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Cornified envelope

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796650/using-skin-gene-markers-for-estimating-early-postmortem-interval-at-different-temperatures
#1
Mona Mohamed Ali, Samah Fathy Ibrahim, Amel Ahmed Fayed
Many researches document long-term RNA persistence in a variety of tissues and its applicability in estimating the postmortem interval (PMI). Skin-specific mRNA marker, late cornified envelope 1C (LCE1C), was used to identified skin samples. Before using the LCE1C in criminal casework, its persistence and applicability for estimating PMI in different temperatures were tested. Twelve skin samples were collected from 6 patients, and 6 samples were kept at 24°C and others were kept at 40°C for 5 days. The expression levels of LCE1C mRNA are serially detected and quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634035/psoriasis-associated-late-cornified-envelope-lce-proteins-have-antibacterial-activity
#2
Hanna Niehues, Lam C Tsoi, Danique A van der Krieken, Patrick A M Jansen, Merel A W Oortveld, Diana Rodijk-Olthuis, Ivonne M J J van Vlijmen, Wiljan J A J Hendriks, Richard W Helder, Joke A Bouwstra, Ellen H van den Bogaard, Philip E Stuart, Rajan P Nair, James T Elder, Patrick L J M Zeeuwen, Joost Schalkwijk
Terminally differentiating epidermal keratinocytes express a large number of structural and antimicrobial proteins that are involved in the physical barrier function of the stratum corneum and provide innate cutaneous host defense. Late cornified envelope (LCE) genes, located in the epidermal differentiation complex on chromosome 1, encode a family of 18 proteins of unknown function, whose expression is largely restricted to epidermis. Deletion of two members, LCE3B and LCE3C (LCE3B/C-del), is a widely replicated psoriasis risk factor that interacts with the major psoriasis-psoriasis risk gene HLA-C*06...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596382/a-new-long-noncoding-rna-lncrna-is-induced-in-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-down-regulates-several-anticancer-and-cell-differentiation-genes-in-mouse
#3
Gilles Ponzio, Roger Rezzonico, Isabelle Bourget, Richard Allan, Nicolas Nottet, Alexandra Popa, Virginie Magnone, Géraldine Rios, Bernard Mari, Pascal Barbry
Keratinocyte-derived cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the most common metastatic skin cancer. Although some of the early events involved in this pathology have been identified, the subsequent steps leading to tumor development are poorly defined. We demonstrate here that the development of mouse tumors induced by the concomitant application of a carcinogen and a tumor promoter (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), respectively) is associated with the up-regulation of a previously uncharacterized long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), termed AK144841...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564614/enhanced-barrier-functions-and-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-cultured-coconut-extract-on-human-skin
#4
Soomin Kim, Ji Eun Jang, Jihee Kim, Young In Lee, Dong Won Lee, Seung Yong Song, Ju Hee Lee
Natural plant oils have been used as a translational alternative to modern medicine. Particularly, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has gained popularity because of its potential benefits in pharmaceutical, nutritional, and cosmetic applications. Cultured coconut extract (CCE) is an alternative end product of VCO, which undergoes a further bacterial fermentation process. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CCE on human skin. We analyzed the expression of skin barrier molecules and collagens after applying CCE on human explanted skin...
May 28, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407621/potential-applications-of-phyto-derived-ceramides-in-improving-epidermal-barrier-function
#5
Efrem N Tessema, Tsige Gebre-Mariam, Reinhard H H Neubert, Johannes Wohlrab
The outer most layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, consists of corneocytes which are coated by a cornified envelope and embedded in a lipid matrix of ordered lamellar structure. It is responsible for the skin barrier function. Ceramides (CERs) are the backbone of the intercellular lipid membranes. Skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis and aged skin are characterized by dysfunctional skin barrier and dryness which are associated with reduced levels of CERs. Previously, the effectiveness of supplementation of synthetic and animal-based CERs in replenishing the depleted natural skin CERs and restoring the skin barrier function have been investigated...
2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373353/clumping-factor-b-promotes-adherence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-to-corneocytes-in-atopic-dermatitis
#6
Orla M Fleury, Maeve A McAleer, Cécile Feuillie, Cécile Formosa-Dague, Emily Sansevere, Désirée E Bennett, Aisling M Towell, W H Irwin McLean, Sanja Kezic, D Ashley Robinson, Padraic G Fallon, Timothy J Foster, Yves F Dufrêne, Alan D Irvine, Joan A Geoghegan
Staphylococcus aureus skin infection is a frequent and recurrent problem in children with the common inflammatory skin disease atopic dermatitis (AD). S. aureus colonizes the skin of the majority of children with AD and exacerbates the disease. The first step during colonization and infection is bacterial adhesion to the cornified envelope of corneocytes in the outer layer, the stratum corneum. Corneocytes from AD skin are structurally different from corneocytes from normal healthy skin. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial proteins that promote the adherence of S...
June 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369476/pnpla1-defects-in-patients-with-autosomal-recessive-congenital-ichthyosis-and-ko-mice-sustain-pnpla1-irreplaceable-function-in-epidermal-omega-o-acylceramide-synthesis-and-skin-permeability-barrier
#7
Mélanie Pichery, Anne Huchenq, Roger Sandhoff, Maella Severino-Freire, Sarra Zaafouri, Lukáš Opálka, Thierry Levade, Vanessa Soldan, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Emeline Lhuillier, Guy Serre, Annabel Maruani, Juliette Mazereeuw-Hautier, Nathalie Jonca
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of monogenic genodermatoses that encompasses non-syndromic disorders of keratinization. The pathophysiology of ARCI has been linked to a disturbance in epidermal lipid metabolism that impaired the stratum corneum function, leading to permeability barrier defects. Functional characterization of some genes involved in ARCI contributed to the identification of molecular actors involved in epidermal lipid synthesis, transport or processing...
May 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243135/repeated-short-climatic-change-affects-the-epidermal-differentiation-program-and-leads-to-matrix-remodeling-in-a-human-organotypic-skin-model
#8
Laetitia-Barbollat Boutrand, Amélie Thépot, Charlotte Muther, Aurélie Boher, Julie Robic, Christelle Guéré, Katell Vié, Odile Damour, Jérôme Lamartine
Human skin is subject to frequent changes in ambient temperature and humidity and needs to cope with these environmental modifications. To decipher the molecular response of human skin to repeated climatic change, a versatile model of skin equivalent subject to "hot-wet" (40°C, 80% relative humidity [RH]) or "cold-dry" (10°C, 40% RH) climatic stress repeated daily was used. To obtain an exhaustive view of the molecular mechanisms elicited by climatic change, large-scale gene expression DNA microarray analysis was performed and modulated function was determined by bioinformatic annotation...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242341/lowering-relative-humidity-level-increases-epidermal-protein-deimination-and-drives-human-filaggrin-breakdown
#9
Laura Cau, Valérie Pendaries, Emeline Lhuillier, Paul R Thompson, Guy Serre, Hidenari Takahara, Marie-Claire Méchin, Michel Simon
BACKGROUND: Deimination (also known as citrullination), the conversion of arginine in a protein to citrulline, is catalyzed by a family of enzymes called peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs). Three PADs are expressed in the epidermis, one of their targets being filaggrin. Filaggrin plays a central role in atopic dermatitis and is a key protein for the epidermal barrier. It aggregates keratins and is cross-linked to cornified envelopes. Following its deimination, it is totally degraded to release free amino acids, contributing to the natural moisturizing factor (NMF)...
May 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219068/altered-expression-of-genes-encoding-cornulin-and-repetin-in-atopic-dermatitis
#10
Magdalena Trzeciak, Monika Sakowicz-Burkiewicz, Martyna Wesserling, Jolanta Gleń, Daria Dobaczewska, Tomasz Bandurski, Roman Nowicki, Tadeusz Pawelczyk
BACKGROUND: It is assumed that beside alterations in the filaggrin gene (FLG), disturbances within genes encoding other cornified envelope proteins are also involved in atopic dermatitis (AD). To identify new potential markers of AD, we studied the polymorphisms of genes encoding repetin (RPTN), cornulin (CRNN), and their expression in the skin of AD patients. METHODS: Polymorphisms in CRNN (rs941934), RPTN (rs284544, rs28441202, rs3001978, and rs12117644), and FLG mutations (R2447X, S3247X) were analyzed by TaqMan genotyping assay and by PCR-RFLP in the blood samples of 159 AD patients and 108 healthy subjects...
2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178587/top-down-hplc-esi-ms-proteomic-analysis-of-saliva-of-edentulous-subjects-evidenced-high-levels-of-cystatin-a-cystatin-b-and-sprr3
#11
Barbara Manconi, Barbara Liori, Tiziana Cabras, Federica Iavarone, Armando Manni, Irene Messana, Massimo Castagnola, Alessandra Olianas
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the salivary peptidome/proteome of edentulous subject with respect to dentate control subjects. DESIGN: Unstimulated whole saliva, collected from 11 edentulous subjects (age 60-76 years) and 11 dentate age-matched control subjects, was immediately treated with 0.2% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid and the acidic soluble fraction analyzed by High Performace Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The relative abundance of the salivary peptides/proteins was determined by measuring the area of the High Performace Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry eXtracted Ion Current peaks which is linearly proportional to peptide/protein concentration under identical experimental conditions...
May 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119996/pre-elafin-is-involved-in-ultraviolet-induced-keratinocyte-apoptosis-via-pro-caspase-3-activation-associated-with-cystatin-a-down-regulation
#12
Hyangmi Kim, Minsoo Noh, Ok-Nam Bae, Chang-Hoon Lee, Ai-Young Lee
Pre-elafin controls keratinocyte integrity via cornified envelope formation and inhibition of desquamation, but its role in ultraviolet (UV)-induced keratinocyte apoptosis is unknown. This study examined the role of pre-elafin in volunteer skin samples and primary cultured normal human keratinocytes irradiated with phototoxic doses of UVA/narrow-band UVB, and in keratinocytes with pre-elafin overexpression/knockdown, under conditions of low and high calcium. Phototoxic doses of UV increased pre-elafin mRNA and protein expression in inverse proportion to keratinocyte survival...
January 25, 2017: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919236/the-psoriasis-associated-deletion-of-late-cornified-envelope-genes-lce3b-and-lce3c-has-been-maintained-under-balancing-selection-since-human-denisovan-divergence
#13
Petar Pajic, Yen-Lung Lin, Duo Xu, Omer Gokcumen
BACKGROUND: A common, 32kb deletion of LCE3B and LCE3C genes is strongly associated with psoriasis. We recently found that this deletion is ancient, predating Human-Denisovan divergence. However, it was not clear why negative selection has not removed this deletion from the population. RESULTS: Here, we show that the haplotype block that harbors the deletion (i) retains high allele frequency among extant and ancient human populations; (ii) harbors unusually high nucleotide variation (π, P < 4...
December 5, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864691/characterization-of-tg2-and-tg1-tg2-double-knock-out-mouse-epidermis
#14
Consuelo Pitolli, Valentina Pietroni, Lyuben Marekov, Alessandro Terrinoni, Kiyofumi Yamanishi, Cinzia Mazzanti, Gerry Melino, Eleonora Candi
Transglutaminases (TGs) are a family of enzymes that catalyse the formation of isopeptide bonds between the γ-carboxamide groups of glutamine residues and the ε-amino groups of lysine residues leading to cross-linking reactions among proteins. Four members, TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG5, of the nine mammalian enzymes are expressed in the skin. TG1, TG3 and TG5 crosslinking properties are fundamental for cornified envelope assembly. In contrast, the role of TG2 in keratinization has never been studied at biochemical level in vivo...
March 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742573/deimination-of-human-hornerin-enhances-its-processing-by-calpain-1-and-its-cross-linking-by-transglutaminases
#15
Chiung-Yueh Hsu, Géraldine Gasc, Anne-Aurélie Raymond, Odile Burlet-Schiltz, Hidenari Takahara, Guy Serre, Marie-Claire Méchin, Michel Simon
Hornerin (HRNR) shares numerous features with filaggrin, a key contributor to the epidermal barrier functions. The two proteins display a related structural organization, are expressed by the granular keratinocytes as a large precursor processed by proteolysis, and are cross-linked to the cornified cell envelopes. Two main steps in the metabolism of filaggrin are its deimination and calpain-1 cleavage. Here, using ion-exchange chromatography and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of human epidermis extracts, we determined that HRNR is deiminated in vivo...
February 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489424/single-low-dose-radiation-induced-regulation-of-keratinocyte-differentiation-in-calcium-induced-hacat-cells
#16
Hyung Jin Hahn, Hae Jeong Youn, Hwa Jun Cha, Karam Kim, Sungkwan An, Kyu Joong Ahn
BACKGROUND: We are continually exposed to low-dose radiation (LDR) in the range 0.1 Gy from natural sources, medical devices, nuclear energy plants, and other industrial sources of ionizing radiation. There are three models for the biological mechanism of LDR: the linear no-threshold model, the hormetic model, and the threshold model. OBJECTIVE: We used keratinocytes as a model system to investigate the molecular genetic effects of LDR on epidermal cell differentiation...
August 2016: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477171/keratinization-disorders-and-genetic-aspects-in-palmar-and-plantar-keratodermas
#17
Ewa Stypczyńska, Waldemar Placek, Barbara Zegarska, Rafał Czajkowski
Palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) is a heterogeneous group of hereditary and acquired disorders characterized by abnormal thickening of the palms and soles. There are three clinical patterns: diffuse, focal, and punctuate. Palmoplantar keratodermas can be divided into the following functional subgroups: disturbed gene functions in structural proteins (keratins), cornified envelope (loricrin, transglutaminase), cohesion (plakophilin, desmoplakin, desmoglein 1), cell-to-cell communication (connexins) and transmembrane signal transduction (cathepsin C)...
June 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432202/structural-identification-of-skin-ceramides-containing-%C3%AF-hydroxy-acyl-chains-using-mass-spectrometry
#18
Zhexue Wu, Jong Cheol Shon, Jong Yei Kim, Yunhi Cho, Kwang-Hyeon Liu
The stratum corneum (SC) acts as a barrier that protects organisms against the environment and from transepidermal water loss. It consists of corneocytes embedded in a matrix of lipid metabolites (ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids). Of these lipids, ceramides are sphingolipids consisting of sphingoid bases, linked to fatty acyl chains. Typical fatty acid acyl chains are composed of α-hydroxy fatty acids (A), esterified ω-hydroxy fatty acids (EO), non-hydroxy fatty acids (N), and ω-hydroxy fatty acids (O)...
October 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416753/analysis-on-transglutaminase-1-and-its-substrates-using-specific-substrate-peptide-in-cultured-keratinocytes
#19
Miki Yamane, Kayoko Sugimura, Hiroko Kawasaki, Hideki Tatsukawa, Kiyotaka Hitomi
Transglutaminase (TGase) catalyzes protein cross-linking reactions essential for several biological processes. In differentiating keratinocytes, TG1 (keratinocyte-type) is crucial for the cross-linking of substrate proteins required for the complete formation of the cornified envelop, a proteinaceous supermolecule located in the outermost layer of the epidermis. TG1 expressions and its substrate were induced in cultured keratinocytes at differentiation-stage specific manner. In the cultured keratinocytes, we used the TG1-specific substrate peptide, which enables the specific detection of enzymatic activity to investigate its induction patterns...
September 9, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405604/ginsenoside-re-improves-skin-barrier-function-in-hacat-keratinocytes-under-normal-growth-conditions
#20
Yuri Oh, Hye-Won Lim, Kyunghoon Kim, Chang-Jin Lim
Ginsenoside Re (Re), a major ginsenoside of ginseng, enhanced the cornified cell envelope (CE) formation in HaCaT keratinocytes under normal conditions. In HaCaT keratinocytes, Re was also able to upregulate filaggrin protein and caspase-14 activity in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings reasonably imply that Re possesses a desirable property of improving skin barrier function.
July 13, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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