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Cornified envelope

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790208/changes-in-nano-mechanical-properties-of-human-epidermal-cornified-cells-depending-on-their-proximity-to-the-skin-surface
#1
Pascale Milani, Julien Chlasta, Rawad Abdayem, Sanja Kezic, Marek Haftek
During formation of the stratum corneum (SC) barrier, terminally differentiated keratinocytes continue their maturation process within the dead superficial epidermal layer. Morphological studies of isolated human corneocytes have revealed differences between cornified envelopes purified from the deep and superficial SC. We used atomic force microscopy to measure the mechanical properties of native human corneocytes harvested by tape-stripping from different SC depths. Various conditions of data acquisition have been tested and optimized, in order to obtain exploitable and reproducible results...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777949/evaluation-of-skin-or-sweat-characteristic-mrnas-for-inferring-the-human-origin-of-touched-contact-traces
#2
Tomoko Akutsu, Ken Watanabe, Ayari Takamura, Koichi Sakurada
The source of small amounts of touch DNA, which is transferred from the skin to an object when it is handled or touched, could be an issue in the forensic analysis of criminal cases. Here, we performed an extended evaluation of skin- or sweat-characteristic mRNAs to investigate their usability to infer whether an object has been handled or touched by someone. First, we compared the expression levels of candidate genes between skin swabs and other body fluids by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Among the analyzed genes, corneodesmosin (CDSN), late cornified envelope 1C (LCE1C), filaggrin (FLG), desmocollin 1, and dermcidin were selected for further analysis on the basis of their specificities and sensitivities...
May 14, 2018: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760999/potential-of-short-wave-infrared-spectroscopy-for-quantitative-depth-profiling-of-stratum-corneum-lipids-and-water-in-dermatology
#3
Anna Ezerskaia, Natallia Eduarda Uzunbajakava, Gerwin J Puppels, Johanna de Sterke, Peter J Caspers, H Paul Urbach, Babu Varghese
We demonstrate the feasibility of short wave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy combined with tape stripping for depth profiling of lipids and water in the stratum corneum of human skin. The proposed spectroscopic technique relies on differential detection at three wavelengths of 1720, 1750, and 1770 nm, with varying ratio of the lipid-to-water absorption coefficient and an 'isosbestic point'. Comparison of the data acquired using SWIR spectroscopy with that obtained by a gold standard for non-invasive quantitative molecular-specific skin measurements, namely confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS), revealed specificity of the proposed modality for water and lipid quantification...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736291/optimization-of-cytokine-milieu-to-reproduce-atopic-dermatitis-related-gene-expression-in-hacat-keratinocyte-cell-line
#4
Hee Joo Kim, Jinok Baek, Jong Rok Lee, Joo Young Roh, YunJae Jung
Although atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by cytokine production predominantly mediated by T helper (Th) 2 cells, AD pathogenesis also involves innate immune and Th1 cells. To optimize the cytokine milieu required for accurate reproduction of AD-related gene expression profile in vitro , we evaluated the expression pattern of CCL22 , CCL17 , IL5 , IL13 , IL33 , IL25 , TSLP , FLG , and LOR in human lesional AD skin and cytokine-stimulated HaCaT cells. An increase in Th2 mediators ( IL5 , IL13 , CCL22 , CCL17, IL25 , IL33 , and TSLP ) and a decrease in genes related to cornified cell envelope (filaggrin and loricrin) were observed in human AD lesions...
April 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704884/molecular-basis-of-the-skin-barrier-structures-revealed-by-electron-microscopy
#5
REVIEW
Akemi Ishida-Yamamoto, Satomi Igawa, Mari Kishibe
The barrier function of skin is indispensable for terrestrial animals. This function is mainly carried out by the epidermis, more specifically by its granular and cornified layers. The major structural components associated with this function are the intercellular lipid layer, desmosomes, corneodesmosomes, tight junctions, cornified cell envelope, and keratin filaments. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of their ultrastructure, their molecular basis, and their relevance to skin disease. This article is protected by copyright...
April 28, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559659/late-cornified-envelope-1c-lce1c-a-transcriptional-target-of-tap63-phosphorylated-at-t46-t281-interacts-with-prmt5
#6
Norikazu Yabuta, Chie Ota, Towa Sasakura, Yoko Naito, Daisuke Okuzaki, Kohshiro Fukushima, Hiroshi Nojima
p63, a transcriptional factor that belongs to the p53 family, regulates epidermal differentiation, stemness, cell death, tumorigenesis, metastasis, and senescence. However, its molecular mechanism remains elusive. We report here that TAp63 phosphorylated at T46/T281 specifically upregulates the late cornified envelope 1C (LCE1C) gene that is essential at a relatively late stage of epithelial development. We identified these phosphorylation sites during a search for the targets of Cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK) in vitro...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548991/cellular-and-metabolic-basis-for-the-ichthyotic-phenotype-in-nipal4-ichthyin-deficient-canines
#7
Elizabeth A Mauldin, Debra Crumrine, Margret L Casal, Sekyoo Jeong, Lukáš Opálka, Katerina Vavrova, Yoshikazu Uchida, Kyungho Park, Brittany Craiglow, Keith A Choate, Kyong-Oh Shin, Yong-Moon Lee, Gary L Grove, Joan S Wakefield, Denis Khnykin, Peter M Elias
Mutations in several lipid synthetic enzymes that block fatty acid and ceramide production produce autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses (ARCIs) and associated abnormalities in permeability barrier homeostasis. However, the basis for the phenotype in patients with NIPAL4 (ichthyin) mutations (among the most prevalent ARCIs) remains unknown. Barrier function was abnormal in an index patient and in canines with homozygous NIPAL4 mutations, attributable to extensive membrane stripping, likely from detergent effects of nonesterified free fatty acid...
June 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496052/proteome-analysis-reveals-that-de-novo-regenerated-mucosa-over-fibula-flap-reconstructed-mandibles-resembles-mature-keratinized-oral-mucosa
#8
Vinay V Kumar, Bonney L James, Manuela Ruß, Stefan Mikkat, Amritha Suresh, Peer W Kämmerer, Michael O Glocker
AIM: The aim of this study was to determine whether intra-oral de novo regenerated mucosa (D) that grew over free fibula flap reconstructed-mandibles resembled the donor tissue i.e. external skin (S) of the lateral leg, or the recipient site tissue, i.e. keratinized oral mucosa (K). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Differential proteome analysis was performed with ten tissue samples from each of the three groups: de novo regenerated mucosa (D), external skin (S), and keratinized oral mucosa (K)...
March 2018: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409756/vps33b-and-vipar-are-essential-for-epidermal-lamellar-body-biogenesis-and-function
#9
Clare Rogerson, Paul Gissen
Mutations in VPS33B and VIPAS39 cause the severe multisystem disorder Arthrogryposis, Renal dysfunction and Cholestasis (ARC) syndrome. Amongst other symptoms, patients with ARC syndrome suffer from severe ichthyosis. Roles for VPS33B and VIPAR have been reported in lysosome-related organelle biogenesis, integrin recycling, collagen homeostasis and maintenance of cell polarity. Mouse knockouts of Vps33b or Vipas39 are good models of ARC syndrome and develop an ichthyotic phenotype. We demonstrate that the skin manifestations in Vps33b and Vipar deficient mice are histologically similar to those of patients with ARC syndrome...
May 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401702/bioactive-dietary-vdr-ligands-regulate-genes-encoding-biomarkers-of-skin-repair-that-are-associated-with-risk-for-psoriasis
#10
Amitis Karrys, Islam Rady, Roxane-Cherille N Chamcheu, Marya S Sabir, Sanchita Mallick, Jean Christopher Chamcheu, Peter W Jurutka, Mark R Haussler, G Kerr Whitfield
Treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (1,25D) improves psoriasis symptoms, possibly by inducing the expression of late cornified envelope ( LCE )3 genes involved in skin repair. In psoriasis patients, the majority of whom harbor genomic deletion of LCE3B and LCE3C ( LCE3C_LCE3B-del ), we propose that certain dietary analogues of 1,25D activate the expression of residual LCE3A/LCE3D/LCE3E genes to compensate for the loss of LCE3B / LCE3C in the deletant genotype. Herein, human keratinocytes (HEKn) homozygous for LCE3C_LCE3B-del were treated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and curcumin, two low-affinity, nutrient ligands for the vitamin D receptor (VDR)...
February 4, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397434/association-between-lce-gene-polymorphisms-and-psoriasis-vulgaris-among-mongolians-from-inner-mongolia
#11
Li Sun, Yuting Cao, Nagonbilig He, Jianwen Han, Rong Hai, Sarnai Arlud, Baoyindeligeer He, Wurina Wu, Lizhong Li, Xiulan Su, Hongwei Cui, Wenchao Zhao, Buheqiqige Chao, Dandan Liu, Zhiqiang Sun, Yanping Huang
The late cornified envelope (LCE) gene cluster is located on chromosome 1q21, including LCE1-LCE6. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LCE cluster were associated with susceptibility to psoriasis in Chinese population. However, there is no report on the relationship in ethnic minority areas in China. This study aimed to investigate the association between the gene polymorphisms of LCE1B, LCE1C, LCE3A, LCE3D and psoriasis vulgaris among Mongolians from Inner Mongolia. Totally, 305 Mongolians with psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) and 383 healthy controls were enrolled in the study from 2006 to 2015...
May 2018: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223109/genome-wide-analysis-of-barrett-s-adenocarcinoma-a-first-step-towards-identifying-patients-at-risk-and-developing-therapeutic-paths
#12
Yiyang Dai, Qing Wang, Adrian Gonzalez Lopez, Mario Anders, Peter Malfertheiner, Michael Vieth, Wolfgang Kemmner
BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus metaplasia is the key precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to find a subset of markers that may allow the identification of patients at risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma, and to determine genes differentially expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: Laser capture microdissection technique was applied to procure cells from defined regions. Genome-wide RNA profiling was performed on esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 21), Barrett's esophagus (n = 20), esophageal squamous carcinoma (n = 9) and healthy esophageal biopsies (n = 18) using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133plus 2...
February 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203358/dietary-fish-oil-supplementation-enhances-expression-of-genes-involved-in-cornified-cell-envelope-formation-in-rat-skin
#13
Peiru Wang, Min Sun, Jianwei Ren, Muhammad Nadeem Aslam, Yuting Xu, Gary J Fisher, John J Voorhees, Xiuli Wang, Yong Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183759/phosphodiesterase-4b-plays-a-role-in-benzophenone-3-induced-phototoxicity-in-normal-human-keratinocytes
#14
Hyoung-June Kim, Eunyoung Lee, Moonyoung Lee, Sungjin Ahn, Jungmin Kim, Jingjing Liu, Sun Hee Jin, Jaehyoun Ha, Il Hong Bae, Tae Ryong Lee, Minsoo Noh
Benzophenone-3 (BP-3), which is extensively used in organic sunscreen, has phototoxic potential in human skin. Phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) has a well-established role in inflammatory responses in immune cells. Currently, it is unknown if PDE4B is associated with BP-3-induced phototoxicity in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs). We found that BP-3 significantly increased PDE4B expression in ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated NHKs. Notably, BP-8, a sunscreen agent that shares the 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl methanone moiety with BP-3, also upregulated PDE4B expression in NHKs...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168893/oral-tolerance-modulates-the-skin-transcriptome-in-mice-with-induced-atopic-dermatitis
#15
J O Baek, J R Lee, J Y Roh, Y Jung
Defective gut immune reactions have been implicated in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD), whereas oral tolerance (OT), that is, the immune unresponsiveness induced by oral antigen administration, protects mice against AD. To investigate this protective role of OT, the transcriptomic profiles of skin were obtained by RNA sequencing from mice that were epicutaneously sensitized, orally tolerized prior to epicutaneous sensitization, or neither (control). Oral tolerance inhibited the upregulation of keratin- and allergic inflammation-associated genes that occurred in the epicutaneously sensitized group...
April 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153780/barrier-dysfunction-in-the-skin-allergy
#16
REVIEW
Gyohei Egawa, Kenji Kabashima
The skin is continuously exposed to external pathogens, and its barrier function is critical for skin homeostasis. Previous studies have shown that the barrier dysfunction is one of the most predisposing factors for the development of skin allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis. In this article, we summarize how the physical barrier of the skin is organized and review its link to the pathomechanism of skin allergic diseases. We describe the formation of the SC barrier in terms of the following five categories: 1) filaggrin metabolism; 2) cornified envelope; 3) intercellular lipids; 4) corneodesmosome; and 5) corneocyte desquamation...
January 2018: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113187/overexpression-of-tumor-suppressor-gene-znf750-inhibits-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-metastasis
#17
Hongli Yang, Li Pan, Cong Xu, Yingxin Zhang, Keyi Li, Shuangfeng Chen, Bin Zhang, Zhijun Liu, Le-Xin Wang, Haiying Chen
Zinc-finger protein 750 (ZNF750) encodes a putative C2H2 zinc finger protein and is typically mutated or deleted in squamous cell carcinoma. The role of ZNF750 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ZNF750 overexpression in CAL-27 cells. Cell viability, and the expression of genes associated with proliferation, differentiation and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition were investigated in CAL-27 cells following ZNF750 overexpression, using Cell Counting kit-8, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072680/transglutaminase-2-mediates-uv-induced-skin-inflammation-by-enhancing-inflammatory-cytokine-production
#18
Seok-Jin Lee, Ki Baek Lee, Young Hoon Son, Jiwoong Shin, Jin-Haeng Lee, Hyo-Jun Kim, Ah-Young Hong, Hee Won Bae, Mee-Ae Kwon, Won Jong Lee, Jin-Hee Kim, Dong Hun Lee, Eui Man Jeong, In-Gyu Kim
UV irradiation elicits acute inflammation in the skin by increasing proinflammatory cytokine production in keratinocytes. However, the downstream protein target(s) that link UV radiation to the activation of signaling pathways responsible for cytokine expression have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we report a novel role of transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a member of the TG enzyme family whose activities are critical for cornified envelope formation, in mediating UV-induced inflammation. Our results showed that TG2-deficient mice exhibited reduced inflammatory responses to UV irradiation, including reduced erythema, edema, dilation of blood vessels, inflammatory cell infiltration, and levels of inflammatory cytokines...
October 26, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055413/pushing-the-envelope-in-psoriasis-late-cornified-envelope-proteins-possess-antimicrobial-activity
#19
Nathan K Archer, Migena N Dilolli, Lloyd S Miller
Deletion of late cornified envelope (LCE) genes LCE3B and LCE3C (LCE3B/C-del) is a psoriasis risk factor linked to the major psoriasis risk gene HLA-C*06. Niehues et al. demonstrate that LCE3B/C-del leads to increased keratinocyte LCE3A expression. They also show that LCE3A/B/C possess antimicrobial activity but do not obviously regulate epidermal barrier integrity. These findings implicate LCE proteins in psoriasis pathogenesis via a new functional role.
November 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936777/phytosphingosine-enhances-moisture-level-in-human-skin-barrier-through-stimulation-of-the-filaggrin-biosynthesis-and-degradation-leading-to-nmf-formation
#20
Hyun Kyung Choi, Young Hoon Cho, Eun Ok Lee, Jin Wook Kim, Chang Seo Park
Phytosphingosine (PHS) is a sphingoid that is a key component of phytoceramides NP, AP and EOP. PHS has been known to have anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities and to stimulate epidermal differentiation. In addition, it is reported that PHS treatment notably increased phytoceramide content in keratinocytes. In this study, we tried to investigate whether PHS has any effect on the maturation of corneocytes such as formation of cornified envelope and natural moisturizing factor (NMF) that is also an essential event during the formation of skin barrier, stratum corneum...
September 21, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
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