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Jay Ian Lakkis, Matthew R Weir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hyperkalemia develops in a patient with systemic arterial hypertension (HTN) if one or more risk factors are present, namely chronic kidney disease (CKD) (especially severe stage 4-5 CKD), diabetes mellitus (DM), heart failure (HF), or pharmacological therapies that interfere with potassium homeostasis, mainly through renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibition (RAASi). Hyperkalemia is a considerable reason of morbidity (emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations) and portends a higher mortality risk in patients at risk; for instance, hyperkalemia increases the risk of mortality within 1 day of a hyperkalemic event...
March 1, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Keith A Betts, J Michael Woolley, Fan Mu, Evangeline McDonald, Wenxi Tang, Eric Q Wu
OBJECTIVE: The retrospective study aimed to estimate prevalence of hyperkalemia using a large US commercial claims database. METHODS: Adults with serum potassium lab data (2010 to 2014) and ≥1 calendar year of data were included from a large US commercial claims database. Hyperkalemia was defined as ≥2 serum potassium measurements >5.0 mEq/L or one hyperkalemia diagnosis code [ICD-9-CM, 276.7)] or one sodium polystyrene sulfonate fill. Hyperkalemia prevalence was estimated for the overall population and subgroups with hyperkalemia-related comorbidities by calendar year...
January 25, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Francesco Caccetta, Maurizio Caroppo, Fernando Musio, Anna Mudoni, Antonella Accogli, Maria Dolores Zacheo, Domenica Burzo, Rolando Mangia, Michele Accogli, Vitale Nuzzo
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (CT) is a syndrome characterized by an acute and transient left ventricular dysfunction, electrocardiographic abnormalities suggestive of acute coronary syndrome, chest pain and/or dyspnea, left ventricular mid-apical segments akinesia and normal coronary angiography. It is mainly observed in postmenopausal women after an intense physical or mental stress. The course is usually favourable but sometimes severe complications occur. The recurrence rate is 2-10%. We present the case of a recurrence of CT in a female, 79 years old, with hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 who was admitted to the emergency room for dyspnea and vomiting...
November 2016: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Matthew R Weir, Martha R Mayo, Dahlia Garza, Susan A Arthur, Lance Berman, David Bushinsky, Daniel J Wilson, Murray Epstein
OBJECTIVE: Recurrent hyperkalemia frequently limits use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hypertension, diabetes, and/or heart failure. Patiromer is a sodium-free, nonabsorbed potassium (K)-binding polymer approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hyperkalemia. This post-hoc analysis of OPAL-HK examined the effectiveness and safety of patiromer in reducing serum K in hyperkalemic CKD patients on RAASi, with hypertension, receiving diuretic therapy versus those not on diuretics...
May 2017: Journal of Hypertension
Lucia Del Vecchio, Ugo Teatini, Francesco Locatelli
Elevated blood pressure is one of the most significant risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD); its treatment is a milestone in CKD management. While it is accepted that a stricter blood pressure control is indicated in patients with proteinuria or microalbuminuria, the exact degree of blood pressure reduction to be obtained in CKD patients is still under debate. Following more recent interpretation of old trials, a BP target for <140/90 mmHg is suggested for non-proteinuric CKD patients...
June 2017: Panminerva Medica
Ashish Agrawal, Shibnath Kamila, Swetha Reddy, Joyal Lilly, Ms Sadhguna Mariyala
Background: Globally the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising, an important cause of death and loss of disability-adjusted life years. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is involved in its pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of telmisartan (40 mg/day), an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in Indian patients with CKD in real-life setting. Method: This was a prospective observational study. Fifty-six patients (>18 years) diagnosed with CKD were enrolled into the study...
2016: Journal of drug assessment
Paul Whelton
BACKGROUND: Choice of the optimal target for blood pressure (BP) reduction during treatment of patients with hypertension, including those with underlying co-morbid conditions, is an important challenge in clinical practice. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) was designed to provide guidance in selection of a Systolic BP target during treatment of hypertension. METHODS: Adults ≥50 years old with hypertension and at least one additional risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but excluding persons with diabetes mellitus, prior stroke, or advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) were randomly assigned to intensive therapy (intensive), targeting a systolic BP (SBP) <120 mmHg, or standard therapy (standard), targeting a SBP <140 mmHg...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Paul Whelton
BACKGROUND: Choice of the optimal target for blood pressure (BP) reduction during treatment of patients with hypertension, including those with underlying co-morbid conditions, is an important challenge in clinical practice. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) was designed to provide guidance in selection of a Systolic BP target during treatment of hypertension. METHODS: Adults ≥50 years old with hypertension and at least one additional risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but excluding persons with diabetes mellitus, prior stroke, or advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) were randomly assigned to intensive therapy (intensive), targeting a systolic BP (SBP) <120 mmHg, or standard therapy (standard), targeting a SBP <140 mmHg...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Betty N Vu, Alyssa Mae De Castro, David Shottland, William H Frishman, Angela Cheng-Lai
For over 50 years, there have been limited options for the management of hyperkalemia, especially among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetic nephropathy, hypertension, and heart failure, who were receiving concomitant renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor therapy. Hyperkalemia is a potential, life-threatening electrolyte abnormality that frequently challenges clinicians from maximizing the mortality benefit and organ-protective properties of RAAS inhibitors especially in CKD and heart failure populations...
November 2016: Cardiology in Review
Hanna Fröhlich, Christoph Nelges, Tobias Täger, Vedat Schwenger, Rita Cebola, Johannes Schnorbach, Kevin M Goode, Syed Kazmi, Hugo A Katus, John G F Cleland, Andrew L Clark, Lutz Frankenstein
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have become cornerstones of therapy for chronic heart failure (CHF). Guidelines advise high target doses for ACEIs/ARBs, but fear of worsening renal function may limit dose titration in patients with concomitant chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we identified 722 consecutive patients with systolic CHF, stable CKD stage III/IV (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 15-60 mL min(-1) 1...
August 2016: American Heart Journal
Murray Epstein, Bertram Pitt
INTRODUCTION: Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte disorder, especially among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes mellitus, or heart failure, and is associated with a significantly increased risk for all-cause mortality. Hyperkalemia remains a vexing and challenging problem for clinicians, particularly in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease and congestive heart failure. Several observational and retrospective studies have reported a large gap between recommendations in guidelines and real-world practice in the implementation of RAASi therapies...
July 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Simeon-Pierre Choukem, Pennghan K Nchifor, Marie-Patrice Halle, Daniel N Nebongo, Yannick Mboue-Djieka, François F Kaze, Gotlieb L Monekosso
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is frequently unrecognized by non-nephrology physicians. There is an ongoing governmental program to create hemodialysis centers in the ten regions of Cameroon, where a previous study reported high levels of late referral to nephrologists. We aimed to assess the knowledge of physicians on CKD and their attitudes regarding referral. METHODS: A questionnaire based on the Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative Guidelines of 2002 was self-administered to general practitioners and non-nephrology specialists working in two Cameroon cities that have hemodialysis centers (Douala and Bamenda)...
January 18, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Ann G Montaperto, Mona A Gandhi, Lauren Z Gashlin, Melanie R Symoniak
IMPORTANCE: Patiromer FOS (for oral suspension), formerly known as RLY5016, is pending FDA approval for the treatment of hyperkalemia. Once approved, patiromer, as well as a second agent known as sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9), will be among the new therapeutic options available to treat hyperkalemia in over 50 years. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this review is to analyze the efficacy and safety of patiromer to treat hyperkalemia and compare its pharmacokinetics to currently available sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) therapy...
2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Johannes F E Mann, Michael Böhm
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RASi) lowers blood pressure, reduces cardiovascular outcomes and blunts the progressive course of heart failure and of chronic kidney disease. This narrative article summarizes why the hypothesis came up that more complete RASi with two different agents should be more beneficial compared with one agent and how this hypothesis was deflated in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). RECENT FINDINGS: The hypothesis was based on experimental findings and surrogate endpoints in patients, namely lowering of blood pressure and reduction of proteinuria...
July 2015: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Atsuhisa Sato
Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and diabetic nephropathy is the most common primary disease necessitating dialysis treatment in the world including Japan. Major guidelines for treatment of hypertension in Japan, the United States and Europe recommend the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers, which suppress the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), as the antihypertensive drugs of first choice in patients with coexisting diabetes. However, even with the administration of RAS inhibitors, failure to achieve adequate anti-albuminuric, renoprotective effects and a reduction in cardiovascular events has also been reported...
June 2015: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Sangeon Gwoo, Ye Na Kim, Ho Sik Shin, Yeon Soon Jung, Hark Rim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Aldosterone antagonists have been proven to be efficient in the management of hypertension and the reduction of proteinuria; however, they are not widely used because of the risk of hyperkalemia. We assessed the predictors of hyperkalemia risk following hypertension control using aldosterone blockade in the presence or absence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: A total of 6,575 patients with hypertension treated between January 1, 2000, and November 30, 2012, were evaluated for the safety of an aldosterone-blocking agent (spironolactone) added to preexisting blood pressure-lowering regimens...
2014: Nephron. Clinical Practice
Juan Tamargo, Ricardo Caballero, Eva Delpón
Hyperkalemia (serum potassium >5.5 mmol/L) may result from increased potassium intake, impaired distribution between the intracellular and extracellular spaces, and/or reduced renal excretion. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASIs) represent an important therapeutic strategy in patients with hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes, but hyperkalemia is a key limitation to fully titrate RAASIs in these patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment. Thus, we need new drugs to control hyperkalemia in these patients while maintaining the use of RAASIs...
November 2014: Discovery Medicine
Vicente E Torres, Kaleab Z Abebe, Arlene B Chapman, Robert W Schrier, William E Braun, Theodore I Steinman, Franz T Winklhofer, Godela Brosnahan, Peter G Czarnecki, Marie C Hogan, Dana C Miskulin, Frederic F Rahbari-Oskoui, Jared J Grantham, Peter C Harris, Michael F Flessner, Charity G Moore, Ronald D Perrone
BACKGROUND: Hypertension develops early in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with disease progression. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with ADPKD. Dual blockade of the RAAS may circumvent compensatory mechanisms that limit the efficacy of monotherapy with an angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin II-receptor blocker (ARB). METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 486 patients, 18 to 64 years of age, with ADPKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR], 25 to 60 ml per minute per 1...
December 11, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2014: Johns Hopkins Medical Letter Health After 50
Shan Shan Chen, Stephen L Seliger, Linda F Fried
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review presents the role of combination therapy of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade on cardiovascular and kidney disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Three large randomized controlled trials comparing combination therapy of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade to monotherapy in individuals with increased cardiovascular risk, chronic kidney disease, or diabetic nephropathy have been reported. These trials - ONTARGET, ALTITUDE, and VA NEPHRON-D - demonstrated an excess risk of adverse effects [especially acute kidney injury (AKI) and hyperkalemia] with combination therapy, without significant benefit in reducing cardiovascular and renal morbidity...
September 2014: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
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