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Molecular ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141015/nematocytes-discovery-and-characterization-of-a-novel-anculeate-hemocyte-in-drosophila-falleni-and-drosophila-phalerata
#1
Julianna Bozler, Balint Z Kacsoh, Giovanni Bosco
Immune challenges, such as parasitism, can be so pervasive and deleterious that they constitute an existential threat to a species' survival. In response to these ecological pressures, organisms have developed a wide array of novel behavioral, cellular, and molecular adaptations. Research into these immune defenses in model systems has resulted in a revolutionary understanding of evolution and functional biology. As the field has expanded beyond the limited number of model organisms our appreciation of evolutionary innovation and unique biology has widened as well...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140522/ecodrug-a-database-connecting-drugs-and-conservation-of-their-targets-across-species
#2
Bas Verbruggen, Lina Gunnarsson, Erik Kristiansson, Tobias Österlund, Stewart F Owen, Jason R Snape, Charles R Tyler
Pharmaceuticals are designed to interact with specific molecular targets in humans and these targets generally have orthologs in other species. This provides opportunities for the drug discovery community to use alternative model species for drug development. It also means, however, there is potential for mode of action related effects in non-target wildlife species as many pharmaceuticals reach the environment through patient use and manufacturing wastes. Acquiring insight in drug target ortholog predictions across species and taxonomic groups has proven difficult because of the lack of an optimal strategy and because necessary information is spread across multiple and diverse sources and platforms...
November 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136568/derivation-of-aquatic-predicted-no-effect-concentration-pnec-for-ibuprofen-and-sulfamethoxazole-based-on-various-toxicity-endpoints-and-the-associated-risks
#3
Qiusen Huang, Qingwei Bu, Wenjue Zhong, Kaichong Shi, Zhiguo Cao, Gang Yu
For pharmaceuticals, the ecological risk assessment based on traditional endpoints of toxicity could not be properly protective in the long run since the mode of action could vary because they are intended for different therapeutic uses. In this study, the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) of two selected pharmaceuticals, ibuprofen (IBU) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), were derived based on either traditional endpoints of survival and growth data or some nonlethal endpoints such as reproduction, biochemical and molecular data...
November 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134009/occurrence-and-the-ecological-implication-of-a-tropical-anguillid-eel-anguilla-marmorata-from-peninsular-malaysia
#4
Siti Raudah Abdul Kadir, Mohamad Hafiz Farhan Abdul Rasid, Kok Onn Kwong, Li Lian Wong, Takaomi Arai
Recent studies suggested that accurate species identification in the tropical anguillid eels based on morphological examination requires confirmation by molecular genetic analysis. Previous studies found that two tropical anguillid eels, Anguilla bicolor bicolor and A. bengalensis bengalensis, were found in peninsular Malaysia (West Malaysia) based on morphological and molecular genetic analyses. This study is the first record of A. marmorata in peninsular Malaysia confirmed by both morphological and molecular genetic analyses...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131867/differential-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-genes-related-to-cold-tolerance-in-seabuckthorn-carpenter-moth-eogystia-hippophaecolus
#5
Mingming Cui, Ping Hu, Tao Wang, Jing Tao, Shixiang Zong
Seabuckthorn carpenter moth, Eogystia hippophaecolus (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), is an important pest of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), which is a shrub that has significant ecological and economic value in China. E. hippophaecolus is highly cold tolerant, but limited studies have been conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its cold resistance. Here we sequenced the E. hippophaecolus transcriptome using RNA-Seq technology and performed de novo assembly from the short paired-end reads...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130766/molecular-characterization-of-salmonella-from-beef-carcasses-and-fecal-samples-from-an-integrated-feedlot-and-abattoir-in-mexico
#6
Diana Ayala, Kendra Nightingale, Claudia Narvaez-Bravo, Mindy M Brashears
Nontyphoid Salmonella strains are some of the leading causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide; however, there is very limited information on the presence and characteristics of Salmonella in the food production chain in developing countries. In this study, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used for molecular subtyping and for monitoring the ecology and transmission of Salmonella isolates in a slaughter facility in Mexico in an attempt to determine specific steps that need to be improved to reduce Salmonella contamination in beef carcasses...
December 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128643/transcriptional-profiles-of-plasticity-for-desiccation-stress-in-drosophila
#7
Allannah S Clemson, Carla M Sgrò, Marina Telonis-Scott
We examined the transcriptional responses of desiccation resistance candidate genes in populations of Drosophila melanogaster divergent for desiccation resistance and in capacity to improve resistance via phenotypic plasticity. Adult females from temperate and tropical eastern Australian populations were exposed to a rapid desiccation hardening (RDH) treatment, and groups without RDH to acute desiccation stress, and temporally profiled transcript expression of 12 candidate desiccation genes during, and in recovery from stress...
November 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128642/the-evolution-of-metabolic-regulation-in-animals
#8
Frank Seebacher
Energy metabolism is determined by a suite of regulatory mechanism, and their increasing complexity over evolutionary time provides the key to understanding the emergence of different metabolic phenotypes. Energy metabolism is at the core of biological processes because all organisms must maintain energy balance against thermodynamic gradients. Energy metabolism is regulated by a bewildering array of interacting molecular mechanisms, and much of what is known about metabolic regulation comes from the medical literature...
November 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127313/current-source-density-mapping-of-antennal-sensory-selectivity-reveals-conserved-olfactory-systems-between-tephritids-and-drosophila
#9
Vincent Jacob, Francesca Scolari, Hélène Delatte, Giuliano Gasperi, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Anna R Malacrida, Pierre-François Duyck
Ecological specialization of insects involves the functional and morphological reshaping of olfactory systems. Little is known about the degree to which insect sensitivity to odorant compounds is conserved between genera, tribes, or families. Here we compared the olfactory systems of six tephritid fruit fly species spanning two tribes and the distantly related Drosophila melanogaster at molecular, functional, and morphological levels. Olfaction in these flies is mediated by a set of olfactory receptors (ORs) expressed in different functional classes of neurons located in distinct antennal regions...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127217/adding-landscape-genetics-and-individual-traits-to-the-ecosystem-function-paradigm-reveals-the-importance-of-species-functional-breadth
#10
Antonio R Castilla, Nathaniel S Pope, Megan O'Connell, María F Rodriguez, Laurel Treviño, Alonso Santos, Shalene Jha
Animal pollination mediates both reproduction and gene flow for the majority of plant species across the globe. However, past functional studies have focused largely on seed production; although useful, this focus on seed set does not provide information regarding species-specific contributions to pollen-mediated gene flow. Here we quantify pollen dispersal for individual pollinator species across more than 690 ha of tropical forest. Specifically, we examine visitation, seed production, and pollen-dispersal ability for the entire pollinator community of a common tropical tree using a series of individual-based pollinator-exclusion experiments followed by molecular-based fractional paternity analyses...
November 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126839/the-epidemic-typhus-and-trench-fever-are-risk-for-public-health-due-to-increased-migration-in-southeast-of-turkey
#11
Fadime Eroglu, Nilgün Ulutasdemir, Mustafa Tanrıverdi, Eda Icbay Dagli, Ismail Soner Koltas
Pediculus humanus capitis is a small ectoparasitic insect that has lived and feds on human beings for thousands of years. Molecular techniques have been used for Pediculus species identification and evolutionary, phylogenic, and ecological studies. A total of 23 adults of P. h. capitis were collected in Gaziantep, located in southeast Turkey, and DNA was isolated from all P. h. capitis using DNA extraction kit. All DNA samples were screened for investigate of Ricettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana and Borrelia recurrentis with real-time polymerase chain reaction...
November 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126564/information-theory-broadens-the-spectrum-of-molecular-ecology-and-evolution
#12
REVIEW
W B Sherwin, A Chao, L Jost, P E Smouse
Information or entropy analysis of diversity is used extensively in community ecology, and has recently been exploited for prediction and analysis in molecular ecology and evolution. Information measures belong to a spectrum (or q profile) of measures whose contrasting properties provide a rich summary of diversity, including allelic richness (q=0), Shannon information (q=1), and heterozygosity (q=2). We present the merits of information measures for describing and forecasting molecular variation within and among groups, comparing forecasts with data, and evaluating underlying processes such as dispersal...
November 7, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126122/mode-and-rate-of-evolution-of-haemosporidian-mitochondrial-genomes-timing-the-radiation-of-avian-parasites
#13
M Andreína Pacheco, Nubia E Matta, Gediminas Valkiunas, Patricia G Parker, Beatriz Mello, Craig E Stanley, Miguel Lentino, M Alexandra Garcia-Amado, Michael Cranfield, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Ananias A Escalante
Haemosporidians are a diverse group of vector-borne parasitic protozoa that includes the agents of human malaria; however, most of the described species are found in birds and reptiles. Although our understanding of these parasites' diversity has expanded by analyses of their mitochondrial genes, there is limited information on these genes' evolutionary rates. Here, 114 mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) were studied from species belonging to four genera: Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus, Hepatocystis, and Plasmodium...
November 6, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126087/label-free-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-identifies-proteins-involved-in-the-testis-maturation-of-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#14
Dong Wei, Meng-Yi Zhang, Pei-Ming Gu, Guy Smagghe, Jin-Jun Wang
Complex structural and biochemical processes take place in insect testis maturation, but the mechanisms by which functional proteins induce and regulate male fertility are unknown. Proteomics has been widely used to identify functional proteins involved in such complex physiological processes. In this study, we performed a label-free based quantitative proteomic analysis of developing testis of Bactrocera dorsalis with the aim of shedding light on spermatogenesis, sperm formation and also tissue development...
October 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125533/sequencing-and-de-novo-assembly-of-the-toxicodendron-radicans-poison-ivy-transcriptome
#15
Alexandra J Weisberg, Gunjune Kim, James H Westwood, John G Jelesko
Contact with poison ivy plants is widely dreaded because they produce a natural product called urushiol that is responsible for allergenic contact delayed-dermatitis symptoms lasting for weeks. For this reason, the catchphrase most associated with poison ivy is "leaves of three, let it be", which serves the purpose of both identification and an appeal for avoidance. Ironically, despite this notoriety, there is a dearth of specific knowledge about nearly all other aspects of poison ivy physiology and ecology...
November 10, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124410/absence-of-haemosporidian-parasite-infections-in-the-long-lived-cory-s-shearwater-evidence-from-molecular-analyses-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Letizia Campioni, Josué Martínez-de la Puente, Jordi Figuerola, José Pedro Granadeiro, Mónica C Silva, Paulo Catry
The apparent scarcity or absence of blood parasites in some avian groups, such as seabirds, has been related to intrinsic and extrinsic factors including host immunological capacity, host-parasite assemblage, and ecological parameters, but also to reduced sensitivity of some methods to detect low parasite prevalence/intensities of infection. Here, we examined the haemosporidian parasite prevalence in a breeding population of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea borealis, a long-distance migrant seabird, nesting in the Macaronesian region, in the Eastern Atlantic...
November 9, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124305/dummy-surface-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-as-a-sorbent-of-micro-solid-phase-extraction-combined-with-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-for-determination-of-five-2-phenylpropionic-acid-nsaids-in-aquatic-environmental-samples
#17
Ping Guo, Xucan Yuan, Jingjing Zhang, Binjie Wang, Xiaoyang Sun, Xiaohui Chen, Longshan Zhao
A highly binding dummy template surface of molecularly imprinted polymers (MWNTs-MIPs) was synthesized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes surface using 2-phenylpropionic acid as dummy template, 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, and DMF as porogen by precipitation polymerization method. MIPs were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiment. Adsorption and selectivity experiments of MIPs and non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) verified that the MIPs had a good selectivity and adsorption properties for five 2-phenylpropionic acid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)...
November 9, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118135/mass-extinction-in-tetraodontiform-fishes-linked-to-the-palaeocene-eocene-thermal-maximum
#18
Dahiana Arcila, James C Tyler
Integrative evolutionary analyses based upon fossil and extant species provide a powerful approach for understanding past diversification events and for assessing the tempo of evolution across the Tree of Life. Herein, we demonstrate the importance of integrating fossil and extant species for inferring patterns of lineage diversification that would otherwise be masked in analyses that examine only one source of evidence. We infer the phylogeny and macroevolutionary history of the Tetraodontiformes (triggerfishes, pufferfishes and allies), a group with one of the most extensive fossil records among fishes...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114668/an-integrative-omics-perspective-for-the-analysis-of-chemical-signals-in-ecological-interactions
#19
A E Brunetti, F Carnevale Neto, M C Vera, C Taboada, D P Pavarini, A Bauermeister, N P Lopes
All living organisms emit, detect, and respond to chemical stimuli, thus creating an almost limitless number of interactions by means of chemical signals. Technological and intellectual advances in the last two decades have enabled chemical signals analyses at several molecular levels, including gene expression, molecular diversity, and receptor affinity. These advances have also deepened our understanding of nature to encompass interactions at multiple organism levels across different taxa. This tutorial review describes the most recent analytical developments in 'omics' technologies (i...
November 8, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113026/how-gut-transcriptional-function-of-drosophila-melanogaster-varies-with-the-presence-and-composition-of-the-gut-microbiota
#20
Alyssa Bost, Soeren Franzenburg, Karen L Adair, Vincent G Martinson, Greg Loeb, Angela E Douglas
Despite evidence from laboratory experiments that perturbation of the gut microbiota affects many traits of the animal host, our understanding of the effect of variation in microbiota composition on animals in natural populations is very limited. The core purpose of this study on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster was to identify the impact of natural variation in the taxonomic composition of gut bacterial communities on host traits, with the gut transcriptome as a molecular index of microbiota-responsive host traits...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
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