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Health systems engineering

Aleta Pupovac, Berna Senturk, Chiara Griffoni, Katharina Maniura-Weber, Markus Rottmar, Sally L McArthur
3D human skin models provide a platform for toxicity testing, biomaterials evaluation, and investigation of fundamental biological processes. However, the majority of current in vitro models lack an inflammatory system, vasculature, and other characteristics of native skin, indicating scope for more physiologically complex models. Looking at the immune system, there are a variety of cells that could be integrated to create novel skin models, but to do this effectively it is also necessary to understand the interface between skin biology and tissue engineering as well as the different roles the immune system plays in specific health and disease states...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Suresh Neethirajan, Vasanth Ragavan, Xuan Weng, Rohit Chand
Current food production faces tremendous challenges from growing human population, maintaining clean resources and food qualities, and protecting climate and environment. Food sustainability is mostly a cooperative effort resulting in technology development supported by both governments and enterprises. Multiple attempts have been promoted in tackling challenges and enhancing drivers in food production. Biosensors and biosensing technologies with their applications, are being widely applied to tackling top challenges in food production and its sustainability...
March 12, 2018: Biosensors
Emily S Patterson
Objective To integrate and synthesize insights from recent studies of workarounds to the intended use of health information technology (HIT) by health care professionals. Background Systems are safest when the documentation of how work is done in policies and procedures closely matches what people actually do when they are working. Proactively identifying and managing workarounds to the intended use of technology, including deviations from expected workflows, can improve system safety. Method A narrative review of studies of workarounds with HIT was conducted to identify themes in the literature...
March 1, 2018: Human Factors
Mohanraj Thirumalai, William B Kirkland, Samuel R Misko, Sangeetha Padalabalanarayanan, Laurie A Malone
BACKGROUND: Active video game (AVG) playing, also known as "exergaming," is increasingly employed to promote physical activity across all age groups. The Wii Fit Balance Board is a popular gaming controller for AVGs and is used in a variety of settings. However, the commercial off-the-shelf (OTS) design poses several limitations. It is inaccessible to wheelchair users, does not support the use of stabilization assistive devices, and requires the ability to shift the center of balance (COB) in all directions to fully engage in game play...
March 6, 2018: JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies
Xiaolin Meng, Dinh Tung Nguyen, Yilin Xie, John S Owen, Panagiotis Psimoulis, Sean Ince, Qusen Chen, Jun Ye, Paul Bhatia
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is a relatively new branch of civil engineering that focuses on assessing the health status of infrastructure, such as long-span bridges. Using a broad range of in-situ monitoring instruments, the purpose of the SHM is to help engineers understand the behaviour of structures, ensuring their structural integrity and the safety of the public. Under the Integrated Applications Promotion (IAP) scheme of the European Space Agency (ESA), a feasibility study (FS) project that used the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and Earth Observation (EO) for Structural Health Monitoring of Long-span Bridges (GeoSHM) was initiated in 2013...
March 4, 2018: Sensors
Chen Song, Aosen Wang, Feng Lin, Mohammadnabi Asmani, Ruogang Zhao, Zhanpeng Jin, Jian Xiao, Wenyao Xu
As a micro-engineered biomimetic system to replicate key functions of living organs, organ-on-a-chip (OC) technology provides a high-throughput model for investigating complex cell interactions with both high temporal and spatial resolutions in biological studies. Typically, microscopy and high-speed video cameras are used for data acquisition, which are expensive and bulky. Recently, compressed sensing (CS) has increasingly attracted attentions due to its extremely low-complexity structure and low sampling rate...
March 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Chinedu Cletus Ude, Azizi Miskon, Ruszymah Bt Hj Idrus, Muhamad Bin Abu Bakar
The dynamic nature of modern warfare, including threats and injuries faced by soldiers, necessitates the development of countermeasures that address a wide variety of injuries. Tissue engineering has emerged as a field with the potential to provide contemporary solutions. In this review, discussions focus on the applications of stem cells in tissue engineering to address health risks frequently faced by combatants at war. Human development depends intimately on stem cells, the mysterious precursor to every kind of cell in the body that, with proper instruction, can grow and differentiate into any new tissue or organ...
February 26, 2018: Military Medical Research
Saurabh Kumar, Bharadwaj Amrutur, Sundarrajan Asokan
Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have become popular for applications related to structural health monitoring, biomedical engineering, and robotics. However, for successful large scale adoption, FBG interrogation systems are as important as sensor characteristics. Apart from accuracy, the required number of FBG sensors per fiber and the distance between the device in which the sensors are used and the interrogation system also influence the selection of the interrogation technique. For several measurement devices developed for applications in biomedical engineering and robotics, only a few sensors per fiber are required and the device is close to the interrogation system...
February 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Guenter Langergraber, Fabio Masi
Treatment wetlands (TWs) are engineered systems that mimic the processes in natural wetlands with the purpose of treating contaminated water. Being a simple and robust technology, TWs are applied worldwide to treat various types of water. Besides treated water for reuse, TWs can be used in resources-oriented sanitation systems for recovering nutrients and carbon, as well as for growing biomass for energy production. Additionally, TWs provide a large number of ecosystem services. Integrating green infrastructure into urban developments can thus facilitate circular economy approaches and has positive impacts on environment, economy and health...
February 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Antonio Pietroiusti, Helene Stockmann-Juvala, Francesca Lucaroni, Kai Savolainen
The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) has grown after the turn of the 21st century. Also, the production of ENM has globally grown, and exposure of workers especially via the lungs to ENM has increased. This review tackles with effects of ENM on workers' health because occupational environment is the main source of exposure to ENM. Assessment of exposure to ENM is demanding, and today there are no occupational exposure level (OEL) for ENM. This is partly due to challenges of such measurements, and in part to the unknown causality between ENM metrics and effects...
February 23, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Alberto Martinetti, Maria Mikela Chatzimichailidou, Luisa Maida, Leo van Dongen
Occupational health and safety (OHS) represents an important field of exploration for the research community: in spite of the growing of the technological innovations, the raising complexity of systems involves critical issues in terms of degradation of the safety levels. In such a situation, new safety management approaches (SMA) are now mandatory in order to face the safety implications of the current technological evolutions. Along these lines, performing risk-based analysis alone seems not to be enough anymore...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Ericles Andrei Bellei, Daiana Biduski, Nathália Pinto Cechetti, Ana Carolina Bertoletti De Marchi
BACKGROUND: The increasing number of diabetes mellitus (DM) m-health applications (apps) reveals a panorama of different approaches to the subject, demonstrating dynamism and heterogeneity. Available applications have various functions, capabilities, and data collection techniques. OBJECTIVE: We systematically reviewed the literature to identify and analyze studies regarding the diversity of applications aimed at DM monitoring and treatment. We aimed to investigate app functionalities, the basis for their design, and how they were tested...
February 22, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Johanna Stern, Sarah Moraïs, Yonit Ben-David, Rachel Salama, Melina Shamshoum, Raphael Lamed, Yuval Shoham, Edward A Bayer, Itzhak Mizrahi
Heterologous display of enzymes on microbial cell surfaces is an extremely desirable approach, since it enables the engineered microbe to interact directly with the plant-wall extracellular polysaccharide matrix. In recent years, attempts have been made to endow non-cellulolytic microbes with genetically engineered cellulolytic capabilities for improved hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and for advanced probiotics. Thus far, however, owing to the hurdles of secreting and assembling large, intricate complexes on the bacterial cell wall, only free cellulases or relatively simple cellulosome assemblies have been introduced into live bacteria...
February 16, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Sakib F Elahi, Seung Yup Lee, William R Lloyd, Leng-Chun Chen, Shiuhyang Kuo, Ying Zhou, Hyungjin Myra Kim, Robert Kennedy, Cynthia Marcelo, Stephen E Feinberg, Mary-Ann Mycek
Fluorescence lifetime sensing has been shown to noninvasively characterize the pre-implantation health and viability of engineered tissue constructs. However, current practices to monitor post-implantation construct integration are either qualitative (visual assessment) or destructive (tissue histology). We employed label-free fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy for quantitative, noninvasive optical assessment of engineered tissue constructs that were implanted in a murine model. The portable system was designed to be suitable for intravital measurements and included a handheld probe to precisely and rapidly acquire data at multiple sites per construct...
February 16, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Aidin Aryankhesal, Manal Etemadi, Mohammad Mohseni, Saber Azami-Aghdash, Majid Nakhaei
Background: One of the main challenges of healthcare systems is to protect people from consequences of health expenditures. Such expenditures may lead to catastrophic financial loss in families so that many people deny demanding necessary healthcare services, which results in harms to their health status. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the catastrophic health expenditures trend and its related factors in Iran. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on studies conducted between 1984 and 2014...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Mohieddine Benammar, Abderrazak Abdaoui, Sabbir H M Ahmad, Farid Touati, Abdullah Kadri
The impact of air quality on health and on life comfort is well established. In many societies, vulnerable elderly and young populations spend most of their time indoors. Therefore, indoor air quality monitoring (IAQM) is of great importance to human health. Engineers and researchers are increasingly focusing their efforts on the design of real-time IAQM systems using wireless sensor networks. This paper presents an end-to-end IAQM system enabling measurement of CO₂, CO, SO₂, NO₂, O₃, Cl₂, ambient temperature, and relative humidity...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
Utkarsh Ojha, Raihan Mohammed
As diabetes mellitus (DM) has approached pandemic proportions, the pressure for effective glycemic management is mounting. The starting point for managing and living well with DM involves early diagnosis and monitoring blood glucose levels. Therefore, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) can help patients maintain their blood glucose levels within the appropriate range. The general principle behind the current SMBG method involves a finger prick test to obtain a blood drop, which is applied onto a reagent strip and read by an automated device...
2018: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
Maryam Alehashem, Shadi Baniasadi
BACKGROUND: A great number of antineoplastic drugs (ANPDs) are used globally in cancer treatment. Due to their adverse health effects, occupational exposure to ANPDs is considered a potential health risk to health care workers. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to evaluate safe-handling practices of ANPDs, exposure controls, and adverse health implications for health care providers exposed to ANDPs. METHODS: Prevention measures, including engineering, administrative, and work practice controls, as well as personal protective equipment (PPE), were recorded daily through a questionnaire for six weeks...
2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Aitor Gallastegui, James Cheung, Teresa Southard, Kelly R Hume
In vivo micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging allows longitudinal studies of pulmonary neoplasms in genetically engineered mouse models. Respiratory gating increases the accuracy of lung tumor measurements but lengthens anesthesia time in animals that may be at increased risk for complications. We hypothesized that semiautomated, volumetric, and linear tumor measurements performed in micro-CT images from non-gated scans would have correlation with histological findings. Primary lung tumors were induced in eight FVB mice with two transgenes (FVB/N-Tg(tetO-Kras2)12Hev/J; FVB...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
Katharina Fritzen, Bettina Gutschek, Benedikte Coucke, Katerina Zakrzewska, Michael Hummel, Oliver Schnell
BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) using the ColourSure™ Technology to visualize target range showed improvement of metabolic control and overall diabetes self-management in insulin-treated patients. This economic analysis aimed to identify cost savings for the German health system resulting from an HbA1c reduction due to the utilization of user-friendly glucose meters. METHODS: Patient data from a recently published observational study on SMBG were used for risk evaluations using the UKPDS risk engine...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
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