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Molecular ecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637269/announcing-the-genome-atlas-of-bamboo-and-rattan-gabr-project-promoting-research-in-evolution-and-in-economically-and-ecologically-beneficial-plants
#1
Hansheng Zhao, Shancen Zhao, Benhua Fei, Huan Liu, Huanming Yang, Honghai Dai, Dan Wang, Wei Jin, Feng Tang, Qiang Gao, Hang Xun, Yuwei Wang, Lianghua Qi, Xianghua Yue, Shuyan Lin, Lianfeng Gu, Lubin Li, Tiansheng Zhu, Qiang Wei, Zhen Su, Tarmeze Bin Wan Ariffin Wan, Daniel A Ofori, George Mbeva Muthike, Yigardu Mulatu Mengesha, Roberto Magno de Castro E Silva, Antonio Ludovico Beraldo, Zhimin Gao, Xin Liu, Zehui Jiang
Bamboo and rattan are widely grown for manufacturing, horticulture, and agroforestry. Bamboo and rattan production might help reduce poverty, boost economic growth, mitigate climate change, and protect the natural environment. Despite progress in research, sufficient molecular and genomic resources to study these species are lacking. We launched the Genome Atlas of Bamboo and Rattan (GABR) project, a comprehensive, coordinated international effort to accelerate understanding of BR genetics through genome analysis...
June 16, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636447/emerging-viral-infections-in-pakistan-issues-concerns-and-future-prospects
#2
Ali Talha Khalil, Muhammad Ali, Faouzia Tanveer, Muhammad Ovais, Muhammad Idrees, Zabta Khan Shinwari, James E Hollenbeck
Emerging infectious diseases pose a serious threat to public health security; this is especially true in the underdeveloped world because of limited resources to combat them. These emerging pathogens are characterized by a novel mode of pathogenesis and, in some cases, a broad host range. Over the past few decades, Pakistan has suffered a great deal from infectious diseases such as dengue, Crimean-Congo fever, hepatitis, measles, and polio. Changing climate conditions, environmental degradation, global warming, loss of biodiversity, and other ecological determinants have a direct effect on these diseases and result in the emergence and reemergence of infectious entities...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634150/molecular-phylogenetics-and-biogeography-of-the-ambush-bugs-hemiptera-reduviidae-phymatinae
#3
Paul Masonick, Amy Michael, Sarah Frankenberg, Wolfgang Rabitsch, Christiane Weirauch
The ambush bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Phymatinae) are a diverse clade of predators known for their cryptic hunting behavior and morphologically diverse raptorial forelegs. Despite their striking appearance, role as pollinator predators, and intriguing biogeographic distribution, phylogenetic relationships within Phymatinae are largely unknown and the evolutionary history of the subfamily has remained in the dark. We here utilize the most extensive molecular phylogeny of ambush bugs to date, generated from a 3,328 base pair molecular dataset, to refine our understanding of phymatine relationships, estimate dates of divergence (BEAST 2), and uncover historical biogeographic patterns (S-DIVA and DEC)...
June 17, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632344/a-life-cycle-approach-to-species-barriers
#4
Kerstin Johannesson
What maintains reproductive barriers between closely related species is, of course, of fundamental interest to a closer understanding of the mechanisms that generate new biodiversity. One important dichotomy is to separate barriers evolved from divergent selection over environmental gradients (extrinsic barriers) from barriers caused by incompatibilities between different genetic arrangements that may have evolved in isolation (intrinsic barriers). This dichotomy also reflects an important applied consequence...
July 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632343/dispersal-isolation-and-diversification-with-continued-gene-flow-in-an-andean-tropical-dry-forest
#5
R Toby Pennington, Matt Lavin
The Andes are the world's longest mountain chain, and the tropical Andes are the world's richest biodiversity hot spot. The origin of the tropical Andean cordillera is relatively recent because the elevation of the mountains was relatively low (400-2500 m palaeoelevations) only 10 MYA with final uplift being rapid. These final phases of the Andean orogeny are thought to have had a fundamental role in shaping processes of biotic diversification and biogeography, with these effects reaching far from the mountains themselves by changing the course of rivers and deposition of mineral-rich Andean sediments across the massive Amazon basin...
July 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632342/variation-in-gene-regulation-underlying-annual-and-perennial-flowering-in-arabideae-species
#6
Jannice Friedman
The diversity of life history strategies within the angiosperms illustrates the evolutionary flexibility of reproductive characteristics. The number of times an individual reproduces is a key life history trait, and transitions from iteroparous perennials to semelparous annuals have occurred frequently in the flowering plants. Despite the frequency of this evolutionary transition, and the importance of annuality versus perenniality to both agriculture and ecology, understanding the molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in perennial flowering is in their infancy...
July 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626971/genetics-and-developmental-biology-of-cooperation
#7
Claudia Kasper, Maddalena Vierbuchen, Ulrich Ernst, Stefan Fischer, Reinder Radersma, Aura Raulo, Filipa Cunha-Saraiva, Min Wu, Kenyon Mobley, Barbara Taborsky
Despite essential progress towards understanding the evolution of cooperative behaviour, we still lack detailed knowledge about its underlying molecular mechanisms, genetic basis, evolutionary dynamics and ontogeny. An international workshop 'Genetics and Development of Cooperation', organized by the University of Bern (Switzerland), aimed at discussing the current progress in this research field and suggesting avenues for future research. This review uses the major themes of the meeting as a springboard to synthesize the concepts of genetic and non-genetic inheritance of cooperation, and to review a quantitative genetic framework that allows for the inclusion of indirect genetic effects...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625873/an-approach-to-the-study-of-the-immunity-functions-of-bivalve-haemocytes-physiology-and-molecular-aspects
#8
REVIEW
Mario Alberto Burgos-Aceves, Caterina Faggio
The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is an ecologically and economically important species. It has been used in programs of monitoring of pollutions, since it is sessile organism that is capable of accumulating pollutants in tissues through filter feeding. Due to an increase of pollutants in the environment, marine mussels present physiological alterations that compromise their innate immune system, which can latter lead to opportunistic diseases. The haemocytes are the cells in charge of the immune response in the Mediterranean mussel and in other mollusks...
June 15, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623024/functional-diversity-of-aquatic-ciliates
#9
REVIEW
Thomas Weisse
This paper first reviews the concept of functional diversity in general terms and then applies it to free-living aquatic ciliates. Ciliates are extremely versatile organisms and display an enormous functional diversity as key elements of pelagic food webs, acting as predators of bacteria, algae, other protists and even some metazoans. Planktonic ciliates are important food for zooplankton, and mixotrophic and functionally autotrophic species may significantly contribute to primary production in the ocean and in lakes...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621725/how-environmental-factors-affect-the-production-of-guanidine-alkaloids-by-the-mediterranean-sponge-crambe-crambe
#10
Eva Ternon, Erica Perino, Renata Manconi, Roberto Pronzato, Olivier P Thomas
Most marine sponges are known to produce a large array of low molecular-weight metabolites which have applications in the pharmaceutical industry. The production of so-called specialized metabolites may be closely related to environmental factors. In this context, assessing the contribution of factors like temperature, nutrients or light to the metabolomes of sponges provides relevant insights into their chemical ecology as well as the supply issue of natural sponge products. The sponge Crambe crambe was chosen as a model due to its high content of specialized metabolites belonging to polycyclic guanidine alkaloids (PGA)...
June 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620610/molecular-detection-of-tick-borne-pathogen-diversities-in-ticks-from-livestock-and-reptiles-along-the-shores-and-adjacent-islands-of-lake-victoria-and-lake-baringo-kenya
#11
David Omondi, Daniel K Masiga, Burtram C Fielding, Edward Kariuki, Yvonne Ukamaka Ajamma, Micky M Mwamuye, Daniel O Ouso, Jandouwe Villinger
Although diverse tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are endemic to East Africa, with recognized impact on human and livestock health, their diversity and specific interactions with tick and vertebrate host species remain poorly understood in the region. In particular, the role of reptiles in TBP epidemiology remains unknown, despite having been implicated with TBPs of livestock among exported tortoises and lizards. Understanding TBP ecologies, and the potential role of common reptiles, is critical for the development of targeted transmission control strategies for these neglected tropical disease agents...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620590/functional-redundancy-and-ecological-innovation-shape-the-circulation-of-tick-transmitted-pathogens
#12
Agustín Estrada-Peña, José de la Fuente, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz
Ticks are vectors of pathogens affecting human and animal health worldwide. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary interactions between ticks, hosts, and pathogens are largely unknown. Here, we integrated a framework to evaluate the associations of the tick Ixodes ricinus with its hosts and environmental niches that impact pathogen circulation. The analysis of tick-hosts association suggested that mammals and lizards were the ancestral hosts of this tick species, and that a leap to Aves occurred around 120 M years ago...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620233/dating-early-animal-evolution-using-phylogenomic-data
#13
Martin Dohrmann, Gert Wörheide
Information about the geological timeframe during which animals radiated into their major subclades is crucial to understanding early animal ecology and evolution. Unfortunately, the pre-Cambrian fossil record is sparse and its interpretation controversial. Relaxed molecular-clock methods provide an alternative means of estimating the timing of cladogenesis deep in the metazoan tree of life. So far, thorough molecular clock studies focusing specifically on Metazoa as a whole have been based on relatively small datasets or incomplete representation of the main non-bilaterian lineages (such as sponges and ctenophores), which are fundamental for understanding early metazoan evolution...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618240/omics-for-precious-rare-biosamples-characterization-of-ancient-human-hair-by-a-proteomic-approach
#14
Margaux Fresnais, Pascale Richardin, Marcela Sepúlveda, Emmanuelle Leize-Wagner, Armelle Charrié-Duhaut
Omics technologies have far-reaching applications beyond clinical medicine. A case in point is the analysis of ancient hair samples. Indeed, hair is an important biological indicator that has become a material of choice in archeometry to study the ancient civilizations and their environment. Current characterization of ancient hair is based on elemental and structural analyses, but only few studies have focused on the molecular aspects of ancient hair proteins-keratins-and their conservation state. In such cases, applied extraction protocols require large amounts of raw hair, from 30 to 100 mg...
June 15, 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618196/integrating-chytrid-fungal-parasites-into-plankton-ecology-research-gaps-and-needs
#15
REVIEW
Thijs Frenken, Elisabet Alacid, Stella A Berger, Elizabeth C Bourne, Mélanie Gerphagnon, Hans-Peter Grossart, Alena S Gsell, Bas W Ibelings, Maiko Kagami, Frithjof C Küpper, Peter M Letcher, Adeline Loyau, Takeshi Miki, Jens C Nejstgaard, Serena Rasconi, Albert Reñé, Thomas Rohrlack, Keilor Rojas-Jimenez, Dirk S Schmeller, Bettina Scholz, Kensuke Seto, Télesphore Sime-Ngando, Assaf Sukenik, Dedmer B Van de Waal, Silke Van den Wyngaert, Ellen Van Donk, Justyna Wolinska, Christian Wurzbacher, Ramsy Agha
Chytridiomycota, often referred to as chytrids, can be virulent parasites with the potential to inflict mass mortalities on hosts, causing e.g. changes in phytoplankton size distributions and succession, and the delay or suppression of bloom events. Molecular environmental surveys have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of chytrids across a wide range of aquatic ecosystems worldwide. As a result, scientific interest towards fungal parasites of phytoplankton has been gaining momentum in the past few years...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617654/function-discovery-and-exploitation-of-plant-pattern-recognition-receptors-for-broad-spectrum-disease-resistance
#16
Freddy Boutrot, Cyril Zipfel
Plants are constantly exposed to would-be pathogens and pests, and thus have a sophisticated immune system to ward off these threats, which otherwise can have devastating ecological and economic consequences on ecosystems and agriculture. Plants employ receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to monitor their apoplastic environment and detect non-self and damaged-self patterns as signs of potential danger. Plant PRRs contribute to both basal and non-host resistances, and treatment with pathogen-/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) recognized by plant PRRs induces both local and systemic immunity...
June 15, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616189/the-combined-effects-of-reactant-kinetics-and-enzyme-stability-explain-the-temperature-dependence-of-metabolic-rates
#17
J P DeLong, J P Gibert, T M Luhring, G Bachman, B Reed, A Neyer, K L Montooth
A mechanistic understanding of the response of metabolic rate to temperature is essential for understanding thermal ecology and metabolic adaptation. Although the Arrhenius equation has been used to describe the effects of temperature on reaction rates and metabolic traits, it does not adequately describe two aspects of the thermal performance curve (TPC) for metabolic rate-that metabolic rate is a unimodal function of temperature often with maximal values in the biologically relevant temperature range and that activation energies are temperature dependent...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616069/population-genetic-and-field-ecological-analyses-return-similar-estimates-of-dispersal-over-space-and-time-in-an-endangered-amphibian
#18
Ian J Wang, H Bradley Shaffer
The explosive growth of empirical population genetics has seen a proliferation of analytical methods leading to a steady increase in our ability to accurately measure key population parameters, including genetic isolation, effective population size, and gene flow, in natural systems. Assuming they yield similar results, population genetic methods offer an attractive complement to, or replacement of, traditional field-ecological studies. However, empirical assessments of the concordance between direct field-ecological and indirect population genetic studies of the same populations are uncommon in the literature...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614366/de-novo-transcriptomic-analysis-and-development-of-est-ssrs-for-sorbus-pohuashanensis-hance-hedl
#19
Congcong Liu, Ying Dou, Xuelian Guan, Qiang Fu, Ze Zhang, Zenghui Hu, Jian Zheng, Yizeng Lu, Wei Li
Sorbus pohuashanensis is a native tree species of northern China that is used for a variety of ecological purposes. The species is often grown as an ornamental landscape tree because of its beautiful form, silver flowers in early summer, attractive pinnate leaves in summer, and red leaves and fruits in autumn. However, development and further utilization of the species are hindered by the lack of comprehensive genetic information, which impedes research into its genetics and molecular biology. Recent advances in de novo transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) technology have provided an effective means to obtain genomic information from non-model species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613017/small-and-large-scale-heterogeneity-in-genetic-variation-across-the-collard-flycatcher-genome-implications-for-estimating-genetic-diversity-in-nonmodel-organisms
#20
Pär K Ingvarsson, Jing Wang
Population genetic studies in nonmodel organisms are often hampered by a lack of reference genomes that are essential for whole-genome resequencing. In the light of this, genotyping methods have been developed to effectively eliminate the need for a reference genome, such as genotyping by sequencing or restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq). However, what remains relatively poorly studied is how accurately these methods capture both average and variation in genetic diversity across an organism's genome...
July 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
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