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Epigenetic clock

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986235/alpha-synuclein-epigenetics-mitochondria-metabolism-calcium-traffic-circadian-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-integrated-strategy-for-management
#1
REVIEW
Oliver T Phillipson
The motor deficits which characterise the sporadic form of Parkinson's disease arise from age-related loss of a subset of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Although motor symptoms respond to dopamine replacement therapies, the underlying disease process remains. This review details some features of the progressive molecular pathology and proposes deployment of a combination of nutrients: R-lipoic acid, acetyl-L-carnitine, ubiquinol, melatonin (or receptor agonists) and vitamin D3, with the collective potential to slow progression of these features...
October 3, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960094/pan-cancer-analysis-reveals-presence-of-pronounced-dna-methylation-drift-in-cpg-island-methylator-phenotype-clusters
#2
Pawel Karpinski, Karolina Pesz, Maria M Sasiadek
AIM: To provide characteristics of major genomic correlates in CpG island methylator phenotype-high (CIMP-H) subgroups in relation to corresponding non-CIMP-H subgroups by use of phenotypic, DNA methylation and RNAseq data. MATERIALS & METHODS: Twenty-three datasets generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas project encompassing over 7200 unique samples were analyzed. We identified 23 CIMP-H clusters by use of unsupervised clustering. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: More than 90% of CIMP-H clusters were significantly associated with accelerated epigenetic mitotic clock, demethylation of enhancer sites, backbone and repetitive sequences...
September 29, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942711/epigenetic-drift-is-a-determinant-of-mammalian-lifespan
#3
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James Larrick
The epigenome, which controls cell identity and function, is not maintained with 100 percent fidelity in somatic animal cells. Errors in the maintenance of the epigenome lead to epigenetic drift, an important hallmark of aging. Numerous studies have described DNA methylation clocks that correlate epigenetic drift with increasing age. The question of how significant a role epigenetic drift plays in creating the phenotypes associated with aging remains open. A recent study describes a new DNA methylation clock that can be slowed by caloric restriction (CR) in a way that correlates with the degree of lifespan and healthspan extension conferred by CR, suggesting that epigenetic drift itself is a determinant of mammalian lifespan...
September 25, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932320/epigenetic-clocks-for-gestational-age-statistical-and-study-design-considerations
#4
Andrew J Simpkin, Matthew Suderman, Laura D Howe
In this letter to the editor, we highlight some concerns with a recently published method to estimate gestational age at delivery from DNA methylation data. We conduct novel analyses to highlight the implications of different choices in study design and statistical methods for the prediction of phenotypes from methylation data.
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928877/mechanisms-of-breast-cancer-in-shift-workers-dna-methylation-in-five-core-circadian-genes-in-nurses-working-night-shifts
#5
Johanna Samulin Erdem, Øivind Skare, Marte Petersen-Øverleir, Heidi Ødegaard Notø, Jenny-Anne S Lie, Edyta Reszka, Beata Pepłońska, Shanbeh Zienolddiny
Shift work has been suggested to be associated with breast cancer risk, and circadian disruption in shift workers is hypothesized as one of the mechanisms of increased cancer risk. There is, however, insufficient molecular evidence supporting this hypothesis. Using the quantitative methodology of pyrosequencing, epigenetic changes in 5-methyl cytosine (5mC) in five circadian genes CLOCK, BMAL1, CRY1, PER1 and PER2 in female nurses working night shift work (278 breast cancer cases, 280 controls) were analyzed...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889075/epigenetic-clock-analysis-in-long-term-meditators
#6
Raphaëlle Chaix, Maria Jesús Alvarez-López, Maud Fagny, Laure Lemee, Béatrice Regnault, Richard J Davidson, Antoine Lutz, Perla Kaliman
In this paper, we examined whether meditation practice influences the epigenetic clock, a strong and reproducible biomarker of biological aging, which is accelerated by cumulative lifetime stress and with age-related chronic diseases. Using the Illumina 450K array platform, we analyzed the DNA methylome from blood cells of long-term meditators and meditation-naïve controls to estimate their Intrinsic Epigenetic Age Acceleration (IEAA), using Horvath's calculator. IEAA was similar in both groups. However, controls showed a different IEAA trajectory with aging than meditators: older controls (age≥52) had significantly higher IEAAs compared with younger controls (age <52), while meditators were protected from this epigenetic aging effect...
August 31, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827677/exposure-to-violence-accelerates-epigenetic-aging-in-children
#7
Tanja Jovanovic, L Alexander Vance, Dorthie Cross, Anna K Knight, Varun Kilaru, Vasiliki Michopoulos, Torsten Klengel, Alicia K Smith
Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation, change reliably with age across the lifespan, such that DNA methylation can be used as an "epigenetic clock". This epigenetic clock can be used to predict age and age acceleration, which occurs when methylation-based prediction of age exceeds chronological age and has been associated with increased mortality. In the current study we examined epigenetic age acceleration using saliva samples collected from children between ages 6-13 (N = 101). Children's exposure to neighborhood violence and heart rate during a stressful task were assessed...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765524/bmal1-regulates-inflammatory-responses-in-macrophages-by-modulating-enhancer-rna-transcription
#8
Yumiko Oishi, Shinichiro Hayashi, Takayuki Isagawa, Motohiko Oshima, Atsushi Iwama, Shigeki Shimba, Hitoshi Okamura, Ichiro Manabe
Bmal1 (encoded by Arntl gene) is a core circadian clock gene that regulates various genes involved in circadian rhythm. Although Bmal1 is expressed rhythmically in macrophages, the role of Bmal1 in the regulation of their cellular function remains insufficiently understood. Here, we report that Bmal1 regulates time-dependent inflammatory responses following Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation by modulating enhancer activity. Global transcriptome analysis indicated that deletion of Arntl perturbed the time-dependent inflammatory responses elicited by TLR4 activation by Kdo2-lipid A (KLA)...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733336/dna-methylation-predicts-stroke-outcome-better-the-epigenetic-clock-is-ticking
#9
EDITORIAL
Liyong Wang, Guillaume Paré, Tatjana Rundek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731985/accelerated-dna-methylation-age-associations-with-ptsd-and-mortality
#10
Erika J Wolf, Mark W Logue, Tawni B Stoop, Steven A Schichman, Annjanette Stone, Naomi Sadeh, Jasmeet P Hayes, Mark W Miller
OBJECTIVE: Recently-developed indices of cellular age based on DNA methylation (DNAm) data, referred to as DNAm age, are being used to study factors that influence the rate of aging and the health correlates of these metrics of the epigenetic clock. This study evaluated associations between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and accelerated versus decelerated DNAm age among military veterans. We also examined if accelerated DNAm age predicted mortality over the course of a 6...
July 20, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720596/elongator-regulates-hypocotyl-growth-in-darkness-and-during-photomorphogenesis
#11
Magdalena Woloszynska, Olimpia Gagliardi, Filip Vandenbussche, Steven De Groeve, Luis Alonso Baez, Pia Neyt, Sabine Le Gall, Jorge Fung, Paloma Mas, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Mieke Van Lijsebettens
Elongator promotes RNA polymerase II-mediated transcript elongation through epigenetic activities such as histone acetylation. Elongator regulates growth, development, immune response, sensitivity to drought and abscisic acid. We demonstrate that elo mutants exhibit defective hypocotyl elongation but have a normal apical hook in darkness and are hyposensitive to light during photomorphogenesis. These elo phenotypes are supported by transcriptome changes, i.e. downregulation of circadian clock components, positive regulators of skoto- or photomorphogenesis, hormonal pathways and cell wall biogenesis-related factors...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682785/artificial-light-at-night-a-novel-lifestyle-risk-factor-for-metabolic-disorder-and-cancer-morbidity
#12
REVIEW
Abed E Zubidat, Abraham Haim
Both obesity and breast cancer are already recognized worldwide as the most common syndromes in our modern society. Currently, there is accumulating evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies suggesting that these syndromes are closely associated with circadian disruption. It has been suggested that melatonin (MLT) and the circadian clock genes both play an important role in the development of these syndromes. However, we still poorly understand the molecular mechanism underlying the association between circadian disruption and the modern health syndromes...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674522/desynchronization-of-circadian-clocks-in-cancer-a-metabolic-and-epigenetic-connection
#13
REVIEW
Kiran Padmanabhan, Marc Billaud
Circadian clocks are innate oscillators that drive daily rhythms in metabolism, physiology, and behavior. 24-h rhythms in gene expression, driven by core clock transcription factors, reflect the epigenetic state of the cell, which in turn is dictated by the metabolic environment. Cancer cells alter their metabolic state and gene expression and therefore are likely to tweak circadian clock function in their favor. Over the past decade, we have witnessed an extraordinary increase in systems-level studies that suggest intricate mechanistic links between the cellular metabolome and the circadian epigenome...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637423/the-relation-between-dna-methylation-patterns-and-serum-cytokine-levels-in-community-dwelling-adults-a-preliminary-study
#14
Chris P Verschoor, Lisa M McEwen, Vikas Kohli, Christina Wolfson, Dawn Me Bowdish, Parminder Raina, Michael S Kobor, Cynthia Balion
BACKGROUND: The levels of circulating cytokines fluctuate with age, acute illness, and chronic disease, and are predictive of mortality; this is also true for patterns of DNA (CpG) methylation. Given that immune cells are particularly sensitive to changes in the concentration of cytokines in their microenvironment, we hypothesized that serum levels of TNF, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 would correlate with genome-wide alterations in the DNA methylation levels of blood leukocytes. To test this, we evaluated community-dwelling adults (n = 14; 48-78 years old) recruited to a pilot study for the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), examining DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450 K BeadChip...
June 21, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615041/epigenetic-aging-clocks-in-mice-and-men
#15
Wolfgang Wagner
Epigenetic clocks provide powerful tools to evaluate nutritional, hormonal, and genetic effects on aging. What can we learn from differences between species in how these clocks tick?Please see related Research articles: http://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13059-017-1203-5 , http://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13059-017-1186-2 , http://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13059-017-1187-1 and http://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13059-017-1185-3...
June 14, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613964/early-and-late-onset-preeclampsia-and-the-dna-methylation-of-circadian-clock-and-clock-controlled-genes-in-placental-and-newborn-tissues
#16
C B van den Berg, I Chaves, E M Herzog, S P Willemsen, G T J van der Horst, R P M Steegers-Theunissen
The placenta is important in providing a healthy environment for the fetus and plays a central role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE). Fetal and placental developments are influenced by epigenetic programming. There is some evidence that PE is controlled to an altered circadian homeostasis. In a nested case-control study embedded in the Rotterdam Periconceptional Cohort, we obtained placental tissue, umbilical cord leukocytes (UCL), and human umbilical venous endothelial cells of 13 early-onset PE, 16 late-onset PE and 83 controls comprising 36 uncomplicated and 47 complicated pregnancies, i...
June 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590035/interindividual-epigenetic-variability-sound-or-noise
#17
REVIEW
J Ramón Tejedor, Mario F Fraga
Interindividual variability is an inherent characteristic of biological systems. Whereas the underlying molecular sources of interindividual variability remain poorly understood, recent work by Ecker et al. (Ecker S, Chen L, Pancaldi V, Bagger FO, et al. 2017. Genome Biol 18: 18.) sheds light on the characterization of this phenomenon in a complex biological scenario. By combining data from the BLUEPRINT Epigenome Project with a novel analytical approach, these authors were able to measure the degree of transcriptional and epigenetic variability across a wide panel of samples and types of immune cell...
July 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558655/the-common-transcriptional-subnetworks-of-the-grape-berry-skin-in-the-late-stages-of-ripening
#18
Ryan Ghan, Juli Petereit, Richard L Tillett, Karen A Schlauch, David Toubiana, Aaron Fait, Grant R Cramer
BACKGROUND: Wine grapes are important economically in many countries around the world. Defining the optimum time for grape harvest is a major challenge to the grower and winemaker. Berry skins are an important source of flavor, color and other quality traits in the ripening stage. Senescent-like processes such as chloroplast disorganization and cell death characterize the late ripening stage. RESULTS: To better understand the molecular and physiological processes involved in the late stages of berry ripening, RNA-seq analysis of the skins of seven wine grape cultivars (Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc and Semillon) was performed...
May 30, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516429/cardinal-epigenetic-role-of-non-coding-regulatory-rnas-in-circadian-rhythm
#19
REVIEW
Utpal Bhadra, Pradipta Patra, Manika Pal-Bhadra
Circadian rhythm which governs basic physiological activities like sleeping, feeding and energy consumption is regulated by light-controlled central clock genes in the pacemaker neuron. The timekeeping machinery with unique transcriptional and post-transcriptional feedback loops is controlled by different small regulatory RNAs in the brain. Roles of the multiple neuronal genes, especially post-transcriptional regulation, splicing, polyadenylation, mature mRNA editing, and stability of translation products, are controlled by epigenetic activities orchestrated via small RNAs...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503212/associations-between-maternal-risk-factors-of-adverse-pregnancy-and-birth-outcomes-and-the-offspring-epigenetic-clock-of-gestational-age-at-birth
#20
Polina Girchenko, Jari Lahti, Darina Czamara, Anna K Knight, Meaghan J Jones, Anna Suarez, Esa Hämäläinen, Eero Kajantie, Hannele Laivuori, Pia M Villa, Rebecca M Reynolds, Michael S Kobor, Alicia K Smith, Elisabeth B Binder, Katri Räikkönen
BACKGROUND: A recent study has shown that it is possible to accurately estimate gestational age (GA) at birth from the DNA methylation (DNAm) of fetal umbilical cord blood/newborn blood spots. This DNAm GA predictor may provide additional information relevant to developmental stage. In 814 mother-neonate pairs, we evaluated the associations between DNAm GA and a number of maternal and offspring characteristics. These characteristics reflect prenatal environmental adversity and are expected to influence newborn developmental stage...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
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