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Skin barrier

Pei-Ying Yeh, Hsiao-Ping Chen, Jing-Yi Wu
Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation is the primary surgical treatment for type I diabetes mellitus with end-stage renal disease. However, this transplant surgery has a high-risk of surgical complications, including duodenal anastomotic leakage, which may lead to pancreas transplantation failure if the leakage worsens. This case report describes a patient who suffered from duodenal anastomotic leakage after SPK transplantation. The digestive enzymes eroded the wound and skin around the wound, resulting in periwound moisture-associated dermatitis...
April 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Jason Hellmann, Brian E Sansbury, Blenda Wong, Xiaofeng Li, Mansher Singh, Kristo Nuutila, Nan Chiang, Elof Eriksson, Charles N Serhan, Matthew Spite
Cutaneous injury causes underlying tissue damage that must be quickly repaired to minimize exposure to pathogens and to restore barrier function. While the role of growth factors in tissue repair is established, the role of lipid mediators in skin repair has not been extensively investigated. Using a mass spectrometry-based lipid mediator metabolomics approach, we identified D-series resolvins and related pro-resolving lipid mediators during skin injury in mice and pigs. Differentiation of human epidermal keratinocytes increased expression of 15-lipoxygenase and stereospecific production of 17S-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, the common upstream biosynthetic marker and precursor of D-series resolvins...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Marlene Seegräber, Jerome Srour, Alexandra Walter, Macarena Knop, Andreas Wollenberg
Dupilumab is a new treatment option for patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. It blocks IL-4/IL13-signaling and thereby inhibits receptor signaling downstream the JAK-STAT-pathway. Three of the main disease mechanisms of atopic dermatitis are affected by blocking this pathway; the decrease of skin barrier function, the class switch to IgE and the TH2-differentiation. Areas Covered: Dupilumab showed promising results in clinical trials of phase I-III. Clinical outcome parameters such as SCORAD, EASI, IGA and BSA improved with dupilumab...
March 20, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Gabriella Béke, Zsolt Dajnoki, Anikó Kapitány, Krisztián Gáspár, Barbara Medgyesi, Szilárd Póliska, Zoltán Hendrik, Zoltán Péter, Dániel Törőcsik, Tamás Bíró, Andrea Szegedi
The immunological barrier of the healthy skin is considered to be unified on the whole body surface-however, recent indirect findings have challenged this dogma since microbial and chemical milieu (e.g., sebum, sweat, and pH) exhibit remarkable differences on topographically distinct skin areas. Therefore, in the present study, we performed whole transcriptomic and subsequent pathway analyses to assess differences between sebaceous gland rich (SGR) and sebaceous gland poor (SGP) regions. Here, we provide the first evidence that different skin regions exhibit a characteristic innate and adaptive immune and barrier milieu as we could detect significantly increased chemokine (CCL2, 3, 19, 20, 23, 24) and antimicrobial peptide (S100A7, A8, A9, lipocalin, β-defensin-2) expression, altered barrier (keratin 17, 79) functions, and a non-inflammatory Th17/IL-17 dominance in SGR skin compared to SGP...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yu Sawada, Motonobu Nakamura
Skin is an important organ that is located on the outermost layer of the human body, and serves as a defense barrier against external stimulation. Daily life style, including diet, exercise, and sleep, is a fundamental behavior of humans, and it has recently been reported that daily life style has a strong relationship with the inflammatory condition of skin diseases. This relationship has been examined by various approaches, including epidemiological investigations. Psoriasis is one inflammatory skin disease and is especially closely related with daily life style, such as diet, sleep, smoking and alcohol consumption...
2018: Journal of UOEH
Hisako Ibaraki, Takanori Kanazawa, Yuuki Takashima, Hiroaki Okada, Yasuo Seta
Nucleic acid-based targeting of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) is gaining attention as a treatment option for skin diseases like atopic dermatitis (AD). Transdermal administration improves patient quality of life because of non-invasive; however, siRNA delivery into the skin can be challenging owing to the barrier of tight junctions in the granular layer. Therefore, we aimed to develop a delivery system of siRNA for topical skin application using functional peptides. We previously reported that combined treatment with a cytoplasm-responsive stearylated-arginine-rich peptide (STR-CH2 R4 H2 C) and a tight junction opening peptide (AT1002) showed high siRNA permeability in the skin of AD-induced and normal mice...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Stefanie Eyerich, Kilian Eyerich, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Tilo Biedermann
The skin is the outermost barrier of the organism that ensures protection from external harm. Lately, our view of the skin has evolved from an inert mechanical barrier to an active organ that can sense danger signals and mount perfectly adapted defense measures in response to invading pathogens. This Review highlights the different levels of the cutaneous barrier (the microbiome, chemical, physical, and immune barriers), their characteristics, and functional, highly interconnected network of cells and mediators that allow balanced defense measures to protect the body and maintain barrier integrity...
March 15, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Elena Kilian, Jan S Suchodolski, Katrin Hartmann, Ralf S Mueller, Gerhard Wess, Stefan Unterer
BACKGROUND: Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important viral cause of acute canine enteritis leading to severe damage of the intestinal barrier. It has been speculated that dogs might develop chronic disorders after surviving CPV infection. However, no studies regarding the long-term implications of CPV infection have been published to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dogs that have survived CPV infection will have an increased risk for developing chronic gastroenteritis, atopic dermatitis, or cardiac disease...
2018: PloS One
Andrzej T Slominski, Michal A Zmijewski, Przemyslaw M Plonka, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Ralf Paus
The skin, a self-regulating protective barrier organ, is empowered with sensory and computing capabilities to counteract the environmental stressors to maintain/restore disrupted cutaneous homeostasis. These complex functions are coordinated by a cutaneous neuro-endocrine system that also communicates in a bidirectional fashion with the central nervous, endocrine and immune systems, all acting in concert to control body homeostasis. While ultraviolet energy (UV) has played an important role in the origin and evolution of life, UV absorption by the skin not only triggers mechanisms that defend skin integrity and regulate global homeostasis, but also induces skin pathology (e...
March 12, 2018: Endocrinology
Danuta Gutowska-Owsiak, Jorge Bernardino de La Serna, Marco Fritzsche, Aishath Naeem, Ewa I Podobas, Michael Leeming, Huw Colin-York, Ryan O'Shaughnessy, Christian Eggeling, Graham S Ogg
Epidermal stratification critically depends on keratinocyte differentiation and programmed death by cornification, leading to formation of a protective skin barrier. Cornification is dynamically controlled by the protein filaggrin, rapidly released from keratohyalin granules (KHGs). However, the mechanisms of cornification largely remain elusive, partly due to limitations of the observation techniques employed to study filaggrin organization in keratinocytes. Moreover, while the abundance of keratins within KHGs has been well described, it is not clear whether actin also contributes to their formation or fate...
March 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Takehiro Takahashi, Yoko Koga, Mie Kainoh
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by erythema, skin hyperplasia, scales, and keratinocyte hyperproliferation. While the cause of psoriasis is not clearly understood, a dysregulated immune system, especially activation of IL-23/IL-17 axis, has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. For example, anti-IL-23 therapy is effective in psoriasis patients, and thus IL-23 is considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of psoriasis. The skin barrier provides protection of the human body against infection from external pathogens...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Hyeon Yong Lee
BACKGROUND: The development of an alternative medicine to treat atopic dermatitis (AD) from natural sources is necessary. AIMS: To improve skin barrier dysfunction by enhancing the differentiation of human keratinocytes with the fermented Scutellaria baicalensis. METHODS: Scutellaria baicalensis was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum and extracted with 70% ethanol (FE). Antioxidant activities and the regulation of the gene expression related to keratinocyte differentiation were measured as well as its proliferation...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Dawn M Holman, Helen Ding, Gery P Guy, Meg Watson, Anne M Hartman, Frank M Perna
Importance: Monitoring sun protection and sunburn over time at the population level can provide valuable information about progress toward skin cancer prevention goals and inform future intervention efforts. Objective: To examine the prevalence of sun protection use (shade, sunscreen, and clothing) and sunburn and the association between sunburn and individual characteristics and health behaviors in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of 31 162 US adults from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey-Cancer Control Supplement, household interviews of civilian, noninstitutionalized US adults were conducted throughout 2015 in person and completed on the telephone when necessary...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Christian L Wennberg, Ali Narangifard, Magnus Lundborg, Lars Norlén, Erik Lindahl
The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of human skin and the primary barrier toward the environment. The barrier function is maintained by stacked layers of saturated long-chain ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. This structure is formed through a reorganization of glycosylceramide-based bilayers with cubic-like symmetry into ceramide-based bilayers with stacked lamellar symmetry. The process is accompanied by deglycosylation of glycosylceramides and dehydration of the skin barrier lipid structure...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Oxana Nekrasova, Robert M Harmon, Joshua A Broussard, Jennifer L Koetsier, Lisa M Godsel, Gillian N Fitz, Margaret L Gardel, Kathleen J Green
The epidermis is a multi-layered epithelium that serves as a barrier against water loss and environmental insults. Its morphogenesis occurs through a tightly regulated program of biochemical and architectural changes during which basal cells commit to differentiate and move towards the skin's surface. Here, we reveal an unexpected role for the vertebrate cadherin desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) in remodeling the actin cytoskeleton to promote the transit of basal cells into the suprabasal layer through a process of delamination, one mechanism of epidermal stratification...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Woo-In Ryu, Hana Lee, Hyun Cheol Bae, Jiehyun Jeon, Hwa Jung Ryu, Jaehyung Kim, Ji Hyun Kim, Ji Won Son, JaeYoung Kim, Yasutomo Imai, Kiyofumi Yamanishi, Sang Hoon Jeong, Sang Wook Son
BACKGROUND: Tight junctions (TJs) have important roles in skin barrier function. The TJ protein claudin-1 (CLDN1) is decreased in atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the mechanism of CLDN1 down-expression. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the effect of IL-33 on CLDN1 expression in keratinocytes. METHODS: Normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) and human skin equivalent models (HSEMs) were cultured in vitro in the presence of IL-33...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
A Wollenberg, R Fölster-Holst, M Saint Aroman, F Sampogna, C Vestergaard
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, highly pruritic, chronic inflammatory skin disease. Dysfunction of the epidermal barrier is witnessed by an increased transepidermal water loss in lesional and non-lesional AD skin. The inflammation in lesional AD skin is well characterized. Non-lesional skin of AD patients shows histological signs of a subclinical inflammation and a pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu. This microinflammation is present even in seemingly healed skin and must be taken into account regarding treatment of AD...
April 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Sandra Jumbe, Jane Meyrick
BACKGROUND: The superiority of obesity surgery for improving medical and weight outcomes in severely obese patients when compared to other weight loss interventions remains undisputed. However, knowledge about the psychological impact of the procedure on patients' lives is limited. Systematic reviews indicate persisting psychological distress after surgery compared to control groups especially longer term, suggesting the need for postoperative psychological support and assessment. Research literature also infers limited knowledge regarding the postoperative patient experience of obesity surgery...
March 12, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Yasutaka Mitamura, Satoshi Nunomura, Yasuhiro Nanri, Masahiro Ogawa, Tomohito Yoshihara, Miho Masuoka, Gaku Tsuji, Takeshi Nakahara, Akiko Hashimoto-Hachiya, Simon J Conway, Masutaka Furue, Kenji Izuhara
BACKGROUND: Barrier dysfunction is an important feature of atopic dermatitis (AD) in which IL-4 and IL-13, signature type 2 cytokines, are involved. Periostin, a matricellular protein induced by IL-4 or IL-13, plays a crucial role in the onset of allergic skin inflammation, including barrier dysfunction. However, it remains elusive how periostin causes barrier dysfunction downstream of the IL-13 signal. METHODS: We systematically identified periostin-dependent expression profile using DNA microarrays...
March 12, 2018: Allergy
Chelsea Handfield, Jeffery Kwock, Amanda S MacLeod
Barrier sites such as the skin play a critical role in immune defense. They must maintain homeostasis with commensals and rapidly detect and limit pathogen invasion. This is accomplished in part through the production of endogenous antimicrobial peptides and proteins, which can be either constitutive or inducible. Here, we focus particularly on the control of innate antiviral proteins and present the basic aspects of their regulation in the skin by interferons (IFNs), IFN-independent immunity, and environmental factors...
March 8, 2018: Trends in Immunology
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