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Health systems engineering

J Kyle Bohannon, Krisztina Janosko, Michael R Holbrook, Jason Barr, Daniela Pusl, Laura Bollinger, Linda Coe, Lisa E Hensley, Peter B Jahrling, Jiro Wada, Jens H Kuhn, Matthew G Lackemeyer
Aerosol or inhalational studies of high-consequence pathogens have recently been increasing in number due to the perceived threat of intentional aerosol releases or unexpected natural aerosol transmission. Specific laboratories designed to perform these experiments require tremendous engineering controls to provide a safe and secure working environment and constant systems maintenance to sustain functionality. Class III biosafety cabinets, also referred to as gloveboxes, are gas-tight enclosures with non-opening windows...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ludovic Enkler, Delphine Richer, Anthony L Marchand, Dominique Ferrandon, Fabrice Jossinet
Among Candida species, the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata has become the second most common causative agent of candidiasis in the world and a major public health concern. Yet, few molecular tools and resources are available to explore the biology of C. glabrata and to better understand its virulence during infection. In this study, we describe a robust experimental strategy to generate loss-of-function mutants in C. glabrata. The procedure is based on the development of three main tools: (i) a recombinant strain of C...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
S Negin Mortazavi, Donna Geddes, Fatemeh Hassanipour
This work presents a fluid dynamic study of milk flow in lactating human breast. The motivation for this study is in part to improve the fundamental understanding of transport processes in an important but insufficiently studied human organ, and in part to produce a new methodology for the understanding of the pathologies of lactation, which can have a huge impact on the health and well-being of a significant proportion of the population. This collaborative effort among lactation specialists and fluid dynamic engineers starts with a careful, statistically representative measurement of infant suckling patterns...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Aline Kunz, Sabrina Pohlmann, Oliver Heinze, Antje Brandner, Christina Reiß, Martina Kamradt, Joachim Szecsenyi, Dominik Ose
BACKGROUND: The importance of information and communication technology for healthcare is steadily growing. Newly developed tools are addressing different user groups: physicians, other health care professionals, social workers, patients, and family members. Since often many different actors with different expertise and perspectives are involved in the development process it can be a challenge to integrate the user-reported requirements of those heterogeneous user groups. Nevertheless, the understanding and consideration of user requirements is the prerequisite of building a feasible technical solution...
October 18, 2016: JMIR Human Factors
John Howard, Vladimir Murashov, Paul Schulte
Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Chanhaeng Rhee, M Eleanor Phelps, Bruce Meyer, W Gary Reed
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most commonly reported health care-associated infection (HAI) in the United States. Among UTIs acquired in the hospital, approximately 75% are associated with urinary catheters, with an estimated 15%-25% of all hospitalized patients receiving urinary catheters during their hospitalization. Despite ambitious national goals to reduce these infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) has not decreased in the United States...
2016: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Kyoung Ok Kim
Patient safety has become an important policy agenda in healthcare systems since publication of the 1999 report entitled "To Err Is Human." The paradigm has changed from blaming the individual for the error to identifying the weakness in the system that led to the adverse events. Anesthesia is one of the first healthcare specialties to adopt techniques and lessons from the aviation industry. The widespread use of simulation programs and the application of human factors engineering to clinical practice are the influences of the aviation industry...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
S Manimaran, S Jeyakumar, K Bhagya Lakshmi
Education Management Information System (EMIS) is a widely acceptable and developing technology within the Information Technology field. The advancement in technology in this century is being collaborated with scientific invention or explorer and information strengthening or development. This paper presents the results and experiences gained from applying students oriented EMIS for monitoring and managing mental health. The Mental Health of students depends on the acquiring adequate knowledge on basic concepts within a time period or academic schedule...
September 23, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Shawna Benston
Reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs), including gene-editing technology, are being discovered and refined at an exponential pace. One gene-editing innovation that demands our swift attention is CRISPR/Cas9, a system of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and a protein called Cas9. As CRISPR and other RGTs continue being developed, we must remain vigilant concerning the potential implications of genetic-engineering technology on our interpersonal and legal relationships. In the face of increasingly numerous and refined RGTs, we must maintain the rights of everyone: potential parents, prospective children, and individuals (both living and prospective) with disabilities...
March 2016: Laws
Alaeddin B Abukabda, Phoebe A Stapleton, Timothy R Nurkiewicz
Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are anthropogenic materials with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. Their ubiquitous employment in biomedical and industrial applications in the absence of full toxicological assessments raises significant concerns over their safety on human health. This is a significant concern, especially for metal and metal oxide ENM as they may possess the greatest potential to impair human health. A large body of literature has developed that reflects adverse systemic effects associated with exposure to these materials, but an integrated mechanistic framework for how ENM exposure influences morbidity remains elusive...
September 29, 2016: Current Environmental Health Reports
José M Camacho-Zaragoza, Georgina Hernández-Chávez, Fabian Moreno-Avitia, René Ramírez-Iñiguez, Alfredo Martínez, Francisco Bolívar, Guillermo Gosset
BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is a plant natural product with many health-protecting effects which makes it an attractive chemical both for academic studies and industrial purposes. However, the low quantities naturally produced by plants as well as the unsustainable procedures of extraction, purification and concentration have prompted many biotechnological approaches to produce this chemical in large quantities from renewable sources. None of these approaches have considered a microbial coculture strategy to produce this compound...
September 29, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Yang Li, Paola Italiani, Eudald Casals, Dirk Valkenborg, Inge Mertens, Geert Baggerman, Inge Nelissen, Victor F Puntes, Diana Boraschi
The possibility that nanomaterials could perturb the normal course of an inflammatory response is a key issue when assessing nanoimmunosafety. The alteration of the normal progress of an inflammatory response may have pathological consequences, since inflammation is a major defensive mechanism and its efficiency maintains the body's health. The immunosafety of engineered nanoparticles at nontoxic concentrations was investigated with the use of a human primary monocyte-based in vitro system, which reproduces in a simplified fashion the full course of the physiological inflammatory response, from initiation and development to resolution...
October 13, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hummad Habib Qazi, Abu Bakar Mohammad, Harith Ahmad, Mohd Zamani Zulkifli
A D-shaped polarization-maintaining fiber (PMF) as fiber optic sensor for the simultaneous monitoring of strain and the surrounding temperature is presented. A mechanical end and edge polishing system with aluminum oxide polishing film is utilized to perform sequential polishing on one side (lengthwise) of the PMF in order to fabricate a D-shaped cross-section. Experimental results show that the proposed sensor has high sensitivity of 46 pm/µε and 130 pm/°C for strain and temperature, respectively, which is significantly higher than other recently reported work (mainly from 2013) related to fiber optic sensors...
2016: Sensors
Khaled M Mohamed, Michael M Murphy, Heather E Lawson, Ted Klemetti
Design of rib support systems in U.S. coal mines is based primarily on local practices and experience. A better understanding of current rib support practices in U.S. coal mines is crucial for developing a sound engineering rib support design tool. The objective of this paper is to analyze the current practices of rib control in U.S. coal mines. Twenty underground coal mines were studied representing various coal basins, coal seams, geology, loading conditions, and rib control strategies. The key findings are: (1) any rib design guideline or tool should take into account external rib support as well as internal bolting; (2) rib bolts on their own cannot contain rib spall, especially in soft ribs subjected to significant load-external rib control devices such as mesh are required in such cases to contain rib sloughing; (3) the majority of the studied mines follow the overburden depth and entry height thresholds recommended by the Program Information Bulletin 11-29 issued by the Mine Safety and Health Administration; (4) potential rib instability occurred when certain geological features prevailed-these include draw slate and/or bone coal near the rib/roof line, claystone partings, and soft coal bench overlain by rock strata; (5) 47% of the studied rib spall was classified as blocky-this could indicate a high potential of rib hazards; and (6) rib injury rates of the studied mines for the last three years emphasize the need for more rib control management for mines operating at overburden depths between 152...
January 2016: International Journal of Mining Science and Technology
Lucia Guerra-Reyes, Vanessa M Christie, Annu Prabhakar, Asia L Harris, Katie A Siek
Objectives To assess low-income mothers' perceptions of their postpartum information needs; describe their information seeking behavior; explore their use of mobile technology to address those needs; and to contribute to the sparse literature on postpartum health and wellness. Methods Exploratory community-based qualitative approach. Interviewees were recruited among clients of community partners and had children aged 48 months and under. A survey assessing demographics was used to identify low-income mothers...
September 17, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Eleanore T Wurtzel, Toni M Kutchan
New technologies are redefining how plant biology will meet societal challenges in health, nutrition, agriculture, and energy. Rapid and inexpensive genome and transcriptome sequencing is being exploited to discover biochemical pathways that provide tools needed for synthetic biology in both plant and microbial systems. Metabolite detection at the cellular and subcellular levels is complementing gene sequencing for pathway discovery and metabolic engineering. The crafting of plant and microbial metabolism for the synthetic biology platforms of tomorrow will require precise gene editing and delivery of entire complex pathways...
September 16, 2016: Science
Janet K Williams, W Gregory Feero, Debra G B Leonard, Bernice Coleman
Implementation of genomic discoveries into health care optimally includes evaluation of outcomes for recipients of care, providers, payers, and health care systems. However, the influence of specific aspects of the implementation process on observed outcomes may be missed if assessment of implementation success is not built into the implementation design. The intersection of implementation science with genomics may provide new insights on how to maximize the benefits of emerging genomic technologies in health care...
August 20, 2016: Nursing Outlook
Debajyoti Ghosal, Shreya Ghosh, Tapan K Dutta, Youngho Ahn
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) include a group of organic priority pollutants of critical environmental and public health concern due to their toxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence as well as recalcitrance. The increased awareness of their various adverse effects on ecosystem and human health has led to a dramatic increase in research aimed toward removing PAHs from the environment. PAHs may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical oxidation, although transformation by microorganisms is the major neutralization process of PAH-contaminated sites in an ecologically accepted manner...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Theo Scheffers, Blandine Doornaert, Nathalie Berne, Gerard van Breukelen, Antoine Leplay, Erik van Miert
Hazard Banding (HB) is a process of allocating chemical substances in bands of increasing health hazard based on their hazard classifications. Recent Control Banding (CB) tools use the classifications of the United Nations Global Harmonized System (UN GHS) or the European Union Classifications, Labelling and Packaging (EU CLP) which are grouped over 5 HBs. The use of CB is growing worldwide for the risk control of substances without an Occupational Exposure Limit Value (OELV). Well-known CB-tools like HSE-COSHH Essentials, BAuA-Einfaches Maßnahmenkonzept Gefahrstoffe (EMKG), and DGUV-IFA-Spaltenmodell (IFA) use however different GHS/CLP groupings which may lead to dissimilar HBs and control regimes for individual substances...
September 12, 2016: Annals of Occupational Hygiene
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