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Epigenetic clock

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889677/blood-dna-methylation-age-is-not-associated-with-cognitive-functioning-in-middle-aged-monozygotic-twins
#1
A Starnawska, Q Tan, A Lenart, M McGue, O Mors, A D Børglum, K Christensen, M Nyegaard, L Christiansen
The epigenetic clock, also known as DNA methylation age (DNAmAge), represents age-related changes of DNA methylation at multiple sites of the genome and is suggested to be a biomarker for biological age. Elevated blood DNAmAge is associated with all-cause mortality, with the strongest effects reported in a recent intrapair twin study where epigenetically older twins had increased mortality risk in comparison to their co-twins. In the study presented here, we hypothesize that DNAmAge in blood is associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal cognitive abilities in middle-aged individuals...
November 4, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883893/circadian-alterations-during-early-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease-are-associated-with-aberrant-cycles-of-dna-methylation-in-bmal1
#2
Peter Cronin, Michael J McCarthy, Andrew S P Lim, David P Salmon, Douglas Galasko, Eliezer Masliah, Philip L De Jager, David A Bennett, Paula Desplats
INTRODUCTION: Circadian alterations are prevalent in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may contribute to cognitive impairment, behavioral symptoms, and neurodegeneration. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate the circadian clock, and changes in DNA methylation have been reported in AD brains, but the pathways that mediate circadian deregulation in AD are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that aberrant DNA methylation may affect circadian rhythms in AD. METHODS: We investigated DNA methylation, transcription, and expression of BMAL1, a positive regulator of the circadian clock, in cultured fibroblasts and brain samples from two independent cohorts of aging and AD...
November 21, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868040/inhibition-of-mll1-histone-methyltransferase-brings-the-developmental-clock-back-to-na%C3%A3-ve-pluripotency
#3
COMMENT
Stefan Muller, Arnab Nayak
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the post-implantation epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) portray two different states of pluripotency. They differ with respect to epigenetic signatures, dependency of growth factor signaling circuit and cell morphology. They are interconvertible, however, with poor reconversion efficiency. This is indicative of existence of other unknown regulatory pathways govern developmental stage transition. Zhang and colleagues have recently demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of MLL1 histone methyltransferase is casually linked to efficient reprogramming of EpiSCs to developmentally competent ESCs...
2016: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859855/dynamic-and-rapid-changes-in-the-transcriptome-and-epigenome-during-germination-and-in-developing-rice-oryza-sativa-coleoptiles-under-anoxia-and-re-oxygenation
#4
Reena Narsai, David Secco, Matthew D Schultz, Joseph R Ecker, Ryan Lister, James Whelan
Detailed molecular profiling of Oryza sativa (rice) was carried out to uncover the features that are essential to germination and early seedling growth under anoxic conditions. Temporal analysis of the transcriptome and methylome from germination to young seedlings under aerobic and anaerobic conditions revealed 82% similarity in the transcriptome and no differences in the epigenome up to 24-h. Following germination, significant transcriptomic and DNA methylation changes were observed between 4-d aerobic and anaerobic grown coleoptiles...
November 12, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855491/tick-tock-dna-methylation-the-epigenetic-clock-and-exceptional-longevity
#5
Karen A Mather, Nicola J Armstrong, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, John Bj Kwok
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835646/a-statistical-framework-to-identify-deviation-from-time-linearity-in-epigenetic-aging
#6
Sagi Snir, Bridgett M vonHoldt, Matteo Pellegrini
In multiple studies DNA methylation has proven to be an accurate biomarker of age. To develop these biomarkers, the methylation of multiple CpG sites is typically linearly combined to predict chronological age. By contrast, in this study we apply the Universal PaceMaker (UPM) model to investigate changes in DNA methylation during aging. The UPM was initially developed to study rate acceleration/deceleration in sequence evolution. Rather than identifying which linear combinations of sites predicts age, the UPM models the rates of change of multiple CpG sites, as well as their starting methylation levels, and estimates the age of each individual to optimize the model fit...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826842/pathways-of-dna-demethylation
#7
Wendy Dean
The regulation of the genome relies on the epigenome to instruct, define and restrict the activities of growth and development. Among the cohort of epigenetic instructions, DNA methylation is perhaps the best understood. In most mammals, cycles of the addition and removal of DNA methylation constitute phases of reprogramming when the developing embryo must negotiate lineage defining and developmental commitment events. In these instances, the DNA methylation instruction is often removed, thereby allowing a change in permission for future development and a return to a more plastic and pluripotent state...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771773/case-control-study-of-candidate-gene-methylation-and-adenomatous-polyp-formation
#8
M Alexander, J B Burch, S E Steck, C-F Chen, T G Hurley, P Cavicchia, N Shivappa, J Guess, H Zhang, S D Youngstedt, K E Creek, S Lloyd, K Jones, J R Hébert
PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and preventable forms of cancer but remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Colorectal adenomas are precursor lesions that develop in 70-90 % of CRC cases. Identification of peripheral biomarkers for adenomas would help to enhance screening efforts. This exploratory study examined the methylation status of 20 candidate markers in peripheral blood leukocytes and their association with adenoma formation. METHODS: Patients recruited from a local endoscopy clinic provided informed consent and completed an interview to ascertain demographic, lifestyle, and adenoma risk factors...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765932/cisplatin-induced-synthetic-lethality-to-arginine-starvation-therapy-by-transcriptional-suppression-of-ass1-is-regulated-by-dec1-hif-1%C3%AE-and-c-myc-transcription-network-and-is-independent-of-ass1-promoter-dna-methylation
#9
Yan Long, Wen-Bin Tsai, Jeffrey T Chang, Marcos Estecio, Medhi Wangpaichitr, Naramol Savaraj, Lynn G Feun, Helen H W Chen, Macus Tien Kuo
Many human tumors require extracellular arginine (Arg) for growth because the key enzyme for de novo biosynthesis of Arg, argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1), is silenced. These tumors are sensitive to Arg-starvation therapy using pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) which digests extracellular Arg. Many previous studies reported that ASS1 silencing is due to epigenetic inactivation of ASS1 expression by DNA methylation, and that the demethylation agent 5-aza-deoxycytidine (Aza-dC) can induce ASS1 expression...
September 28, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760549/a-new-timepiece-an-epigenetic-mitotic-clock
#10
Brock C Christensen, Karl T Kelsey
A new mitotic clock and mathematical approach that incorporates DNA methylation biology common among human cell types provides a new tool for cancer epigenetics research.
October 19, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739341/is-the-molecular-clock-ticking-differently-in-bipolar-disorder-methylation-analysis-of-the-clock-gene-arntl
#11
Susanne A Bengesser, Eva Z Reininghaus, Nina Lackner, Armin Birner, Frederike T Fellendorf, Martina Platzer, Nora Kainzbauer, Bernhard Tropper, Christa Hörmanseder, Robert Queissner, Hans-Peter Kapfhammer, Sandra J Wallner-Liebmann, Robert Fuchs, Erwin Petek, Christian Windpassinger, Mario Schnalzenberger, Bernd Reininghaus, Bernd Evert, Andreas Waha
OBJECTIVES: The clock gene ARNTL is associated with the transcription activation of monoamine oxidase A according to previous literature. Thus, we hypothesised that methylation of ARNTL may differ between bipolar disorder (BD) and controls. METHODS: The methylation status of one CpG island covering the first exon of ARNTL (PS2) and one site in the 5' region of ARNTL (cg05733463) were analysed in patients with BD (n = 151) versus controls (n = 66). Methylation analysis was performed by bisulphite-conversion of DNA from fasting blood with the EpiTect Bisulfite Kit, PCR and pyrosequencing...
October 14, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717399/an-epigenetic-clock-for-gestational-age-at-birth-based-on-blood-methylation-data
#12
Anna K Knight, Jeffrey M Craig, Christiane Theda, Marie Bækvad-Hansen, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Christine S Hansen, Mads V Hollegaard, David M Hougaard, Preben B Mortensen, Shantel M Weinsheimer, Thomas M Werge, Patricia A Brennan, Joseph F Cubells, D Jeffrey Newport, Zachary N Stowe, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Philippa Dalach, Lex W Doyle, Yuk J Loke, Andrea A Baccarelli, Allan C Just, Robert O Wright, Mara M Téllez-Rojo, Katherine Svensson, Letizia Trevisi, Elizabeth M Kennedy, Elisabeth B Binder, Stella Iurato, Darina Czamara, Katri Räikkönen, Jari M T Lahti, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Eero Kajantie, Pia M Villa, Hannele Laivuori, Esa Hämäläinen, Hea Jin Park, Lynn B Bailey, Sasha E Parets, Varun Kilaru, Ramkumar Menon, Steve Horvath, Nicole R Bush, Kaja Z LeWinn, Frances A Tylavsky, Karen N Conneely, Alicia K Smith
BACKGROUND: Gestational age is often used as a proxy for developmental maturity by clinicians and researchers alike. DNA methylation has previously been shown to be associated with age and has been used to accurately estimate chronological age in children and adults. In the current study, we examine whether DNA methylation in cord blood can be used to estimate gestational age at birth. RESULTS: We find that gestational age can be accurately estimated from DNA methylation of neonatal cord blood and blood spot samples...
October 7, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716309/correlation-of-an-epigenetic-mitotic-clock-with-cancer-risk
#13
Zhen Yang, Andrew Wong, Diana Kuh, Dirk S Paul, Vardhman K Rakyan, R David Leslie, Shijie C Zheng, Martin Widschwendter, Stephan Beck, Andrew E Teschendorff
BACKGROUND: Variation in cancer risk among somatic tissues has been attributed to variations in the underlying rate of stem cell division. For a given tissue type, variable cancer risk between individuals is thought to be influenced by extrinsic factors which modulate this rate of stem cell division. To date, no molecular mitotic clock has been developed to approximate the number of stem cell divisions in a tissue of an individual and which is correlated with cancer risk. RESULTS: Here, we integrate mathematical modeling with prior biological knowledge to construct a DNA methylation-based age-correlative model which approximates a mitotic clock in both normal and cancer tissue...
October 3, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712846/methylation-of-the-circadian-clock-gene-in-the-offspring-of-a-free-living-passerine-bird-increases-with-maternal-and-individual-exposure-to-pm10
#14
Andrea Romano, Barbara De Giorgio, Marco Parolini, Chiara Favero, Cristina Daniela Possenti, Simona Iodice, Manuela Caprioli, Diego Rubolini, Roberto Ambrosini, Luca Gianfranceschi, Nicola Saino, Valentina Bollati
The consequences of exposure to particulate matter (PM) have been thoroughly investigated in humans and other model species, but there is a dearth of studies of the effects of PM on physiology and life-history traits of non-human organisms living in natural or semi-natural environments. Besides toxicological relevance, PM has been recently suggested to exert epigenetic effects by altering DNA methylation patterns. Here, we investigated for the first time the association between the exposure to free-air PM10 and DNA methylation at two loci ('poly-Q exon' and '5'-UTR') of the Clock gene in blood cells of the nestlings of a synanthropic passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica)...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702440/epigenetic-aging-and-immune-senescence-in-women-with-insomnia-symptoms-findings-from-the-women-s-health-initiative-study
#15
Judith E Carroll, Michael R Irwin, Morgan Levine, Teresa E Seeman, Devin Absher, Themistocles Assimes, Steve Horvath
BACKGROUND: Insomnia symptoms are associated with vulnerability to age-related morbidity and mortality. Cross-sectional data suggest that accelerated biological aging may be a mechanism through which sleep influences risk. A novel method for determining age acceleration using epigenetic methylation to DNA has demonstrated predictive utility as an epigenetic clock and prognostic of age-related morbidity and mortality. METHODS: We examined the association of epigenetic age and immune cell aging with sleep in the Women's Health Initiative study (N = 2078; mean 64...
July 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644593/maintenance-of-age-in-human-neurons-generated-by-microrna-based-neuronal-conversion-of-fibroblasts
#16
Christine J Huh, Bo Zhang, Matheus B Victor, Sonika Dahiya, Luis Fz Batista, Steve Horvath, Andrew S Yoo
Aging is a major risk factor in many forms of late-onset neurodegenerative disorders. The ability to recapitulate age-related characteristics of human neurons in culture will offer unprecedented opportunities to study the biological processes underlying neuronal aging. Here, we show that using a recently demonstrated microRNA-based cellular reprogramming approach, human fibroblasts from postnatal to near centenarian donors can be efficiently converted into neurons that maintain multiple age-associated signatures...
September 20, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635233/circadian-influences-on-dopamine-circuits-of-the-brain-regulation-of-striatal-rhythms-of-clock-gene-expression-and-implications-for-psychopathology-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Michael Verwey, Sabine Dhir, Shimon Amir
Circadian clock proteins form an autoregulatory feedback loop that is central to the endogenous generation and transmission of daily rhythms in behavior and physiology. Increasingly, circadian rhythms in clock gene expression are being reported in diverse tissues and brain regions that lie outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock in mammals. For many of these extra-SCN rhythms, however, the region-specific implications are still emerging. In order to gain important insights into the potential behavioral, physiological, and psychological relevance of these daily oscillations, researchers have begun to focus on describing the neurochemical, hormonal, metabolic, and epigenetic contributions to the regulation of these rhythms...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630617/the-ticking-of-the-epigenetic-clock-antipsychotic-drugs-in-old-age
#18
Adonis Sfera, Carolina Osorio, Luzmin Inderias, Michael Cummings
BACKGROUND: Exposed to antipsychotic drugs (APDs), older individuals with dementing illness are at risk of cerebrovascular adverse effects (CVAE), including sudden death. Transient microvascular dysfunctions are known to occur in younger persons exposed to APDs; however, they seldom progress to CVAE, suggesting that APDs alone are insufficient for engendering this untoward effect. It is, therefore, believed that a preexistent microvascular damage is necessary for CVAE to take place, but the exact nature of this lesion remains unclear...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511193/an-epigenetic-clock-analysis-of-race-ethnicity-sex-and-coronary-heart-disease
#19
Steve Horvath, Michael Gurven, Morgan E Levine, Benjamin C Trumble, Hillard Kaplan, Hooman Allayee, Beate R Ritz, Brian Chen, Ake T Lu, Tammy M Rickabaugh, Beth D Jamieson, Dianjianyi Sun, Shengxu Li, Wei Chen, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Maud Fagny, Michael S Kobor, Philip S Tsao, Alexander P Reiner, Kerstin L Edlefsen, Devin Absher, Themistocles L Assimes
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic biomarkers of aging (the "epigenetic clock") have the potential to address puzzling findings surrounding mortality rates and incidence of cardio-metabolic disease such as: (1) women consistently exhibiting lower mortality than men despite having higher levels of morbidity; (2) racial/ethnic groups having different mortality rates even after adjusting for socioeconomic differences; (3) the black/white mortality cross-over effect in late adulthood; and (4) Hispanics in the United States having a longer life expectancy than Caucasians despite having a higher burden of traditional cardio-metabolic risk factors...
August 11, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498152/epigenetic-drift-in-the-aging-genome-a-ten-year-follow-up-in-an-elderly-twin-cohort
#20
Qihua Tan, Bastiaan T Heijmans, Jacob V B Hjelmborg, Mette Soerensen, Kaare Christensen, Lene Christiansen
BACKGROUND: Current epigenetic studies on aging are dominated by the cross-sectional design that correlates subjects' ages or age groups with their measured epigenetic profiles. Such studies have been more aimed at age prediction or building up the epigenetic clock of age rather than focusing on the dynamic patterns in epigenetic changes during the aging process. METHODS: We performed an epigenome-wide association study of intra-individual longitudinal changes in DNA methylation at CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites measured in whole-blood samples of a cohort of 43 elderly twin pairs followed for 10 years (age at intake 73-82 years)...
August 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
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