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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141507/sandwiched-white-adipose-tissue-a-novel-microphysiological-system-of-human-adipose-tissue
#1
Frank H Lau, Kelly Vogel, John P Luckett, Maxwell Hunt, Alicia Meyer, Camille L Rogers, Oren Tessler, Charles L Dupin, Hugo St Hilaire, Kazi N Islam, Trivia Frazier, Jeffrey Gimble, Steven Scahill
White adipose tissue (WAT) is a critical organ in both health and disease. However, physiologically faithful tissue culture models of primary human WAT remain limited, at best. Here we describe a novel WAT culture system in which primary human WAT is sandwiched between tissue-engineered sheets of adipose-derived stromal cells. This construct, called "sandwiched white adipose tissue" (SWAT), can be defined as a Microphysiological System (MPS) since it is a tissue-engineered, multicellular, 3D organ construct produced using human cells...
November 16, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132571/the-human-factor-optimizing-trauma-team-performance-in-dynamic-clinical-environments
#2
REVIEW
Christopher Hicks, Andrew Petrosoniak
Resilience is built, not born, and there is no single strategy that reliably manufactures resilient performance in all circumstances. Optimizing team performance in dynamic environments involves the complex interplay of strategies that target individual preparation, team interaction, environmental optimization, and systems-level resilience engineering. To accomplish this, health care can draw influence from human factors research to inform tangible, practical, and measurable improvements in performance and outcomes, modified to suit local and domain-specific needs...
February 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126864/the-impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-pulmonary-function-a-meta-analysis
#3
Adnan Alsumali, Ali Al-Hawag, Sigrid Bairdain, Tewodros Eguale
Morbid obesity may affect several body systems and cause ill effects to the cardiovascular, hepatobiliary, endocrine, and mental health systems. However, the impact on the pulmonary system and pulmonary function has been debated in the literature. A systematic review and meta-analysis for studies that have evaluated the impact of bariatric surgery on pulmonary function were pooled for this analysis. PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases were evaluated through September 31, 2016. They were used as the primary search engine for studies evaluating the impact pre- and post-bariatric surgery on pulmonary function...
October 2, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126580/codebook-based-electrooculography-data-analysis-towards-cognitive-activity-recognition
#4
P Lagodzinski, K Shirahama, M Grzegorzek
With the advancement in mobile/wearable technology, people started to use a variety of sensing devices to track their daily activities as well as health and fitness conditions in order to improve the quality of life. This work addresses an idea of eye movement analysis, which due to the strong correlation with cognitive tasks can be successfully utilized in activity recognition. Eye movements are recorded using an electrooculographic (EOG) system built into the frames of glasses, which can be worn more unobtrusively and comfortably than other devices...
October 28, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118849/examining-the-need-potential-for-biomedical-engineering-to-strengthen-health-care-delivery-for-displaced-populations-victims-of-conflict
#5
Devika Nadkarni, Imad Elhajj, Zaher Dawy, Hala Ghattas, Muhammad H Zaman
Conflict and the subsequent displacement of populations creates unique challenges in the delivery of quality health care to the affected population. Equitable access to quality care demands a multi-pronged strategy with a growing need, and role, for technological innovation to address these challenges. While there have been significant contributions towards alleviating the burden of conflict via data informatics and analytics, communication technology, and geographic information systems, little has been done within biomedical engineering...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114106/designing-and-implementation-of-a-heart-failure-telemonitoring-system
#6
Reza Safdari, Maryam Jafarpour, Mehrshad Mokhtaran, Nasim Naderi
Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify patients at-risk, enhancing self-care management of HF patients at home and reduce the disease exacerbations and readmissions. Method: In this research according to standard heart failure guidelines and Semi-structured interviews with 10 heart failure Specialists, a draft heart failure rule set for alerts and patient instructions was developed. Eventually, the clinical champion of the project vetted the rule set...
September 2017: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111078/electroconvulsive-therapy-depression-the-immune-system-and-inflammation-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Antoine Yrondi, Marie Sporer, Patrice Péran, Laurent Schmitt, Christophe Arbus, Anne Sauvaget
BACKGROUND: The management and treatment of major depressive disorder are major public health challenges, the lifetime prevalence of this illness being 4.4%-20% in the general population. Major depressive disorder and treatment resistant depression appear to be, in part, related to a dysfunction of the immune response. Among the treatments for depression ECT occupies an important place. The underlying cerebral mechanisms of ECT remain unclear. OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this review is to survey the potential actions of ECT on the immuno-inflammatory cascade activated during depression...
October 19, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110235/automotive-brake-wear-a-review
#8
Syed M S Wahid
Road transport systems generate toxic particulate matter (PM) when in motion, that ultimately finds its way to the atmosphere. The PM produced by road transport systems can be broadly classified as exhaust and non-exhaust emissions. Exhaust emission is primarily due to product of combustion, as is the case of internal combustion engines and the PM is released to the atmosphere through the tail. Non-exhaust PM sources can be classified as sources such as emissions due to brake wear, tyre wear, road surface wear and resuspension...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107071/role-of-tlr4-in-olfactory-based-spatial-learning-activity-of-neonatal-mice-after-developmental-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-origin-secondary-organic-aerosol
#9
Nay Chi Nway, Yuji Fujitani, Seishiro Hirano, Ohn Mar, Tin-Tin Win-Shwe
Exposure to ambient air pollutants has been reported to have various adverse health impacts. Ambient particulate matter comprises primary particles released directly via engine exhaust and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from oxidative reactions of the ultrafine particle fraction of diesel exhaust (DE). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is well known to initiate the inflammatory cascade in the central nervous system. However, whether and how DE and DE-SOA exposure influences TLR4 signaling in the immature brain remains unclear...
October 26, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105813/how-can-systems-engineering-inform-the-methods-of-programme-evaluation-in-health-professions-education
#10
David Rojas, Lawrence Grierson, Maria Mylopoulos, Patricia Trbovich, Darius Bagli, Ryan Brydges
CONTEXT: We evaluate programmes in health professions education (HPE) to determine their effectiveness and value. Programme evaluation has evolved from use of reductionist frameworks to those addressing the complex interactions between programme factors. Researchers in HPE have recently suggested a 'holistic programme evaluation' aiming to better describe and understand the implications of 'emergent processes and outcomes'. FRAMEWORK: We propose a programme evaluation framework informed by principles and tools from systems engineering...
November 6, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091238/enhancing-critical-thinking-via-a-clinical-scholar-approach
#11
Vicki Simpson, Sara A McComb, Jane M Kirkpatrick
BACKGROUND: Safety, quality improvement, and a systems perspective are vital for nurses to provide quality evidence-based care. Responding to the call to prepare nurses with these perspectives, one school of nursing used a clinical scholar approach, enhanced by systems engineering to more intentionally develop the ability to clinically reason and apply evidence-based practice. METHOD: A two-group, repeated-measures control trial was used to determine the effects of systems engineering content and support on nursing students' clinical judgment and critical thinking skills...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Nursing Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083233/the-measurement-and-role-of-ecological-resilience-systems-theory-across-domain-specific-outcomes-the-domain-specific-resilient-systems-scales
#12
John Maltby, Liz Day, Sophie S Hall, Sally Chivers
Research suggests that trait resilience may be best understood within an ecological resilient systems theory, comprising engineering, ecological, and adaptive capacity resilience. However, there is no evidence as to how this theory translates to specific life domains. Data from two samples (the United States, n = 1,278; the United Kingdom, n = 211) facilitated five studies that introduce the Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales for assessing ecological resilient systems theory within work, health, marriage, friendships, and education...
October 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079093/silver-engineered-nanoparticles-in-freshwater-systems-likely-fate-and-behaviour-through-natural-attenuation-processes
#13
REVIEW
David Shevlin, Niall O'Brien, Enda Cummins
Growth in the nanotechnology sector is likely introducing unnatural formations of materials on the nanoscale (10(-9)m) to the environment. Disposal and degradation of products incorporating engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are likely being released into natural aquatic systems un-intentionally primarily via waste water effluents. The fate and behaviour of metallic based nanoparticles (NPs) such as silver (Ag) in aquatic waters is complex with high levels of variability and uncertainty. In-situ physical, biological and chemical (natural attenuation) processes are likely to influence ENM fate and behaviour in freshwater systems...
October 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078809/mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-cardiac-repair-are-the-actors-ready-for-the-clinical-scenario
#14
REVIEW
Santiago Roura, Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Clémentine Mirabel, Joaquim Vives, Antoni Bayes-Genis
For years, sufficient progress has been made in treating heart failure following myocardial infarction; however, the social and economic burdens and the costs to world health systems remain high. Moreover, treatment advances have not resolved the underlying problem of functional heart tissue loss. In this field of research, for years we have actively explored innovative biotherapies for cardiac repair. Here, we present a general, critical overview of our experience in using mesenchymal stem cells, derived from cardiac adipose tissue and umbilical cord blood, in a variety of cell therapy and tissue engineering approaches...
October 27, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078354/enhanced-antibacterial-activity-through-the-controlled-alignment-of-graphene-oxide-nanosheets
#15
Xinglin Lu, Xunda Feng, Jay R Werber, Chiheng Chu, Ines Zucker, Jae-Hong Kim, Chinedum O Osuji, Menachem Elimelech
The cytotoxicity of 2D graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) is highly important for engineered applications and environmental health. However, the isotropic orientation of GBNs, most notably graphene oxide (GO), in previous experimental studies obscured the interpretation of cytotoxic contributions of nanosheet edges. Here, we investigate the orientation-dependent interaction of GBNs with bacteria using GO composite films. To produce the films, GO nanosheets are aligned in a magnetic field, immobilized by cross-linking of the surrounding matrix, and exposed on the surface through oxidative etching...
October 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065799/fitting-tissue-chips-and-microphysiological-systems-into-the-grand-scheme-of-medicine-biology-pharmacology-and-toxicology
#16
David E Watson, Rosemarie Hunziker, John P Wikswo
Microphysiological systems (MPS), which include engineered organoids (EOs), single organ/tissue chips (TCs), and multiple organs interconnected to create miniature in vitro models of human physiological systems, are rapidly becoming effective tools for drug development and the mechanistic understanding of tissue physiology and pathophysiology. The second MPS thematic issue of Experimental Biology and Medicine comprises 15 articles by scientists and engineers from the National Institutes of Health, the IQ Consortium, the Food and Drug Administration, and Environmental Protection Agency, an MPS company, and academia...
October 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055939/the-national-institute-of-environmental-health-sciences-superfund-research-program-a-model-for-multidisciplinary-training-of-the-next-generation-of-environmental-health-scientists
#17
REVIEW
Danielle J Carlin, Heather Henry, Michelle Heacock, Brittany Trottier, Christina H Drew, William A Suk
The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP) funds university-based, multidisciplinary research on human health and environmental science and engineering with the central goals to understand how hazardous substances contribute to disease and how to prevent exposures to these environmental chemicals. This multi-disciplinary approach allows early career scientists (e.g. graduate students and postdoctoral researchers) to gain experience in problem-based, solution-oriented research and to conduct research in a highly collaborative environment...
October 23, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055177/pesticide-management-approach-towards-protecting-the-safety-and-health-of-farmers-in-southeast-asia
#18
REVIEW
Norsyazwani Mohammad, Emilia Zainal Abidin, Vivien How, Sarva Mangala Praveena, Zailina Hashim
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that pesticide production and use have increased continuously in the countries of Southeast Asia in recent years. Within the context of protecting the safety and health of workers in the agricultural sector, there is an existing gap in the implementation of the pesticide management framework because safety and health effects arising from occupational exposures continue to be reported. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide narrative similarities, differences and weaknesses of the existing pesticide management system in Southeast Asian countries (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) within the context of occupational safety and health...
October 21, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050810/how-to-not-detonate-the-bomb-the-case-of-the-italian-national-health-service
#19
G La Torre, A Federici
Why is Italy one of the world's highest ranked for ability and quality of healthcare in relationship to the resources invested? The last decade has been characterized by many Italian Regions with Recovery Plans, whose main focus was on short-term issues with a high impact on healthcare costs. Italy is now leaving this phase and at the regional level there will be an increase of new hirings in the healthcare sectors, as stated by the Ministry of Health. There is a large amount of scientific literature that supports the role of factors such as lifestyles, diet and genetics as the base of population health...
October 16, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048576/monitoring-characteristics-and-genotoxic-effects-of-engineered-nanoparticle-protein-corona
#20
Violet Aileen Senapati, Krupa Kansara, Rishi Shanker, Alok Dhawan, Ashutosh Kumar
Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) possess different physical and chemical properties compared to their bulk counterparts. These unique properties have found application in various products in the area of therapeutics, consumer goods, environmental remediation, optical and electronic fields. This has also increased the likelihood of their release into the environment thereby affecting human health and ecosystem. ENPs, when in contact with the biological system have various physical and chemical interactions with cellular macromolecules including proteins...
October 17, 2017: Mutagenesis
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