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Cornified envelope

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864691/characterization-of-tg2-and-tg1-tg2-double-knock-out-mouse-epidermis
#1
Consuelo Pitolli, Valentina Pietroni, Lyuben Marekov, Alessandro Terrinoni, Kiyofumi Yamanishi, Cinzia Mazzanti, Gerry Melino, Eleonora Candi
Transglutaminases (TGs) are a family of enzymes that catalyse the formation of isopeptide bonds between the γ-carboxamide groups of glutamine residues and the ε-amino groups of lysine residues leading to cross-linking reactions among proteins. Four members, TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG5, of the nine mammalian enzymes are expressed in the skin. TG1, TG3 and TG5 crosslinking properties are fundamental for cornified envelope assembly. In contrast, the role of TG2 in keratinization has never been studied at biochemical level in vivo...
November 18, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742573/deimination-of-human-hornerin-enhances-its-processing-by-calpain-1-and-its-cross-linking-by-transglutaminases
#2
Chiung-Yueh Hsu, Géraldine Gasc, Anne-Aurélie Raymond, Odile Burlet-Schiltz, Hidenari Takahara, Guy Serre, Marie-Claire Méchin, Michel Simon
Hornerin (HRNR) shares numerous features with filaggrin, a key contributor to the epidermal barrier functions. The two proteins display a related structural organization, are expressed by the granular keratinocytes as a large precursor processed by proteolysis, and are cross-linked to the cornified cell envelopes. Two main steps in the metabolism of filaggrin are its deimination and calpain-1 cleavage. Here, using ion-exchange chromatography and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of human epidermis extracts, we determined that HRNR is deiminated in vivo...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489424/single-low-dose-radiation-induced-regulation-of-keratinocyte-differentiation-in-calcium-induced-hacat-cells
#3
Hyung Jin Hahn, Hae Jeong Youn, Hwa Jun Cha, Karam Kim, Sungkwan An, Kyu Joong Ahn
BACKGROUND: We are continually exposed to low-dose radiation (LDR) in the range 0.1 Gy from natural sources, medical devices, nuclear energy plants, and other industrial sources of ionizing radiation. There are three models for the biological mechanism of LDR: the linear no-threshold model, the hormetic model, and the threshold model. OBJECTIVE: We used keratinocytes as a model system to investigate the molecular genetic effects of LDR on epidermal cell differentiation...
August 2016: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477171/keratinization-disorders-and-genetic-aspects-in-palmar-and-plantar-keratodermas
#4
Ewa Stypczyńska, Waldemar Placek, Barbara Zegarska, Rafał Czajkowski
Palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) is a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders characterized by abnormal thickening of the palms and soles. There are three clinical patterns: diffuse, focal, and punctuate. Palmoplantar keratodermas can be divided into the following functional subgroups: disturbed gene functions in structural proteins (keratins), cornified envelope (loricrin, transglutaminase), cohesion (plakophilin, desmoplakin, desmoglein 1), cell-to-cell communication (connexins) and transmembrane signal transduction (cathepsin C)...
June 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432202/structural-identification-of-skin-ceramides-containing-%C3%AF-hydroxy-acyl-chains-using-mass-spectrometry
#5
Zhexue Wu, Jong Cheol Shon, Jong Yei Kim, Yunhi Cho, Kwang-Hyeon Liu
The stratum corneum (SC) acts as a barrier that protects organisms against the environment and from transepidermal water loss. It consists of corneocytes embedded in a matrix of lipid metabolites (ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids). Of these lipids, ceramides are sphingolipids consisting of sphingoid bases, linked to fatty acyl chains. Typical fatty acid acyl chains are composed of α-hydroxy fatty acids (A), esterified ω-hydroxy fatty acids (EO), non-hydroxy fatty acids (N), and ω-hydroxy fatty acids (O)...
July 18, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416753/analysis-on-transglutaminase-1-and-its-substrates-using-specific-substrate-peptide-in-cultured-keratinocytes
#6
Miki Yamane, Kayoko Sugimura, Hiroko Kawasaki, Hideki Tatsukawa, Kiyotaka Hitomi
Transglutaminase (TGase) catalyzes protein cross-linking reactions essential for several biological processes. In differentiating keratinocytes, TG1 (keratinocyte-type) is crucial for the cross-linking of substrate proteins required for the complete formation of the cornified envelop, a proteinaceous supermolecule located in the outermost layer of the epidermis. TG1 expressions and its substrate were induced in cultured keratinocytes at differentiation-stage specific manner. In the cultured keratinocytes, we used the TG1-specific substrate peptide, which enables the specific detection of enzymatic activity to investigate its induction patterns...
September 9, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405604/ginsenoside-re-improves-skin-barrier-function-in-hacat-keratinocytes-under-normal-growth-conditions
#7
Yuri Oh, Hye-Won Lim, Kyunghoon Kim, Chang-Jin Lim
Ginsenoside Re (Re), a major ginsenoside of ginseng, enhanced the cornified cell envelope (CE) formation in HaCaT keratinocytes under normal conditions. In HaCaT keratinocytes, Re was also able to upregulate filaggrin protein and caspase-14 activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings reasonably imply that Re possesses a desirable property of improving skin barrier function.
July 13, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402316/a-synthetic-c16-omega-hydroxyphytoceramide-improves-skin-barrier-functions-from-diversely-perturbed-epidermal-conditions
#8
Myoung Jin Oh, Jin Ju Nam, Eun Ok Lee, Jin Wook Kim, Chang Seo Park
Omega-hydroxyceramides (ω-OH-Cer) play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of skin barrier. ω-OH-Cer are the primary lipid constituents of the corneocyte lipid envelope (CLE) covalently attached to the outer surface of the cornified envelope linked to involucrin to become bound form lipids in stratum corneum (SC). CLE becomes a hydrophobic impermeable layer of matured corneocyte preventing loss of natural moisturizing factor inside the corneocytes. More importantly, CLE may also play an important role in the formation of proper orientation of intercellular lipid lamellar structure by interdigitating with the intercellular lipids in a comb-like fashion...
October 2016: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376048/feasibility-of-establishing-deletion-of-the-late-cornified-envelope-genes-lce3b-and-lce3c-as-a-susceptibility-factor-for-psoriasis
#9
Safia Bashir, Iffat Hassan, Sabhiya Majid, Yasmeen Jabeen Bhat, Rabia Farooq
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic hyperproliferative inflammatory disease of the skin, genetic predisposition to which is well-established. The late cornified envelope genes LCE3B and LCE3C are involved in maintaining the integrity of skin barrier especially following skin barrier disruption. The deletion of these genes would lead to an impaired epidermal response following damage to the skin barrier thus predisposing to psoriatic lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the common deletion of late cornified envelope genes (LCE 3B/3C) in psoriasis patients of Kashmiri ethnic population of North India...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27304082/expression-of-cornified-envelope-proteins-in-skin-and-its-relationship-with-atopic-dermatitis-phenotype
#10
Magdalena Trzeciak, Monika Sakowicz-Burkiewicz, Martyna Wesserling, Daria Dobaczewska, Jolanta Gleń, Roman Nowicki, Tadeusz Pawelczyk
Changes in the expression of cornified envelope (CE) proteins are thought to affect the development and course of atopic dermatitis (AD). The aim of this study was to examine the expression level of CE proteins in order to identify new molecular markers of the AD phenotype. Expression levels of CE proteins were evaluated in the skin of patients with AD (38 biopsies) and healthy subjects (26 biopsies). Levels of FLG, FLG2 and SPRR3 mRNAs and proteins were reduced in AD skin. Levels of LELP-1 and SPRR1A transcripts and proteins were significantly increased in AD skin...
June 15, 2016: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193164/cell-surface-glycans-in-the-human-stratum-corneum-distribution-and-depth-related-changes
#11
Rawad Abdayem, Florian Formanek, Anne Marie Minondo, Anne Potter, Marek Haftek
During the formation of the stratum corneum (SC) barrier, the extracellular spaces of viable epidermis, rich in glycans, are filled with a highly organized lipid matrix and the plasma membranes of keratinocytes are replaced by cornified-lipid envelopes. These structures comprise cross-linked proteins, including trans-membrane glycoproteins and proteoglycans, covalently bound to a monolayer of cell surface ceramides. Little is known about the presence and distribution of glycans on the SC corneocytes despite their possible involvement in SC hydration, cohesion and desquamation...
May 19, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27167730/lce1-family-members-are-nrf2-target-genes-that-are-induced-to-compensate-for%C3%A2-the-loss-of-loricrin
#12
Yosuke Ishitsuka, Aaron J Huebner, Robert H Rice, Peter J Koch, Vladislav V Speransky, Alasdair C Steven, Dennis R Roop
Loricrin is a major component of the cornified cell envelope, a highly insoluble structure composed of covalently cross-linked proteins. Although loricrin knockout mice only exhibit a mild transient phenotype at birth, they show a marked delay in the formation of an epidermal barrier in utero. We recently discovered that induction of a compensatory response to repair the defective barrier is initiated by amniotic fluid via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 and identified Sprr2d and Sprr2h as direct transcriptional targets...
August 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27109612/serpinb2-deficiency-results-in-a-stratum-corneum-defect-and-increased-sensitivity-to-topically-applied-inflammatory-agents
#13
Wayne A Schroder, Itaru Anraku, Thuy T Le, Thiago D C Hirata, Helder I Nakaya, Lee Major, Jonathan J Ellis, Andreas Suhrbier
SerpinB2 (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2) is constitutively expressed at high levels by differentiating keratinocytes in mice and humans; however, the physiological function of keratinocyte SerpinB2 remains unclear. Herein, we show that SerpinB2(-/-) mice are more susceptible to contact dermatitis after topical application of dinitrofluorobenzene, and show enhanced inflammatory lesions after topical applications of phorbol ester. Untreated SerpinB2(-/-) mice showed no overt changes in epithelial structure, and we were unable to find evidence for a role for keratinocyte SerpinB2 in regulating immunity, apoptosis, IL-1β production, proteasomal activity, or wound healing...
June 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073425/candidate-gene-polymorphisms-and-risk-of-psoriasis-a-pilot-study
#14
Alejandra Villarreal-Martínez, Hugo Gallardo-Blanco, Ricardo Cerda-Flores, Iris Torres-Muñoz, Minerva Gómez-Flores, Julio Salas-Alanís, Jorge Ocampo-Candiani, Laura Martínez-Garza
Psoriasis is a complex genetic disease, which has previously been associated with numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are implicated in various processes, including skin barrier functions and in the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. The present study aimed to investigate the genotypic and allelic frequencies of 32 SNPs at 24 genetic loci, and their association with psoriasis in a Mexican population. These SNPs, which were associated with psoriasis in previous studies, included the following genes: Major histocompatibility complex class I-C (HLA-C), interleukin (IL)-12B, IL-23R, IL-23A, IL-28RA, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, ring finger protein-114 (RNF114), cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 1-like 1, late cornified envelope 3B/3C, signal transducer and activator of transcription 4, LINC01185, interferon induced with helicase C domain 1, IL-13, TNF-α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), TNFAIP3 interacting protein 1, endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1, TNF receptor-associated factor interacting protein 2, Leptin, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-alpha, F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 19, nitric oxide synthase 2, cluster of differentiation 40, nuclear receptor coactivator 5, and ADAM metallopeptidase domain 33...
April 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27054112/epidermal-differentiation-complex-a-review-on-its-epigenetic-regulation-and-potential-drug-targets
#15
REVIEW
Sinha Abhishek, Suresh Palamadai Krishnan
The primary feature of the mammalian skin includes the hair follicle, inter-follicular epidermis and the sebaceous glands, all of which form pilo-sebaceous units. The epidermal protective layer undergoes an ordered/programmed process of proliferation and differentiation, ultimately culminating in the formation of a cornified envelope consisting of enucleated corneocytes. These terminally differentiated cells slough off in a cyclic manner and this process is regulated via induction or repression of epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) genes...
2016: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27048876/increased-risk-of-psoriasis-due-to-combined-effect-of-hla-cw6-and-lce3-risk-alleles-in-indian-population
#16
Aditi Chandra, Anirudhya Lahiri, Swapan Senapati, Baidehi Basu, Saurabh Ghosh, Indranil Mukhopadhyay, Akhilesh Behra, Somenath Sarkar, Gobinda Chatterjee, Raghunath Chatterjee
HLA-Cw6 is one of the most associated alleles in psoriasis. Recently, Late Cornified Envelop 3 (LCE3) genes were identified as a susceptibility factor for psoriasis. Some population showed epistatic interaction of LCE3 risk variants with HLA-Cw6, while some population failed to show any association. We determined the associations of a 32.2 kb deletion comprising LCE3C-3B genes and three SNPs (rs1886734, rs4112788; rs7516108) at the LCE3 gene cluster among the psoriasis patients in India. All three SNPs at the LCE3 gene cluster failed to show any association...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27015451/influence-of-th2-cytokines-on-the-cornified-envelope-tight-junction-proteins-and-%C3%A3-defensins-in-filaggrin-deficient-skin-equivalents
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Stefan Hönzke, Leonie Wallmeyer, Anja Ostrowski, Moritz Radbruch, Lars Mundhenk, Monika Schäfer-Korting, Sarah Hedtrich
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin condition with complex etiology. It is characterized by skin barrier defects and T helper type 2 (Th2)-polarized inflammation. Although mutations in the filaggrin gene are known to be prominent genetic risk factors for the development of atopic dermatitis, the interdependency between these and an altered cytokine milieu is not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the direct effects of filaggrin deficiency on the cornified envelope, tight junction proteins, and innate immune response, and report the effects of Th2 cytokines in normal and filaggrin-deficient skin equivalents...
March 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985181/coexistence-of-2282del4-flg-gene-mutation-and-il-18-137g-c-gene-polymorphism-enhances-the-risk-of-atopic-dermatitis
#18
Magdalena Trzeciak, Jolanta Gleń, Krzysztof Rębała, Tadeusz Bandurski, Monika Sikorska, Roman Nowicki
INTRODUCTION: Atopic dermatitis (AD) pathogenesis appears in the context of the correlation between cornified envelope proteins and immunological factors. AIM: To estimate the association between FLG R501X and 2282del4 gene mutations, -137 G/C IL-18 and -1112 C/T IL-13 gene polymorphisms and their influence on AD course and the risk in the Polish population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty-two AD patients and 123 healthy volunteers were included into the study...
February 2016: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985177/the-frequency-of-polymorphic-variants-of-filaggrin-gene-and-clinical-atopic-dermatitis
#19
Agata Filipowska-Grońska, Maria Weryńska-Kalemba, Andrzej Bożek, Barbara Filipowska, Jadwiga Żebracka-Gala, Dagmara Rusinek, Dorota Kula, Jerzy Jarząb
INTRODUCTION: As far as pathogenesis of the atopic dermatitis (AD) is concerned, the roles of an impaired epidermal barrier and cornified cell envelope are widely emphasized. AIM: The assessment of mutations of the filaggrin gene and their connection with the clinical picture of AD as well as selected allergological and environmental indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 105 patients with diagnosed AD on the basis of diagnostic criteria were included...
February 2016: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26975724/two-ancient-gene-families-are-critical-for-maintenance-of-the-mammalian-skin-barrier-in-postnatal-life
#20
Michael Cangkrama, Charbel Darido, Smitha R Georgy, Darren Partridge, Alana Auden, Seema Srivastava, Tomasz Wilanowski, Stephen M Jane
The skin barrier is critical for mammalian survival in the terrestrial environment, affording protection against fluid loss, microbes, toxins, and UV exposure. Many genes indispensable for barrier formation in the embryo have been identified, but loss of these genes in adult mice does not induce barrier regression. We describe a complex regulatory network centered on two ancient gene families, the grainyhead-like (Grhl) transcription factors and the protein cross-linking enzymes (tissue transglutaminases [Tgms]), which are essential for skin permeability barrier maintenance in adult mice...
July 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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