tahsin Görgülü, Mehmet Akif Akcal, Aysim Ozagari, Soner Tatlidede
OBJECTIVES: Ischaemic preconditioning and postconditioning, which consist of one or a series of short ischaemic events. This study aimed to determine the efficiency of post-conditioning a flap in the minimisation of flap loss after a preconditioned skin flap. METHODS: The rats were divided into five groups: sham group, control group, pre-con group, post-con group, and pre + post-con group. On postoperative days 3 and 7, the entire flaps along with the margins of necrosis were traced onto transparent sheets...
August 2016: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
Francis P Robertson, Rup Goswami, Graham P Wright, Barry Fuller, Brian R Davidson
ABSTRACT: Ischaemic reperfusion (IR) injury is a major cause of graft loss, morbidity and mortality following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Demand for liver transplantation has resulted in increasing use of marginal grafts that are more prone to IR injury. Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) reduces IR injury in experimental models, but recipient RIPC has not been evaluated clinically. METHODS: A single-centre double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) is planned to test the hypothesis that recipient RIPC will reduce IR injury...
2016: Transplantation Research
Michael M Galagudza, Dmitry L Sonin, Timur D Vlasov, Dmitry I Kurapeev, Eugene V Shlyakhto
The unmet clinical need for myocardial salvage during ischaemia-reperfusion injury requires the development of new techniques for myocardial protection. In this study the protective effect of different local ischaemic preconditioning (LIPC) and remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) protocols was compared in the rat model of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion, using infarct size and ischaemic tachyarrhythmias as end-points. In addition, the hypothesis that there is involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the protective signalling by RIPC was tested, again in comparison with LIPC...
February 2016: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
Dick H J Thijssen, Joseph Maxwell, Daniel J Green, N Timothy Cable, Helen Jones
What is the topic of this review? This review discusses the effects of repeated exposure of tissue to ischaemic preconditioning on cardiovascular function, the attendant adaptations and their potential clinical relevance. What advances does it highlight? We discuss the effects of episodic exposure to ischaemic preconditioning to prevent and/or attenuate ischaemic injury and summarize evidence pertaining to improvements in cardiovascular function and structure. Discussion is provided regarding the potential mechanisms that contribute to both local and systemic adaptation...
June 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
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