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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351121/probing-the-quantum-states-of-a-single-atom-transistor-at-microwave-frequencies
#1
Giuseppe Carlo Tettamanzi, Samuel James Hile, Matthew Gregory House, Martin Fuechsle, Sven Rogge, Michelle Y Simmons
The ability to apply gigahertz frequencies to control the quantum state of a single P atom is an essential requirement for the fast gate pulsing needed for qubit control in donor-based silicon quantum computation. Here, we demonstrate this with nanosecond accuracy in an all epitaxial single atom transistor by applying excitation signals at frequencies up to ≈13 GHz to heavily phosphorus-doped silicon leads. These measurements allow the differentiation between the excited states of the single atom and the density of states in the one-dimensional leads...
March 28, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351045/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-macular-edema
#2
Marco Lupidi, Florence Coscas, Carlo Cagini, Gabriel Coscas
OCT angiography is a promising new method to visualize the retinal vasculature and choroidal vascular layers in the macular area and provides depth resolved functional information of the blood flow in the vessels. Given that the main moving elements in the eye fundus are contained in vessels, determining a vascular decorrelation signal enables visualization of 3-dimensional retinal and choroidal vascular network without the administration of intravenous dye and thus reducing the risk of potential adverse events...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350871/oxygen-tension-regulates-the-mirna-profile-and-bioactivity-of-exosomes-released-from-extravillous-trophoblast-cells-liquid-biopsies-for-monitoring-complications-of-pregnancy
#3
Grace Truong, Dominic Guanzon, Vyjayanthi Kinhal, Omar Elfeky, Andrew Lai, Sherri Longo, Zarin Nuzhat, Carlos Palma, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Ramkumar Menon, Ben W Mol, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon
Our understanding of how cells communicate has undergone a paradigm shift since the recent recognition of the role of exosomes in intercellular signaling. In this study, we investigated whether oxygen tension alters the exosome release and miRNA profile from extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells, modifying their bioactivity on endothelial cells (EC). Furthermore, we have established the exosomal miRNA profile at early gestation in women who develop pre-eclampsia (PE) and spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). HTR-8/SVneo cells were used as an EVT model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350821/neuropathological-diagnoses-and-clinical-correlates-in-older-adults-in-brazil-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Claudia K Suemoto, Renata E L Ferretti-Rebustini, Roberta D Rodriguez, Renata E P Leite, Luciana Soterio, Sonia M D Brucki, Raphael R Spera, Tarcila M Cippiciani, Jose M Farfel, Alexandre Chiavegatto Filho, Michel Satya Naslavsky, Mayana Zatz, Carlos A Pasqualucci, Wilson Jacob-Filho, Ricardo Nitrini, Lea T Grinberg
BACKGROUND: Clinicopathological studies are important in determining the brain lesions underlying dementia. Although almost 60% of individuals with dementia live in developing countries, few clinicopathological studies focus on these individuals. We investigated the frequency of neurodegenerative and vascular-related neuropathological lesions in 1,092 Brazilian admixed older adults, their correlation with cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the accuracy of dementia subtype diagnosis...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350819/development-and-application-of-a-taqman-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-genotyping-assay-to-study-infectious-laryngotracheitis-virus-recombination-in-the-natural-host
#5
Carlos A Loncoman, Carol A Hartley, Mauricio J C Coppo, Paola K Vaz, Andrés Diaz-Méndez, Glenn F Browning, Sang-Won Lee, Joanne M Devlin
To date, recombination between different strains of the avian alphaherpesvirus infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) has only been detected in field samples using full genome sequencing and sequence analysis. These previous studies have revealed that natural recombination is widespread in ILTV and have demonstrated that recombination between two attenuated ILTV vaccine strains generated highly virulent viruses that produced widespread disease within poultry flocks in Australia. In order to better understand ILTV recombination, this study developed a TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay to detect recombination between two field strains of ILTV (CSW-1 and V1-99 ILTV) under experimental conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350816/multi-channel-mri-segmentation-of-eye-structures-and-tumors-using-patient-specific-features
#6
Carlos Ciller, Sandro De Zanet, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Philippe Maeder, Ben Glocker, Francis L Munier, Daniel Rueckert, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Raphael Sznitman
Retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma are fast spreading eye tumors usually diagnosed by using 2D Fundus Image Photography (Fundus) and 2D Ultrasound (US). Diagnosis and treatment planning of such diseases often require additional complementary imaging to confirm the tumor extend via 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In this context, having automatic segmentations to estimate the size and the distribution of the pathological tissue would be advantageous towards tumor characterization. Until now, the alternative has been the manual delineation of eye structures, a rather time consuming and error-prone task, to be conducted in multiple MRI sequences simultaneously...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350702/dose-conversion-coefficients-based-on-taiwanese-reference-phantoms-and-monte-carlo-simulations-for-use-in-external-radiation-protection
#7
Shu-Jun Chang, Jui-Ting Hsu, Shih-Yen Hung, Yan-Lin Liu, Shiang-Huei Jiang, Jay Wu
Reference phantoms are widely applied to evaluate the radiation dose for external exposure. However, the frequently used reference phantoms are based on Caucasians. Dose estimation for Asians using a Caucasian phantom can result in significant errors. This study recruited 40 volunteers whose body sizes are close to the average Taiwanese population. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to obtain the organ volume for construction of the Taiwanese reference man (TRM) and Taiwanese reference woman (TRW). The dose conversion coefficients (DCC) resulting from photo beams in anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, right-lateral, left-lateral, and isotropic irradiation geometries were estimated...
May 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350698/gamma-ray-dose-from-an-overhead-plume
#8
Michael W McNaughton, Jessica M Gillis, Elizabeth Ruedig, Jeffrey J Whicker, David P Fuehne
Standard plume models can underestimate the gamma-ray dose when most of the radioactive material is above the heads of the receptors. Typically, a model is used to calculate the air concentration at the height of the receptor, and the dose is calculated by multiplying the air concentration by a concentration-to-dose conversion factor. Models indicate that if the plume is emitted from a stack during stable atmospheric conditions, the lower edges of the plume may not reach the ground, in which case both the ground-level concentration and the dose are usually reported as zero...
May 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350696/monte-carlo-simulations-comparing-the-response-of-a-novel-hemispherical-tepc-to-existing-spherical-and-cylindrical-tepcs-for-neutron-monitoring-and-dosimetry
#9
David P Broughton, Anthony J Waker
Neutron dosimetry in reactor fields is currently mainly conducted with unwieldy flux monitors. Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPCs) have been shown to have the potential to improve the accuracy of neutron dosimetry in these fields, and Multi-Element Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counters (METEPCs) could reduce the size of instrumentation required to do so. Complexity of current METEPC designs has inhibited their use beyond research. This work proposes a novel hemispherical counter with a wireless anode ball in place of the traditional anode wire as a possible solution for simplifying manufacturing...
May 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350632/30-day-readmission-after-spine-surgery-an-analysis-of-1400-consecutive-spine-surgery-patients
#10
Owoicho Adogwa, Aladine A Elsamadicy, Jing L Han, Isaac O Karikari, Joseph Cheng, Carlos A Bagley
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort review. OBJECTIVE: To identify the rates, causes, and risk factors for 30-day unplanned readmissions in after elective spine surgery at our institution. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Early readmission after spine surgery is being used as a proxy for quality of care. One-fifth of patients are rehospitalized within 30 days after spine surgery. Nearly 60% of these readmissions are unplanned, which translates into billions of dollars in healthcare costs...
April 1, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350619/genetic-determinants-of-essential-hypertension-in-the-population-of-tatars-from-russia
#11
Yanina Timasheva, Timur Nasibullin, Elvira Imaeva, Vera Erdman, Ilsiyar Tuktarova, Olga Mustafina
OBJECTIVE: Systemic inflammation and impaired function of endothelium play an important role in the development of hypertension. Our study aimed to analyze an association between essential hypertension and polymorphic markers in candidate genes in the group of 530 Tatars from the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia. METHODS: The study group consisted of 216 male patients with essential hypertension (mean age 48.92 ± 8.8 years) and 314 healthy individuals of corresponding sex and age without history of cardiovascular disease...
May 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350577/reliability-of-heart-rate-as-neuroadrenergic-marker-in-the-metabolic-syndrome
#12
Fosca Quarti Trevano, Gino Seravalle, Mario Macchiarulo, Paolo Villa, Carlo Valena, Raffaella Dell'Oro, Giuseppe Mancia, Guido Grassi
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a pronounced sympathetic overactivity as documented by the marked increase in muscle sympathetic nerve traffic (MSNA) as well as in plasma norepinephrine values reported in this condition. Whether and to what extent heart rate (HR) reflects the abovementioned adrenergic alterations in metabolic syndrome remains largely undefined. It is also undefined the validity of the abovementioned adrenergic markers in reflecting the main features of the metabolic syndrome...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350546/comparing-stochastic-proton-interactions-simulated-using-topas-nbio-to-experimental-data-from-fluorescent-nuclear-track-detectors
#13
T S A Underwood, W Sung, C H McFadden, S J McMahon, D C Hall, A L McNamara, H Paganetti, G O Sawakuchi, J Schuemann
Whilst Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of proton energy deposition have been well-validated at the macroscopic level, their microscopic validation remains lacking. Equally, no gold-standard yet exists for experimental metrology of individual proton tracks. In this work we compare the distributions of stochastic proton interactions simulated using the TOPAS-nBio MC platform against confocal microscope data for Al2O3:C,Mg fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs). We irradiated [Formula: see text] mm(3) FNTD chips inside a water phantom, positioned at seven positions along a pristine proton Bragg peak with a range in water of 12 cm...
April 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350545/reliability-of-dose-volume-constraint-inference-from-clinical-data
#14
C M Lutz, D S Møller, L Hoffmann, M M Knap, M Alber
Dose volume histogram points (DVHPs) frequently serve as dose constraints in radiotherapy treatment planning. An experiment was designed to investigate the reliability of DVHP inference from clinical data for multiple cohort sizes and complication incidence rates. The experimental background was radiation pneumonitis in non-small cell lung cancer and the DVHP inference method was based on logistic regression. From 102 NSCLC real-life dose distributions and a postulated DVHP model, an 'ideal' cohort was generated where the most predictive model was equal to the postulated model...
April 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346831/anxiety-and-depression-as-longitudinal-predictors-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-older-adults
#15
Antônio Carlos Cruz Freire, Milena Pereira Pondé, Aihua Liu, Jean Caron
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have dealt with the potential correlation between anxiety, depression, and cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults. METHOD: This longitudinal study was conducted in the city of Montreal, Canada, with 352 older adults aged 55 years or more. The participants were interviewed at baseline and again 2 years later. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score was estimated and compared between the 2 time points, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess major depression and anxiety, and the K10 measured high psychological distress...
January 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346791/hydroxy-directed-enantioselective-hydroxyalkylation-in-the-carbocyclic-ring-of-indoles
#16
Marc Montesinos-Magraner, Carlos Vila, Gonzalo Blay, Isabel Fernández, M Carmen Muñoz, José R Pedro
A Cinchona-derived squaramide catalyzes the reaction between hydroxyindoles and isatins leading to enantioenriched indoles substituted in the carbocyclic ring. The reaction proceeds efficiently with differently substituted isatins, yielding the desired products with excellent regioselectivity, good yields, and high enantiocontrol. Moreover, every position of the carbocyclic ring of the indole can be functionalized by using the appropriate starting hydroxyindole. The OH group was removed smoothly upon hydrogenolysis of the corresponding triflate...
March 27, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346590/implementation-and-evaluation-of-a-large-scale-teleretinal-diabetic-retinopathy-screening-program-in-the-los-angeles-county-department-of-health-services
#17
Lauren P Daskivich, Carolina Vasquez, Carlos Martinez, Chi-Hong Tseng, Carol M Mangione
Importance: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in adults of working age in the United States. In the Los Angeles County safety net, a nonvertically integrated system serving underinsured and uninsured patients, the prevalence of DR is approximately 50%, and owing to limited specialty care resources, the average wait times for screening for DR have been 8 months or more. Objective: To determine whether a primary care-based teleretinal DR screening (TDRS) program reduces wait times for screening and improves timeliness of needed care in the Los Angeles County safety net...
March 27, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346546/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-multilocus-sequence-typing-of-mycoplasma-capricolum-subsp-capricolum
#18
Juan Tatay-Dualde, Miranda Prats-van der Ham, Christian de la Fe, Ana Paterna, Antonio Sánchez, Juan Carlos Corrales, Antonio Contreras, Sebastiana Tola, Ángel Gómez-Martin
Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum is one of the causative agents of contagious agalactia (CA). Nevertheless, there is still a lack of information about its antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characteristics. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial and genetic variability of different Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum field isolates. For this purpose, the growth inhibition effect of 18 antimicrobials and a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme based on five housekeeping genes (fusA, glpQ, gyrB, lepA and rpoB) were performed on 32 selected field isolates from Italy and Spain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346531/the-prevalence-of-trichomoniasis-and-associated-factors-among-women-treated-at-a-university-hospital-in-southern-brazil
#19
Fabiane Aguiar Dos Anjos Gatti, Etienne Ceolan, Fernando Salles Rodrigues Greco, Paula Costa Santos, Gabriel Baracy Klafke, Gisele Rodrigues de Oliveira, Andrea Von Groll, Ana Maria Barral de Martinez, Carla Vitola Gonçalves, Carlos James Scaini
BACKGROUND: Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the world; however, it remains a neglected parasitic disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of trichomoniasis and its associated epidemiological factors among women treated at a hospital in southern Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence of this infection in women treated at Hospital Universitário (HU) in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between January 2012 and January 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346507/olive-oil-bioactives-protect-pigs-against-experimentally-induced-chronic-inflammation-independently-of-alterations-in-gut-microbiota
#20
Martin Liehr, Alessandro Mereu, Jose Javier Pastor, Jose Carlos Quintela, Stefanie Staats, Gerald Rimbach, Ignacio Rodolfo Ipharraguerre
Subclinical chronic inflammation (SCI) is associated with impaired animal growth. Previous work has demonstrated that olive-derived plant bioactives exhibit anti-inflammatory properties that could possibly counteract the growth-depressing effects of SCI. To test this hypothesis and define the underlying mechanism, we conducted a 30-day study in which piglets fed an olive-oil bioactive extract (OBE) and their control counterparts (C+) were injected repeatedly during the last 10 days of the study with increasing doses of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce SCI...
2017: PloS One
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