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Peroneal pathology

Jorge M Orduña Valls, Ricardo Vallejo, Pablo López Pais, Eliezer Soto, Daniel Torres Rodríguez, David L Cedeño, Carlos Tornero Tornero, Maximino Quintáns Rodríguez, Aurora Baluja González, Julián Álvarez Escudero
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Osteoarthrosis is a main cause of knee pain in the elderly. Pain associated with this condition is often refractory to conservative treatment. Total knee replacement may be the best option for severe pathologies; however, the occurrence of a chronic pain state after knee replacement has been well documented in the literature. The previous descriptions of the genicular nerves have been considered somewhat inaccurate. This innervation is complex and exhibits significant interindividual variability...
December 5, 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Jason L Koh, Anthony L Logli
BACKGROUND: Standard knee arthroscopy portals are frequently used to address retropatellar chondral pathology. Alternative portals may offer a safe and simple substitute, particularly when reaching the base of deep lesions is required. PURPOSE: To describe and assess the safety of accessory retropatellar portals. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: An anatomic study was performed on 10 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees...
November 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Gloria N L Wong, Tien Jin Tan
Posterior ankle pain is a cause of chronic pain and disability, afflicting a wide range of individuals. While proper identification of the cause is essential for timely and adequate treatment, identifying the cause and excluding mimickers is often challenging for the physician due to the complex nature of the joint. In addition, pathology that can cause posterior ankle pain may occur on their own or in co-existence. Clinical conditions that can present as posterior ankle pain include: posterior ankle impingement, Achilles tendon pathology, medial flexor tendon pathology, peroneal pathology, retrocalcaneal bursitis, posterior subtalar tarsal coalition, sinus tarsi, and tarsal tunnel syndrome...
December 2016: European Journal of Radiology
Timothy I Alves, Gandikota Girish, Monica Kalume Brigido, Jon A Jacobson
Pain and other disorders of the knee are a common presenting complaint in the ambulatory setting. Although the cornerstones of imaging evaluation of the knee are radiographs and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, ultrasonography (US) is less expensive than MR imaging, easily available, and of comparable accuracy in the evaluation of certain pathologic conditions of the knee. The benefits of US include portability, low cost, high spatial resolution, dynamic imaging, and ability to guide percutaneous interventions when indicated...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Gary M LiMarzi, Kurt F Scherer, Michael L Richardson, David R Warden, Christopher W Wasyliw, Jack A Porrino, Christopher R Pettis, Gideon Lewis, Christopher C Mason, Laura W Bancroft
A variety of surgical procedures exist for repair of both traumatic and degenerative osseous and soft-tissue pathologic conditions involving the foot and ankle. It is necessary for the radiologist to be familiar with these surgical procedures, so as to assess structural integrity, evaluate for complicating features, and avoid diagnostic pitfalls. Adequate interpretation of postoperative changes often requires access to surgical documentation to evaluate not only the surgery itself but the expected timeline for resolution of normal postoperative changes versus progressive disease...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
S M Yap, B McNamara
Foot drop is a complex symptom with a considerable range in aetiology, severity and prognosis. We aim to characterise the aetiologies of foot drop and assess the diagnostic contribution of neurophysiologic testing (NCS/EMG). Retrospective review of consecutive referrals of foot drop to the Neurophysiology Department in Cork University Hospital was performed over a two year period (January 2012 to December 2013). Of a total of 59 referrals, common peroneal nerve (CPN) palsy comprised only slightly more than half of cases; 3(5%) have central origin; 3(5%) have motor neuron disease...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
Murat Zumrut, Mehmet Demirayak, Ahmet Kucukapan
Peripheral neuropathies caused by ganglion cysts are quite rare, especially in the lower extremities. The case of a 64-year-old male with a 2-day history of foot drop and tenderness in the region of the left fibular neck is presented. Physical examination and electromyogram findings verified peroneal nerve palsy. Ultrasonography showed cystic mass localized proximal of the peroneal muscle structures. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic-appearing mass around the fibular neck that compressed the common peroneal nerve...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Jian Kang, Pinglin Yang, Quanjin Zang, Xijing He
BACKGROUND: Traumatic neuromas are rare benign tumors, which are common in trauma or post-operation and accompanied with obvious symptoms of pain. This study will show the superficial peroneal nerve neuroma occurring after resection of hemangioma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 44-year-old male had an operation of the right leg cavernous hemangioma resection in 1995. Half a year after the operation, pain around the wound appeared and gradually aggravated. The patient had the lesion exploration resection in 2013, and the pathological result showed traumatic neuroma...
2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Troy J Boffeli, Steven R Smith, Kyle W Abben
Nonhealing wounds along the fifth metatarsal associated with neuropathy and bone deformity frequently become complicated with osteomyelitis. Our surgical technique for complete fifth ray amputation with peroneal tendon transfer has been previously published. The present study evaluated the outcomes regarding success with initial healing and intermediate-term limb survival after this procedure, which is intended to resolve infection, remove bone deformity, heal and prevent recurrence of lateral column wounds, and maintain functional stability of the foot...
November 2016: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Cecilia Raccagni, Wolfgang N Löscher, Ambra Stefani, Julia Wanschitz, Lena Kraemer, Anna Heidbreder, Birgit Högl
OBJECTIVES: Excessive fragmentary myoclonus is a frequent incidental finding in patients undergoing polysomnography for other reasons. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether electrophysiological examination in patients with excessive fragmentary myoclonus during sleep according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) criteria shows findings of peripheral nerve dysfunction. METHODS: Ninety-eight of 100 patients with excessive fragmentary myoclonus detected as an incidental finding during routine polysomnography underwent electrophysiological workup...
June 2016: Sleep Medicine
Afsha Aurshina, Enrico Ascher, Anil Hingorani, Sergio X Salles-Cunha, Natalie Marks, Eleanor Iadgarova
BACKGROUND: Accreditation in peripheral venous testing can be obtained based upon femoropopliteal duplex ultrasound evaluation, and many laboratories limit their examination to this segment only. This simplified protocol detects acute femoropopliteal deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but misses calf vein DVT, superficial venous thrombosis, chronic DVT, venous reflux, and other non-venous findings potentially responsible of the patients' presenting conditions. A protocol limited to the femoropopliteal segment results in additional unnecessary testing and can create patient dissatisfaction...
August 12, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Giacomo Feliciani, Cristiano Peron, Augusto La Rocca, Maria Francesca Scuppa, Andrea Malavolta, David Bianchini, Ivan Corazza, Romano Zannoli
This laboratory activity is designed to teach students how to measure forearm muscle blood flow (FBF) to describe the mechanisms of peripheral blood flow thermal regulation in healthy subjects. The cold pressor test (CPT) is the clinical procedure used in the experiment to induce arterial vasoconstriction. Strain-gauge plethysmography is applied on the patient's forearm to noninvasive monitor vasoconstriction effects on local blood perfusion and physiological parameters such as blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR)...
September 2016: Advances in Physiology Education
Onur Akın, İbrahim Eker, Mutluay Arslan, Serdar Taşdemir, Mehmet Emre Taşçılar, Ümit Hıdır Ulaş, Ediz Yeşilkaya, Bülent Ünay
AIM: The objective of our study was to investigate nerve conduction in normoglycemic obese children. METHODS: A total of 60 children with obesity (30 female and 30 male) and 30 healthy children (15 female and 15 male) were enrolled in the study. Insulin resistance (IR) and other metabolic disturbances were investigated and nerve conduction was measured in all participants. Obese children were divided into groups according to the presence of IR. All results were compared between these subgroups...
August 9, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Semra Işık, Akın Akakın, Murat Şakir Ekşi, Baran Yılmaz, Tamer Aksoy, Murat Konakçı, Zafer Orkun Toktaş, Türker Kılıç
Foot drop is an inability to dorsiflex the ankle and toe. Primary causes of foot drop are compression or lesion of the 5th lumbar nerve and entrapment of the peroneal nerve at the head of the fibula. Rarely, some central nervous system lesions lead to foot drop. A 16-year-old boy was admitted with blunt head trauma that had happened in an assault. The muscle strength of the bilateral tibialis anterior, bilateral extensor digitorum longus and bilateral extensor digitorum brevis were Medical Research Council grade 1...
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Thomas Seel, Cordula Werner, Thomas Schauer
Many stroke patients suffer from the drop foot syndrome, which is characterized by a limited ability to lift (the lateral and/or medial edge of) the foot and leads to a pathological gait. In this contribution, we consider the treatment of this syndrome via functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the peroneal nerve during the swing phase of the paretic foot. A novel three-electrodes setup allows us to manipulate the recruitment of m. tibialis anterior and m. fibularis longus via two independent FES channels without violating the zero-net-current requirement of FES...
July 7, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
Gabriel Moisan, Vincent Cantin
The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of two types of foot orthoses (FOs) on muscle activity during walking. Twenty-one healthy participants were recruited to walk on a five-meter walkway with a control condition (no FOs) and two experimental conditions (FOs and FOs with lateral bar). The experimental protocol was performed before and after a one-month period of wear for each experimental condition. Electromyographic signals were recorded for six muscles (gluteus medius, vastus lateralis, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, peroneus longus and tibialis anterior)...
May 2016: Gait & Posture
Ellen J van der Zaag, Erik A W S Weerts, Antoon J M van den Belt, Willem Back
BACKGROUND: Navicular bone partition is a rare condition reported in horses, which is during the evaluation of a lameness or prepurchase examination often misinterpreted for a parasagittal fracture. In this report, the clinicopathological findings of three cases of navicular bone partition are evaluated. The possible pathomechanisms underlying the condition are hypothesised, focusing on a potential origin of foetal vascular disturbance. This study is furthermore aiming at a clearer and earlier recognition of navicular bone partition, since this condition would finally predispose for a clinical lameness with a poor prognosis...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
L Z Liu, J Y Wu, Z Y Wu, Z H Chen, L Ling, B Sun, Y F Li, X S Huang
OBJECTIVE: To identify the sensitive scales and the early change of nerve conduction for chronic oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OXLIPN), and to investigate correlation between the symptoms of acute OXLIPN and chronic OXLIPN. METHODS: Between December 2014 and August 2015, 16 colorectal cancer patients confirmed by pathology, from department of Oncology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, scheduled to receive XELOX, completed the acute neurotoxic symptoms questionnaire at the end of 1 cycles and the scales of TNSc and NCI-CTC at the baseline and the end of 4 cycles...
April 5, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Stephen L Barrett
This case illustrates the complexity and interrelationship of osseous pathology with peripheral nerve entrapment and neuromata. She had an iatrogenic nerve injury of a branch of the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve causing her painful scar. Secondarily, she developed an injury to her common peroneal nerve from the cast immobilization, resulting in palsy/drop foot. The tarsal tunnel entrapment was likely a sequela of the cast immobilization and chronic swelling. Her postoperative chronic pain was compounded by the failure to use grommets with the polymeric silicon (Silastic) implant at the initial surgery, leading to a breakdown of the implant with subsequent detritic synovitis...
April 2016: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
Volker Schöffl, Christoph Lutter, Dominik Popp
Acute injuries in rock climbing either come from a fall onto the lower leg or from performing a hard move and injuring the upper extremity. Further evaluations of lower leg injuries in rock climbing athletes have been performed recently finding sport characteristics such as peroneal tendon dislocations or chronic deformations of the feet. One injury mechanism described in case reports is the so-called heel hook position, which is used more frequently today compared with the beginngs of rock climbing. In addition, the number of these injuries is expected to rise with the increase in popularity of climbing and bouldering...
June 2016: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
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