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Wenjuan Yang, Keyan Zhou, Yue Zhou, Yuqian An, Tingting Hu, Jing Lu, Shichao Huang, Gang Pei
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder with abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neuroinflammation and impaired neurogenesis. Mounting evidences suggest that single-target drugs have limited effects on clinical treatment and alternative or multiple targets are required. In recent decades, natural compounds and their derivatives have gained increasing attention in AD drug discovery due to their inherently enormous chemical and structural diversity. In this study, we demonstrated that naringin dihydrochalcone (NDC), a widely used dietary sweetener with strong antioxidant activity, improved the cognitive function of transgenic AD mice...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Chan-Il Choi, Hyesook Yoon, Kristen L Drucker, Monica R Langley, Laurel Kleppe, Isobel A Scarisbrick
Thrombin is frequently increased in the CNS after injury yet little is known regarding its effects on neural stem cells. Here we show that the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mice lacking the high affinity receptor for thrombin, proteinase activated receptor 1 (PAR1), show increased numbers of Sox2+ and Ki-67+ self-renewing neural stem cells (NSCs) and Olig2+ oligodendrocyte progenitors. SVZ NSCs derived from PAR1-knockout mice, or treated with a PAR1 small molecule inhibitor (SCH79797), exhibited enhanced capacity for self-renewal in vitro, including increases in neurosphere formation and BrdU incorporation...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jingjing Xu, Jun Zhou, Hanjue Dai, Fei Liu, Wenjing Li, Wenjuan Wang, Feng Guo
BACKGROUND: The carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a controversial role in different cancers, either as a tumor suppressor or a tumor promoter. To date, the exact function and underlying mechanism of CHIP in colorectal cancer (CRC) is not yet clear. Here we aimed to determine whether CHIP could affect the biological behaviors of CRC cells and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Stably transfected CHIP overexpression and depletion DLD-1 and HT-29 cells were established using Lipofectamine 2000...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Li-Chun Cheng, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
Detection of cell proliferation based on the incorporation of 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) has become a standard approach for studying stem cell and progenitor cell populations in developing and adult tissue. In this chapter, we describe three BrdU administration methods for planarians and a staining protocol combining BrdU detection with whole-mount fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Collectively, these protocols enable the combined analysis of BrdU-incorporation and endogenous gene expression, as for example during lineage tracing applications...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Wen-Peng Zhao, Hong-Wei Wang, Jing Liu, Pan-Pan Tan, Lin Lin, Bian-Hua Zhou
Excessive fluoride (F) intake decreases the development of potential oocytes by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis in female mice in our previous study. This study aims to investigate the underlying mechanisms of F-induced follicular developmental dysplasia. Pathomorphological changes in the ovary tissues were observed under light and transmission electron microscopes. DNA damage and proliferation in granulosa cells were analysed by TUNEL staining and BrdU measurement. The protein expression of cell proliferation related regulatory factors including JNK, STAT3, STAT5, CDK2, CDK4, PCNA and Ki67 in the ovary tissues was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses...
June 12, 2018: Chemosphere
Maciej Sassek, Pawel A Kolodziejski, Mathias Z Strowski, Leszek Nogowski, Krzysztof W Nowak, Pawel Mackowiak
OBJECTIVES: Spexin is a peptide whose action is poorly understood but which is expressed in many tissues. This encouraged us to investigate the potential role of spexin in the regulation of pancreatic secretion. METHODS: Cells/islets were incubated with different concentrations of glucose and spexin to measure insulin secretion. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays and BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) tests were performed to assess the viability and proliferation of pancreatic islets after spexin treatment...
June 16, 2018: Pancreas
Zhe Zhao, Haitao Wu
Electrical high-frequency stimulation (HFS), using implanted electrodes targeting various brain regions, has been proven as an effective treatment for various neurological and psychiatric disorders. HFS in the deep region of the brain, also named deep-brain stimulation (DBS), is becoming increasingly important in clinical trials. Recent progress in the field of high-frequency DBS (HF-DBS) surgery has begun to spread the possibility of utilizing this invasive technique to other situations, such as treatment for major depression disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and so on...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Deborah I Lutterschmidt, Ashley R Lucas, Ritta A Karam, Vicky T Nguyen, Meghann R Rasmussen
Seasonal rhythms in physiology and behavior are widespread across diverse taxonomic groups and may be mediated by seasonal changes in neurogenesis, including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. We examined if cell proliferation in the brain is associated with the seasonal life-history transition from spring breeding to migration and summer foraging in a free-ranging population of red-sided garter snakes ( Thamnophis sirtalis ) in Manitoba, Canada. We used the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly proliferated cells within the brain of adult snakes collected from the den during the mating season or from a road located along their migratory route...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Bang-Qing Wang, Bin Yang, Hua-Chao Yang, Jun-Yi Wang, Sen Hu, Yu-Shuai Gao, Xing-Yao Bu
As the most common and lethal of intracranial tumors, glioma accounts for 81% of all malignant brain tumors. Research data has identified the role of microRNAs (miRs) as functional suppressers in the progression of Glioma. The present study aimed to, ascertain as to whether microRNA-499a (miR-499a) influences cell proliferation and apoptosis through the MAPK signaling pathway by targeting Notch1 in glioma. Both glioma and adjacent tissues between 2012~2016, were obtained from People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University (Henan Provincial People's Hospital)...
June 14, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Duomeng Yang, Junmin Xi, Yun Xing, Xiangxu Tang, Xiaomeng Dai, Kaiying Li, Hongmei Li, Xiuxiu Lv, Daxiang Lu, Huadong Wang
BACKGROUND: Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) have proven to be an ideal research model for cardiac disease. However, the current methods to purify NRVMs have a limitation to obtain high purity. The purpose of this study was to develop a NRVM purification method by using superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SIOP). METHODS: NRVMs were purified by using SIOP (SIOP group). The differential attachment with or without bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) treatment served as control and BrdU groups, respectively...
June 3, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Keke Tan, Xiuxiu Wang, Jun Zhang, Zhigang Zhuang, Tieli Dong
Objective: To investigate the possibility and effect of chitosan porous scaffolds combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in repair of neurological deficit after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. Methods: BMSCs were isolated, cultured, and passaged by the method of bone marrow adherent culture. The 3rd generation BMSCs were identified by the CD29 and CD45 surface antigens and marked by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU). The chitosan porous scaffolds were produced by the method of freeze-drying...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Yanqing Wu, Zhouguang Wang, Pingtao Cai, Ting Jiang, Yiyang Li, Yuan Yuan, Rui Li, Sinan Khor, Yingfeng Lu, Jian Wang, Daqing Chen, Qiqiang Zeng, Ruisheng Zhong, Hongyu Zhang, Yuan Lin, Xiaokun Li, Jian Xiao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) are essential for proper development, survival, growth, and maintenance of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, because bFGF and NGF have short half-life and rapid diffusion rate, they have limited clinical efficacy. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop an effective delivery system to protect bFGF and NGF from proteolysis while maintaining their normal bioactivities. METHODS: To more efficiently deliver bFGF and NGF, we used a coacervate (synthesized with heparin and a biodegradable polycation at mass ratio of 500: 100)...
June 12, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Masaki Shigeta, Hirotaka Kanazawa, Takahiko Yokoyama
Inversion of embryonic turning (inv) cystic mice develop multiple renal cysts and are a model for type II nephronophthisis (NPHP2). The defect of planar cell polarity (PCP) by oriented cell division was proposed as the underlying cellular phenotype, while abnormal cell proliferation and apoptosis occur in some polycystic kidney disease models. However, how these cystogenic phenotypes are linked and what is most critical for cystogenesis remain largely unknown. In particular, in early cortical cytogenesis in the inv mutant cystic model, it remains uncertain whether the increased proliferation index results from changes in cell cycle length or cell fate determination...
2018: PloS One
Jeremy D Hill, Viviana Zuluaga-Ramirez, Sachin Gajghate, Malika Winfield, Yuri Persidsky
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The cannabinoid system exerts functional regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and adult neurogenesis, yet not all effects of cannabinoid-like compounds seen can be attributed to the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1 R) or cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2 R). The recently de-orphaned GPR55 has been shown to be activated by numerous cannabinoid ligands suggesting that GPR55 is a third cannabinoid receptor. Here we examined the role of GPR55 activation in NSC proliferation and early adult neurogenesis...
June 11, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Zhimin Duan, Qing Chen, Leilei Du, Jianbo Tong, Song Xu, Rong Zeng, Yuting Ma, Xu Chen, Min Li
Autophagy machinery has roles in the defense against microorganisms such as Candida albicans . Lipidated LC3, the marker protein of autophagy, participates in the elimination of C. albicans by forming a single-membrane phagosome; this process is called LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP). However, the influence of C. albicans on autophagic flux is not clear. In this study, we found that C. albicans inhibited LC3 turnover in macrophages. After the phagocytosis of C. albicans in macrophages, we observed fewer acridine orange-positive vacuoles and RFP-GFP-LC3 puncta without colocalization with phagocytized C...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Mitzi Nagarkatti, Sadiye Amcaoglu Rieder, Prakash S Nagarkatti
Immunotoxicity testing is important in determining the toxic effects of various chemicals on the immune system. The immune system is a direct target of numerous toxicants, and the adverse effects include serious health complications such as susceptibility to infections, cancer, allergic reactions, and autoimmune diseases. One way to investigate the harmful effects of different chemicals is to study apoptosis and/or proliferation in immune cells. Apoptosis is defined as programmed cell death, and in general, this process helps in development and maintenance of tolerance and homeostasis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
David M Lehmann
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) continues to be an occupational and environmental health issue. Consequently, there is a need to employ predictive tests to reduce the incidence of skin sensitization leading to clinical manifestations of ACD. For more than a decade, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been the method of choice for the identification of skin sensitizers. While the original LLNA protocol has been extensively evaluated and subjected to exhaustive validation, the use of radioisotope (i...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Huey-Ming Lo, Ming-Chieh Ma, Jiunn-Min Shieh, Hui-Ling Chen, Wen-Bin Wu
Introduction: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and vascular injuries in terms of proliferation and migration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-migratory and proliferative effects of naked gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on VSMCs. Materials and methods: One set of physically synthesized AuNPs (pAuNPs) and three sets of chemically synthesized AuNPs (cAuNPs) were tested...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Thomas Gstrein, Andrew Edwards, Anna Přistoupilová, Ines Leca, Martin Breuss, Sandra Pilat-Carotta, Andi H Hansen, Ratna Tripathy, Anna K Traunbauer, Tobias Hochstoeger, Gavril Rosoklija, Marco Repic, Lukas Landler, Viktor Stránecký, Gerhard Dürnberger, Thomas M Keane, Johannes Zuber, David J Adams, Jonathan Flint, Tomas Honzik, Marta Gut, Sergi Beltran, Karl Mechtler, Elliott Sherr, Stanislav Kmoch, Ivo Gut, David A Keays
In the supplementary information PDF originally posted, there were discrepancies from the integrated supplementary information that appeared in the HTML; the former has been corrected as follows. In the legend to Supplementary Fig. 2c, "major organs of the mouse" has been changed to "major organs of the adult mouse." In the legend to Supplementary Fig. 6d,h, "At E14.5 Mbe/Mbe mutants have a smaller percentage of Brdu positive cells in bin 3" has been changed to "At E14.5 Mbe/Mbe mutants have a higher percentage of Brdu positive cells in bin 3...
June 6, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Joana Figueiro-Silva, Desireé Antequera, Consuelo Pascual, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Huayqui Volt, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo, María Isabel Rodríguez-Franco, Eva Carro
Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is a unique process in neurobiology that requires functional integration of newly generated neurons, which may disrupt existing hippocampal network connections and consequently loss of established memories. As neurodegenerative diseases characterized by abnormal neurogenesis and memory dysfunctions are increasing, the identification of new anti-aging drugs is required. In adult mice, we found that melatonin, a well-established neurogenic hormone, and the melatonin analog 2-(2-(5-methoxy-1 H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)-5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (IQM316) were able to induce hippocampal neurogenesis, measured by neuronal nuclei (NeuN) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling...
March 2018: Cell Transplantation
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