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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937406/tolerance-in-xenotransplantation
#1
Kazuhiko Yamada, Megan Sykes, David H Sachs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes recent progress in tolerance-inducing strategies across xenogeneic immunological barriers as well as the potential benefit of a tolerance strategy for islets and kidney xenotransplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Using advanced gene editing technologies, xenotransplantation from multitransgenic alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout pigs has demonstrated marked prolongation of renal xenograft survival, ranging from days to greater than several months for life-supporting kidneys, and more than 2 years in a heterotopic nonlife-supporting cardiac xenograft model...
September 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936777/phytosphingosine-enhances-moisture-level-in-human-skin-barrier-through-stimulation-of-the-filaggrin-biosynthesis-and-degradation-leading-to-nmf-formation
#2
Hyun Kyung Choi, Young Hoon Cho, Eun Ok Lee, Jin Wook Kim, Chang Seo Park
Phytosphingosine (PHS) is a sphingoid that is a key component of phytoceramides NP, AP and EOP. PHS has been known to have anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities and to stimulate epidermal differentiation. In addition, it is reported that PHS treatment notably increased phytoceramide content in keratinocytes. In this study, we tried to investigate whether PHS has any effect on the maturation of corneocytes such as formation of cornified envelope and natural moisturizing factor (NMF) that is also an essential event during the formation of skin barrier, stratum corneum...
September 21, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934172/topical-nano-and-microemulsions-for-skin-delivery
#3
REVIEW
Christofori M R R Nastiti, Thellie Ponto, Eman Abd, Jeffrey E Grice, Heather A E Benson, Michael S Roberts
Nanosystems such as microemulsions (ME) and nanoemulsions (NE) offer considerable opportunities for targeted drug delivery to and via the skin. ME and NE are stable colloidal systems composed of oil and water, stabilised by a mixture of surfactants and cosurfactants, that have received particular interest as topical skin delivery systems. There is considerable scope to manipulate the formulation components and characteristics to achieve optimal bioavailability and minimal skin irritancy. This includes the incorporation of established chemical penetration enhancers to fluidize the stratum corneum lipid bilayers, thus reducing the primary skin barrier and increasing permeation...
September 21, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928464/gata3-regulates-flg-and-flg2-expression-in-human-primary-keratinocytes
#4
Jana Zeitvogel, Neele Jokmin, Samira Rieker, Ilona Klug, Christina Brandenberger, Thomas Werfel
GATA3 is a transcription factor with an important role in atopic diseases because of its role in the differentiation of Th2 lymphocytes. Moreover, GATA3 is expressed in keratinocytes and has a role in keratinocyte differentiation and the establishment of the epidermal barrier. In this study, we investigated the role of GATA3 in keratinocytes in the context of epidermal barrier integrity under inflammatory skin conditions. When analysing skin samples from atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients or healthy controls, we detected decreased expression of GATA3 in the stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients when compared to healthy controls...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927888/the-effect-of-water-hardness-on-surfactant-deposition-following-washing-and-subsequent-skin-irritation-in-atopic-dermatitis-patients-and-healthy-controls
#5
Simon G Danby, Kirsty Brown, Andrew M Wigley, John Chittock, Phyoe K Pyae, Carsten Flohr, Michael J Cork
Living in a hard water area is associated with an increased risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). Greater skin barrier impairment following exposure to surfactants in wash products combined with high calcium, and/or chlorine, levels in hard water is a compelling mechanism for this increase. The purpose of this study was to investigate this mechanism in individuals with and without a predisposition to skin barrier impairment. We recruited 80 subjects; healthy controls and AD patients with and without FLG mutations...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927887/epidermal-overexpression-of-xenobiotic-receptor-pxr-impairs-the-epidermal-barrier-and-triggers-th2-immune-response
#6
Andreas Elentner, Matthias Schmuth, Nikolaos Yannoutsos, Thomas O Eichmann, Robert Gruber, Franz Pw Radner, Martin Hermann, Barbara Del Frari, Sandrine Dubrac
The skin is in daily contact with environmental pollutants, but the long-term effects of such exposure remain under-investigated. Many of these toxins bind and activate the pregnane x receptor (PXR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates genes central to xenobiotic metabolism. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of constitutive activation of PXR in the basal layer of the skin to mimic repeated skin exposure to noxious molecules. We designed a transgenic mouse model which overexpresses the human PXR gene linked to the herpes simplex VP16 domain under the control of the keratin 14 promoter...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925887/design-optimize-and-characterize-granisetron-hcl-loaded-nano-gel-for-transdermal-delivery
#7
Vikash Kumar, Hema Chaudhary, Geeta Aggarwal
The aim of study was to design, statistically optimize and characterize Granisetron HCl loaded transfersomal gel for transdermal delivery, in order to overcome the side effects associated with oral delivery. A response surface methodology experimental design was applied for the optimization of transfersomes, using Box-Behnken experimental design. Phospholipid-90G, sodium deoxycholate and sonication time, each at three levels, were selected as independent variables, and while entrapment efficiency, vesicle size and transdermal flux were identified as dependent variables...
September 15, 2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922453/disruption-of-human-stratum-corneum-lipid-structure-by-sodium-dodecyl-sulfate
#8
Kaori Yanase, Ichiro Hatta
OBJECTIVE: Surfactants are major ingredients of body soaps and cleansers. Among them, harsh ones have been demonstrated to damage the skin. Stratum corneum (SC), the outermost barrier of skin layer, is rich in intercellular lipids. This lipid structure can be disrupted by surfactants, impairing the barrier function of the skin. Thus, we investigated the surfactant-induced disruption of the intercellular lipid structure of human SC at the molecular level using synchrotron X-ray diffraction...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919812/the-effect-of-local-topical-analgesics-on-incisional-pain-in-a-pig-model
#9
David Castel, Itai Sabbag, Sigal Meilin
Interest in the development of new topical/local drug administration for blocking pain at peripheral sites, with maximum drug activity and minimal systemic effects, is on the rise. In the review article by Kopsky and Stahl, four critical barriers in the process of research and development of topical analgesics were indicated. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the formulation are among the major challenges. The road to the development of such drugs passes through preclinical studies. These studies, if planned correctly, should serve as guidance for choosing the right API and formulation...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916467/safety-evaluation-for-ingredients-used-in-baby-care-products-consideration-of-diaper-rash
#10
Susan P Felter, Andrew N Carr, Tingting Zhu, Taryn Kirsch, Gloria Niu
Diaper rash can adversely impact the barrier properties of skin, with potential implications for increased absorption of chemicals through the skin, and this should be accounted for in any exposure assessment used in the safety evaluation of consumer products used in the diaper ("nappy") area. In the absence of a quantitative evaluation of the potential impact of diaper rash, a default assumption of 100% dermal penetration is often made for substances applied in the diaper area. We consider here the extent, duration and severity of diaper rash and make a recommendation for conservative assumptions to incorporate into exposure assessments...
September 12, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915334/epithelial-organization-the-gut-and-beyond
#11
Nitesh Shashikanth, Sunil Yeruva, Ma Lora Drizella M Ong, Matthew A Odenwald, Roman Pavlyuk, Jerrold R Turner
Epithelial cells are essential to the survival and homeostasis of complex organisms. These cells cover the surfaces of all mucosae, the skin, and other compartmentalized structures essential to physiological function. In addition to maintenance of barriers that separate internal and external compartments, epithelia display a variety of organ-specific differentiated functions. Function is reflected in overall epithelial structure and organization, shape of individual cells, and proteins expressed by these cells...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915287/efficacy-and-safety-of-desoximetasone-0-25-spray-in-adult-atopic-dermatitis-subjects-pilot-study
#12
Lauren K Hoffman, Leon Kircik
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory skin disorder. One of the most disturbing symptoms of AD is pruritus. The first line treatment for AD is topical corticosteroids, topical immunomodulators, topical barrier creams, oral antihistamines, and systemic treatments. Desoximetasone 0.25% spray is a superpotent topical corticosteroid delivered in a novel way and it may be a suitable option for the treatment of pruritus in adult atopic dermatitis patients...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914377/the-permeability-enhancing-mechanism-of-menthol-on-skin-lipids-a-molecular-dynamics-simulation-study
#13
Huanjie Wang, Fancui Meng
The stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of skin, represents the primary barrier to molecules penetrating the skin. Menthol is widely used in clinical medicine as a penetration enhancer due to its high efficiency and relative safety. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the effect of menthol molecules on the structural and permeability of both single component and ternary mixed bilayers. The lipid matrix is modeled as pure ceramide (CER2) or as a 2:2:1 mixture of CER2, cholesterol (CHOL), and free fatty acid (FFA)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913151/harlequin-ichthyosis-a-rare-case
#14
Belide Shruthi, B R Nilgar, Anita Dalal, Nehaben Limbani
Harlequin ichthyosis is a very rare condition that affects the skin of newborns. It is associated with poor barrier function of the skin leading to dehydration and leaves newborns prone to infections. It is due to mutations in adenosine triphosphate binding cassette A12 gene transmitted as an autosomal recessive disorder. The prognosis is very poor in these cases. Here, we report one such rare case.
June 2017: Turk J Obstet Gynecol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912361/impact-of-sleep-restriction-on-local-immune-response-and-skin-barrier-restoration-with-and-without-multi-nutrient-nutrition-intervention
#15
Tracey J Smith, Marques A Wilson, J Philip Karl, Jeb Orr, Carl D Smith, Adam D Cooper, Kristin J Heaton, Andrew J Young, Scott J Montain
Systemic immune function is impaired by sleep restriction. However, the impact of sleep restriction on local immune responses, and to what extent any impairment can be mitigated by nutritional supplementation is unknown. We assessed the effect of 72-h sleep restriction (2-h nightly sleep) on local immune function and skin barrier restoration of an experimental wound, and determined the influence of habitual protein intake (1.5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1)) supplemented with arginine, glutamine, zinc sulfate, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and omega-3 fatty acids compared to lower protein intake (0...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911866/molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-stratum-corneum-lipid-mixtures-a-multiscale-perspective
#16
Timothy C Moore, Christopher R Iacovella, Anne Leonhard, Annette L Bunge, Clare McCabe
The lipid matrix of the stratum corneum (SC) layer of skin is essential for human survival; it acts as a barrier to prevent rapid dehydration while keeping potentially hazardous material outside the body. While the composition of the SC lipid matrix is known, the molecular-level details of its organization are difficult to infer experimentally, hindering the discovery of structure-property relationships. To this end, molecular dynamics simulations, which give molecular-level resolution, have begun to play an increasingly important role in understanding these relationships...
September 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911799/effects-of-glucocorticoids-on-stratum-corneum-lipids-and-function-in-human-skin-a-detailed-lipidomic-analysis
#17
Mads A Røpke, Cristina Alonso, Sora Jung, Hanne Norsgaard, Claudia Richter, Maxim E Darvin, Thomas Litman, Annika Vogt, Jürgen Lademann, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi, Jan Kottner
BACKGROUND: Topical glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to induce atrophy of human skin including thinning of epidermal and dermal compartments by influencing keratinocyte proliferation and synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. GCs are also known to reduce skin barrier integrity but little is known about the changes in lipid composition in human skin following topical administration of GCs. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of GCs on stratum corneum (SC) function and lipid profile of human skin in vivo...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910516/controlling-differentiation-of-stem-cells-for-developing-personalized-organ-on-chip-platforms
#18
REVIEW
Armin Geraili, Parya Jafari, Mohsen Sheikh Hassani, Behnaz Heidary Araghi, Mohammad Hossein Mohammadi, Amir Mohammad Ghafari, Sara Hasanpour Tamrin, Hassan Pezeshgi Modarres, Ahmad Rezaei Kolahchi, Samad Ahadian, Amir Sanati-Nezhad
Organ-on-chip (OOC) platforms have attracted attentions of pharmaceutical companies as powerful tools for screening of existing drugs and development of new drug candidates. OOCs have primarily used human cell lines or primary cells to develop biomimetic tissue models. However, the ability of human stem cells in unlimited self-renewal and differentiation into multiple lineages has made them attractive for OOCs. The microfluidic technology has enabled precise control of stem cell differentiation using soluble factors, biophysical cues, and electromagnetic signals...
September 14, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910443/spatiotemporally-controlled-ablation-of-klf5-results-in-dysregulated-epithelial-homeostasis-in-adult-mouse-corneas
#19
Chelsea L Loughner, Anil Tiwari, Doreswamy Kenchegowda, Sudha Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K Swamynathan
Purpose: Corneal epithelial (CE) homeostasis requires coordination between proliferation and differentiation. Here we examine the role of cell proliferation regulator Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) in adult mouse CE homeostasis. Methods: Klf5 was ablated in a spatiotemporally restricted manner by inducing Cre expression in 8-week-old ternary transgenic Klf5LoxP/LoxP/Krt12rtTA/rtTA/Tet-O-Cre (Klf5Δ/ΔCE) mouse CE by administering doxycycline via chow. Normal chow-fed ternary transgenic siblings served as controls...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906043/diluted-sodium-hypochlorite-bleach-in-dogs-antiseptic-efficacy-local-tolerability-and-in-vitro-effect-on-skin-barrier-function-and-inflammation
#20
Frane Banovic, Thierry Olivry, Wolfgang Bäumer, Judy Paps, Jessica Stahl, Ana Rogers, Megan Jacob
BACKGROUND: Diluted sodium hypochlorite represents an inexpensive and widely available topical antiseptic, but there are no tolerability and efficacy data in veterinary dermatology. OBJECTIVES: To determine the in vivo antibacterial effect and tolerability of topical diluted bleach application and to assess its in vitro effect on skin barrier lipids and anti-inflammatory properties on keratinocytes. METHODS: Topical hypochlorite at 0.05% and tap water were applied to both sides of the thorax of four healthy dogs...
September 14, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
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