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Molecular ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918349/inhibition-of-anaerobic-digestion-processes-applications-of-molecular-tools
#1
REVIEW
Yamrot M Amha, Muhammad Zohaib Anwar, Andrew Brower, Carsten S Jacobsen, Lauren B Stadler, Tara M Webster, Adam L Smith
Inhibition of anaerobic digestion (AD) due to perturbation caused by substrate composition and/or operating conditions can significantly reduce performance. Such perturbations could be limited by elucidating microbial community response to inhibitors and devising strategies to increase community resilience. To this end, advanced molecular methods are increasingly being applied to study the AD microbiome, a diverse community of microbial populations with complex interactions. This literature review of AD inhibition studies indicates that inhibitory concentrations are highly variable, likely stemming from differences in community structure or activity profile and previous exposure to inhibitors...
September 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917057/the-fungal-tree-of-life-from-molecular-systematics-to-genome-scale-phylogenies
#2
Joseph W Spatafora, M Catherine Aime, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis Martin, Jason E Stajich, Meredith Blackwell
The kingdom Fungi is one of the more diverse clades of eukaryotes in terrestrial ecosystems, where they provide numerous ecological services ranging from decomposition of organic matter and nutrient cycling to beneficial and antagonistic associations with plants and animals. The evolutionary relationships of the kingdom have represented some of the more recalcitrant problems in systematics and phylogenetics. The advent of molecular phylogenetics, and more recently phylogenomics, has greatly advanced our understanding of the patterns and processes associated with fungal evolution, however...
September 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915336/the-microbiome-associated-with-two-synechococcus-ribotypes-at-different-levels-of-ecological-interaction
#3
Cristiana Callieri, Stefano Amalfitano, Gianluca Corno, Andrea Di Cesare, Roberto Bertoni, Ester Eckert
Planktonic cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Synechococcus are ubiquitously distributed in marine and fresh waters, substantially contributing to total carbon fixation on a global scale. While their ecological relevance is acknowledged, increasing resolution in molecular techniques allows disentangling cyanobacteria's role at the micro-scale, where complex microbial interactions may drive the overall community assembly. The interplay between phylogenetically different Synechococcus clades and their associated bacterial communities can affect their ecological fate and susceptibility to protistan predation...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911809/taxonomy-ecology-and-biotechnological-applications-of-thraustochytrids-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Loris Fossier Marchan, Kim J Lee Chang, Peter D Nichols, Wilfrid J Mitchell, Jane L Polglase, Tony Gutierrez
Thraustochytrids were first discovered in 1934, and since the 1960's they have been increasingly studied for their beneficial and deleterious effects. This review aims to provide an enhanced understanding of these protists with a particular emphasis on their taxonomy, ecology and biotechnology applications. Over the years, thraustochytrid taxonomy has improved with the development of modern molecular techniques and new biochemical markers, resulting in the isolation and description of new strains. In the present work, the taxonomic history of thraustochytrids is reviewed, while providing an up-to-date classification of these organisms...
September 11, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910346/the-evolution-of-lachancea-thermotolerans-is-driven-by-geographical-determination-anthropisation-and-flux-between-different-ecosystems
#5
Ana Hranilovic, Marina Bely, Isabelle Masneuf-Pomarede, Vladimir Jiranek, Warren Albertin
The yeast Lachancea thermotolerans (formerly Kluyveromyces thermotolerans) is a species with remarkable, yet underexplored, biotechnological potential. This ubiquist occupies a range of natural and anthropic habitats covering a wide geographic span. To gain an insight into L. thermotolerans population diversity and structure, 172 isolates sourced from diverse habitats worldwide were analysed using a set of 14 microsatellite markers. The resultant clustering revealed that the evolution of L. thermotolerans has been driven by the geography and ecological niche of the isolation sources...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898667/the-evolution-of-diverse-floral-morphologies
#6
REVIEW
Edwige Moyroud, Beverley J Glover
The angiosperm flower develops through a modular programme which, although ancient and conserved, provides the flexibility that has allowed an almost infinite variety of floral forms to emerge. In this review, we explore the evolution of floral diversity, focusing on our recent understanding of the mechanistic basis of evolutionary change. We discuss the various ways in which flower size and floral organ size can be modified, the means by which flower shape and symmetry can change, and the ways in which floral organ position can be varied...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898354/comparative-genome-wide-polymorphic-microsatellite-markers-in-antarctic-penguins-through-next-generation-sequencing
#7
Juliana A Vianna, Daly Noll, Isidora Mura-Jornet, Paulina Valenzuela-Guerra, Daniel González-Acuña, Cristell Navarro, David E Loyola, Gisele P M Dantas
Microsatellites are valuable molecular markers for evolutionary and ecological studies. Next generation sequencing is responsible for the increasing number of microsatellites for non-model species. Penguins of the Pygoscelis genus are comprised of three species: Adélie (P. adeliae), Chinstrap (P. antarcticus) and Gentoo penguin (P. papua), all distributed around Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic. The species have been affected differently by climate change, and the use of microsatellite markers will be crucial to monitor population dynamics...
July 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893189/differentially-expressed-genes-during-the-imbibition-of-dormant-and-after-ripened-seeds-a-reverse-genetics-approach
#8
Farzaneh Yazdanpanah, Johannes Hanson, Henk W M Hilhorst, Leónie Bentsink
BACKGROUND: Seed dormancy, defined as the incapability of a viable seed to germinate under favourable conditions, is an important trait in nature and agriculture. Despite extensive research on dormancy and germination, many questions about the molecular mechanisms controlling these traits remain unanswered, likely due to its genetic complexity and the large environmental effects which are characteristic of these quantitative traits. To boost research towards revealing mechanisms in the control of seed dormancy and germination we depend on the identification of genes controlling those traits...
September 11, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892281/transgenerational-and-developmental-plasticity-at-the-molecular-level-lessons-from-daphnia
#9
Alison M Bell, Laura R Stein
Listen to the news and you are bound to hear that researchers are increasingly interested in the biological manifestations of trauma that reverberate through the generations. Research in this area can be controversial in the public realm, provoking societal issues about personal responsibility (are we really born free or are we born with the burden of our ancestors' experience?). It is also a touchy subject within evolutionary biology because it provokes concerns about Lamarckianism and general scepticism about the importance of extra-genetic inheritance (Laland et al...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891948/early-embryogenesis-of-brown-alga-fucus-vesiculosus-l-is-characterized-by-significant-changes-in-carbon-and-energy-metabolism
#10
Elena Tarakhovskaya, Valeriya Lemesheva, Tatiana Bilova, Claudia Birkemeyer
Brown algae have an important role in marine environments. With respect to their broad distribution and importance for the environment and human use, brown algae of the order Fucales in particular became a model system for physiological and ecological studies. Thus, several fucoids have been extensively studied for their composition on the molecular level. However, research of fucoid physiology and biochemistry so far mostly focused on the adult algae, so a holistic view on the development of these organisms, including the crucial first life stages, is still missing...
September 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888836/transcriptome-sequencing-and-characterization-of-symbiodinium-muscatinei-and-elliptochloris-marina-symbionts-found-within-the-aggregating-sea-anemone-anthopleura-elegantissima
#11
Jason C Macrander, James L Dimond, Brian L Bingham, Adam M Reitzel
There is a growing body of literature using transcriptomic data to study how tropical cnidarians and their photosynthetic endosymbionts respond to environmental stressors and participate in metabolic exchange. Despite these efforts, our understanding of how essential genes function to facilitate symbiosis establishment and maintenance remains limited. The inclusion of taxonomically and ecologically diverse endosymbionts will enhance our understanding of these interactions. Here we characterize the transcriptomes of two very different symbionts found within the temperate sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima: the chlorophyte Elliptochloris marina and the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium muscatinei...
September 6, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887701/morphological-and-molecular-identification-of-rhipicephalus-boophilus-microplus-in-nigeria-west-africa-a-threat-to-livestock-health
#12
J Kamani, D A Apanaskevich, R Gutiérrez, Y Nachum-Biala, G Baneth, S Harrus
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was first reported in West Africa in Ivory Coast, in 2007. Since then it has made an aggressive eastward advancement having been reported in four other West African countries: Mali, Burkina Faso, Togo and Benin. We herein report the first molecular identification of this tick species in Nigeria, West Africa, and highlight the threat it poses to livestock health. A nation-wide tick survey was conducted in 12 out of 36 states across the various agro ecological zones of Nigeria over a 1 year period (April 2014-March 2015)...
September 8, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884827/linking-social-and-spatial-networks-to-viral-community-phylogenetics-reveal-subtype-specific-transmission-dynamics-in-african-lions
#13
Nicholas M Fountain-Jones, Craig Packer, Jennifer L Troyer, Kimberly VanderWaal, Stacie Robinson, Maude Jacquot, Meggan E Craft
1.Heterogeneity within pathogen species can have important consequences for how pathogens transmit across landscapes; however, discerning different transmission routes is challenging. 2.Here we apply both phylodynamic and phylogenetic community ecology techniques to examine the consequences of pathogen heterogeneity on transmission by assessing subtype specific transmission pathways in a social carnivore. 3.We use comprehensive social and spatial network data to examine transmission pathways for three subtypes of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVPle ) in African lions (Panthera leo) at multiple scales in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884173/mediators-of-mutualistic-microbe-microbe-interactions
#14
Kirstin Scherlach, Christian Hertweck
The co-existence of different microbial species in one habitat is prerequisite for many ecosystem processes. To facilitate co-habitation of ecological niches, intricate mechanisms have evolved that regulate the growth and the behaviour of microbes. A crucial aspect for the establishment and maintenance of a microbial population is the communication among species. Whereas intraspecies communication processes have been widely studied, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying interspecies interactions...
September 8, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883811/culture-media-and-individual-hosts-affect-the-recovery-of-culturable-bacterial-diversity-from-amphibian-skin
#15
Daniel Medina, Jenifer B Walke, Zachary Gajewski, Matthew H Becker, Meredith C Swartwout, Lisa K Belden
One current challenge in microbial ecology is elucidating the functional roles of the large diversity of free-living and host-associated bacteria identified by culture-independent molecular methods. Importantly, the characterization of this immense bacterial diversity will likely require merging data from culture-independent approaches with work on bacterial isolates in culture. Amphibian skin bacterial communities have become a recent focus of work in host-associated microbial systems due to the potential role of these skin bacteria in host defense against the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which is associated with global amphibian population declines and extinctions...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882215/review-of-current-conservation-genetic-analyses-of-northeast-pacific-sharks
#16
Shawn E Larson, Toby S Daly-Engel, Nicole M Phillips
Conservation genetics is an applied science that utilizes molecular tools to help solve problems in species conservation and management. It is an interdisciplinary specialty in which scientists apply the study of genetics in conjunction with traditional ecological fieldwork and other techniques to explore molecular variation, population boundaries, and evolutionary relationships with the goal of enabling resource managers to better protect biodiversity and identify unique populations. Several shark species in the northeast Pacific (NEP) have been studied using conservation genetics techniques, which are discussed here...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881745/whole-tumor-rna-sequencing-and-deconvolution-reveal-a-clinically-prognostic-pten-pi3k-regulated-glioma-transcriptional-signature
#17
Yuan Pan, Erin C Bush, Joseph A Toonen, Yu Ma, Anne C Solga, Peter A Sims, David H Gutmann
The concept that solid tumors are maintained by a productive interplay between neoplastic and non-neoplastic elements has gained traction with the demonstration that stromal fibroblasts and immune system cells dictate cancer development and progression. While less studied, brain tumor (glioma) biology is likewise influenced by non-neoplastic immune system cells (macrophages and microglia) which interact with neoplastic glioma cells to create a unique physiological state (glioma ecosystem) distinct from that found in the normal tissue...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880947/comparing-hair-morphology-and-molecular-methods-to-identify-fecal-samples-from-neotropical-felids
#18
Carlos C Alberts, Bruno H Saranholi, Fernando Frei, Pedro M Galetti
To avoid certain problems encountered with more-traditional and invasive methods in behavioral-ecology studies of mammalian predators, such as felids, molecular approaches have been employed to identify feces found in the field. However, this method requires a complete molecular biology laboratory, and usually also requires very fresh fecal samples to avoid DNA degradation. Both conditions are normally absent in the field. To address these difficulties, identification based on morphological characters (length, color, banding, scales and medullar patterns) of hairs found in feces could be employed as an alternative...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875938/secretion-systems-used-by-bacteria-to-subvert-host-functions
#19
Chiara Rapisarda, Rémi Fronzes
In this review we examine the use of secretion systems by bacteria to subvert host functions. Bacteria have evolved multiple systems to interact with and overcome their eukaryotic host and other prokaryotes. Secretion systems are required for the release of several effectors through the bacterial membrane(s) into the extracellular space or directly into the cytoplasm of the host. We review the secretion systems of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and describe briefly the structural composition of the seven secretion systems that have been associated with increased virulence through subversion of host functions...
September 6, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875896/kryptousia-macronema-gen-nov-sp-nov-and-kryptousia-microlepis-sp-nov-nostocalean-cyanobacteria-isolated-from-phyllospheres
#20
Danillo Oliveira Alvarenga, Ana Paula Dini Andreote, Luis Henrique Zanini Branco, Marli Fatima Fiore
Tropical ecosystems worldwide host very diverse microbial communities, but are increasingly threatened by deforestation and climate change. Thus, characterization of biodiversity in these environments, and especially of microbial communities that show unique adaptations to their habitats, is a very urgent matter. Information about representatives of the phylum Cyanobacteria in tropical environments is scarce, even though they are fundamental primary producers that help other microbes to thrive in nutrient-depleted habitats, including phyllospheres...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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