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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228368/the-oncolytic-virus-mg1-targets-and-eliminates-latently-hiv-1-infected-cells-implications-for-an-hiv-cure
#1
Nischal Ranganath, Teslin S Sandstrom, Stephanie C Burke Schinkel, Sandra C Côté, Jonathan B Angel
Latently HIV-infected cells evade immune- and drug-mediated clearance. These cells harbour intracellular signalling defects including impairment of the antiviral, type I IFN (IFN-I) response. Such defects have also been observed in several cancers, and have been exploited for the development of therapeutic oncolytic viruses, including the recombinant Maraba virus (MG1). We therefore hypothesized that MG1 would infect and eliminate latently HIV-1-infected cells, while sparing healthy uninfected cells. Preferential infection and elimination by MG1 was first demonstrated in latently HIV-1-infected cell lines...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228279/in-vitro-model-of-fully-differentiated-human-nasal-epithelial-cells-infected-with-rhinovirus-reveals-epithelium-initiated-immune-responses
#2
Kai Sen Tan, Hsiao Hui Ong, Yan Yan, Jing Liu, Chunwei Li, Yew Kwang Ong, Kim Thye Thong, Hyung Won Choi, De-Yun Wang, Vincent T Chow
Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the commonest cause of the common cold. While less pathogenic compared to other respiratory viruses, it is frequently associated with exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases such as rhinosinusitis and asthma exacerbation. Currently, there are limited studies on HRV infection of nasal epithelial cells despite being the first site of viral contact, immune initiation, and airway inter-connectivity. Hence, we established a model of HRV infection of in vitro differentiated human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs) derived from multiple individuals...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228214/oestrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-ligand-acts-on-cd11c-cells-to-mediate-protection-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#3
Roy Y Kim, Darian Mangu, Alexandria S Hoffman, Rojan Kovash, Eunice Jung, Noriko Itoh, Rhonda Voskuhl
Oestrogen treatments are neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative disease models. Selective oestrogen receptor modifiers are needed to optimize beneficial effects while minimizing adverse effects to achieve neuroprotection in chronic diseases. Oestrogen receptor beta (ERβ) ligands are potential candidates. In the multiple sclerosis model chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, ERβ-ligand treatment is neuroprotective, but mechanisms underlying this neuroprotection remain unclear. Specifically, whether there are direct effects of ERβ-ligand on CD11c+ microglia, myeloid dendritic cells or macrophages in vivo during disease is unknown...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228031/transcriptional-profiling-of-pbmcs-unravels-b-cell-mediated-immunopathogenic-imprints-of-hcv-vasculitis
#4
Emily Comstock, Cheol-Woo Kim, Alison Murphy, Benjamin Emmanuel, Xi Zhang, Michael Sneller, Bhawna Poonia, Shyamasundaran Kottilil
B cell depletion therapy using rituximab has been shown to be effective in achieving remission in patients with HCV-mixed cryoglobulinemic (MC) vasculitis. Previously, we have demonstrated abnormalities in peripheral immune cells involving neutrophils, chemotaxis, and innate immune activation among patients with HCV-MC vasculitis when compared to HCV patients without vasculitis. In this study, we evaluated the effect of B cell depletion therapy on transcriptional profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and after riruximab therapy, in order to unravel the pathogenic mechanism involved in HCV-MC vasculitis induced by abnormal B cell proliferation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228007/conjugation-of-nitrated-acetaminophen-to-der-p1-amplifies-peripheral-blood-monocyte-response-to-der-p1
#5
Ryan G Thomas, Brenda M Rivera Reyes, Benjamin M Gaston, Nelki B Rivera Acosta, Ilya R Bederman, Laura A Smith, Morgan T Sutton, Benlian Wang, John F Hunt, Tracey L Bonfield
BACKGROUND: An association of acetaminophen use and asthma was observed in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study. However there are no clear mechanisms to explain an association between acetaminophen use and immunologic pathology. In acidic conditions like those in the stomach and inflamed airway, tyrosine residues are nitrated by nitrous and peroxynitrous acids. The resulting nitrotyrosine is structurally similar to 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, known haptens that enhance immune responses by covalently binding proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227812/overexpression-of-arginase-1-is-linked-to-dnmt3a-and-tet2-mutations-in-lower-grade-myelodysplastic-syndromes-and-chronic-myelomonocytic-leukemia
#6
A H Cull, D Mahendru, B Snetsinger, D Good, K Tyryshkin, A Chesney, Z Ghorab, M Reis, R Buckstein, R A Wells, M J Rauh
Immune dysregulation is a common feature of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), particularly in early stages. However, the genetic basis remains poorly understood. We recently reported that macrophages from mice deficient in tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (Tet2), a model of MDS/CMML, are hyperinflammatory and have increased expression of arginase 1 (Arg1). In macrophages and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) expression of Arg1 contributes to T-cell suppression and immune evasion by L-arginine depletion, in the setting of chronic inflammation and cancer...
December 6, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227581/aging-of-lymphoid-organs-can-photobiomodulation-reverse-age-associated-thymic-involution-via-stimulation-of-extrapineal-melatonin-synthesis-and-bone-marrow-stem-cells
#7
REVIEW
Denis Odinokov, Michael R Hamblin
Thymic atrophy and the subsequent reduction in T cell production are the most noticeable age-related changes affecting lymphoid organs in the immune system. In fact thymic involution has been described as "programmed aging". New therapeutic approaches such as photobiomodulation (PBM) may reduce or reverse these changes. PBM (also known as low-level laser therapy or LLLT) involves the delivery of non-thermal levels of red or near-infrared light that are absorbed by mitochondrial chromophores, in order to prevent tissue death and stimulate healing and regeneration...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227540/human-t-lymphotropic-virus-1-htlv-1-pathogenesis-a-systems-virology-study
#8
Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani, Mohadeseh Zarei Ghobadi, Majid Teymoori-Rad, Talat Mokhtari Azad, Mehdi Mirzaie, Mohsen Sheikhi, Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri, Ramin Shabahrami, Hedayatollah Ghourchian, Mohieddin Jafari, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Mehdi Norouzi
The main mechanisms of interaction between Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and its hosts in manifestation of related diseases including HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) are yet to be determined. It is pivotal to find out the changes in the genes expression toward an asymptomatic or symptomatic states. To this end, the systems virology analysis was performed. Firstly, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were taken pairwise among the four sample sets of Normal, Asymptomatic Carriers (ACs), ATLL, and HAM/TSP...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227356/novel-advances-on-tissue-immune-dynamics-in-hiv-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-lessons-from-imaging-studies
#9
Eirini Moysi, Kartika Padhan, Giulia Fabozzi, Constantinos Petrovas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent findings on the effect of HIV/SIV infection on lymph node viral and T-cell dynamics using imaging-based methodologies. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic infection, particularly HIV/SIV, alters dramatically the microenvironment, immune cell frequency, distribution, function and tissue organization of secondary lymphoid tissues. These changes are not always reversible. Over the past few years, the implementation of advanced imaging protocols on human lymph node biopsies as well as on longitudinal lymphoid tissues samples from nonhuman primates (NHP) have provided a wealth of information on how local immune responses evolve over time in response to a persisting retroviral pathogen...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227354/current-views-on-the-pathogenesis-of-sjgren-s-syndrome
#10
Elena Pontarini, Davide Lucchesi, Michele Bombardieri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of primary Sjgren's Syndrome (pSS), highlighting recent findings with potential therapeutic repercussions. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last 2 years, epigenetic analyses provided new insights into pSS pathogenesis. Characterization of DNA methylation patterns, chromatin structures and microRNA confirmed the importance of aberrant interferon and B-cell responses in the development of the disease...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227304/cell-based-immunotherapy-in-gynecologic-malignancies
#11
Bruce Schaar, Venkatesh Krishnan, Supreeti Tallapragada, Oliver Dorigo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of the principles, safety and efficacy of adoptive cell therapy (ACT) in solid tumors particularly in gynecological cancers. RECENT FINDINGS: Efforts to target solid tumors using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and genetically modified T cells have shown promising efficacy in some patients. Two food and drug administration approvals for the treatment of leukemia are the first gene therapies available for cancer treatment in the United States...
December 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227275/antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-georgian-leguminous-crops-cultures
#12
I Chkhikvishvili, T Mamniashvili, N Gogia, M Enukidze, M Machavariani, T Sanikidze
The aim of the study was to identify the common in Georgia leguminous crops culture with pronounced antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity. The primary evaluation of the antiinflammatory effects of beans was performed on the experimental models of MDCK and Jurkat cells model systems. Extracts of various varieties of legumes (Beans "Kidney", Meadow beans, Beans Shulavera, Batumian beans, Beans "Udelebi", green peas, peas Shulavera, lentils Lens Culinaris, Soy) were added to the intact or incubated under oxidative stress conditions Jurkat and MDCK cells...
November 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226910/towards-personalized-tumour-specific-therapeutic-vaccines-for-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Zhuting Hu, Patrick A Ott, Catherine J Wu
Cancer vaccines, which are designed to amplify tumour-specific T cell responses through active immunization, have long been envisioned as a key tool of effective cancer immunotherapy. Despite a clear rationale for such vaccines, extensive past efforts were unsuccessful in mediating clinically relevant antitumour activity in humans. Recently, however, next-generation sequencing and novel bioinformatics tools have enabled the systematic discovery of tumour neoantigens, which are highly desirable immunogens because they arise from somatic mutations of the tumour and are therefore tumour specific...
December 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226764/chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells-in-refractory-b-cell-lymphomas
#14
Stephen J Schuster, Jakub Svoboda, Elise A Chong, Sunita D Nasta, Anthony R Mato, Özlem Anak, Jennifer L Brogdon, Iulian Pruteanu-Malinici, Vijay Bhoj, Daniel Landsburg, Mariusz Wasik, Bruce L Levine, Simon F Lacey, Jan J Melenhorst, David L Porter, Carl H June
Background Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or follicular lymphoma that is refractory to or that relapses after immunochemotherapy and transplantation have a poor prognosis. High response rates have been reported with the use of T cells modified by chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that target CD19 in B-cell cancers, although data regarding B-cell lymphomas are limited. Methods We used autologous T cells that express a CD19-directed CAR (CTL019) to treat patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or follicular lymphoma that had relapsed or was refractory to previous treatments...
December 10, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226722/the-use-of-databases-data-mining-and-immunoinformatics-in-vaccinology-where-are-we
#15
Nagendra R Hegde, S Gauthami, H M Sampath Kumar, Jagadeesh Bayry
Vaccinology has evolved from a sub-discipline focussed on simplistic vaccine development based on antibody-mediated protection to a separate discipline involving epidemiology, host and pathogen biology, immunology, genomics, proteomics, structure biology, protein engineering, chemical biology, and delivery systems. Data mining in combination with bioinformatics has provided a scaffold linking all these disciplines to the design of vaccines and vaccine adjuvants. Areas covered: This review provides background knowledge on immunological aspects which have been exploited with informatics for the in silico analysis of immune responses and the design of vaccine antigens...
December 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226611/enhancing-the-stability-and-immunomodulatory-activity-of-liposomal-spherical-nucleic-acids-through-lipid-tail-dna-modifications
#16
Brian Meckes, Resham J Banga, SonBinh T Nguyen, Chad A Mirkin
Liposomal spherical nucleic acids (LSNAs) are an attractive therapeutic platform for gene regulation and immunomodulation due to their biocompatibility, chemically tunable structures, and ability to enter cells rapidly without the need for ancillary transfection agents. Such structures consist of small (<100 nm) liposomal cores functionalized with a dense, highly oriented nucleic acid shell, both of which are key components in facilitating their biological activity. Here, the properties of LSNAs synthesized using conventional methods, anchoring cholesterol terminated oligonucleotides into a liposomal core, are compared to LSNAs made by directly modifying the surface of a liposomal core containing azide-functionalized lipids with dibenzocyclooctyl-terminated oligonucleotides...
December 11, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226387/systemic-sclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Yoshihide Asano
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem autoimmune disease characterized by vasculopathy and tissue fibrosis of the skin and various internal organs. A series of genetic and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that SSc onset is determined by the accumulation of predisposing factors related to environmental influences, while genetic factors affect the susceptibility to and the severity of this disease. This notion has been confirmed by recent advance in animal models. The initial trigger of SSc is believed to be autoimmune attacks to endothelial cells, which occur in individuals with the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases and/or the cumulative exposure to certain SSc-related environmental influences...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226183/in-vitro-homeostatic-proliferation-of-human-cd8-t-cells
#18
Hossam A Abdelsamed, Caitlin C Zebley, Ben Youngblood
Long-lived T-cell-mediated immunity requires persistence of memory T cells in an antigen-free environment while also maintaining a heightened capacity to recall effector functions. Such antigen-independent homeostatic proliferation is mediated in part by the common gamma-chain cytokines IL-7 and IL-15. To further explore the mechanisms governing maintenance of effector functions in long-lived memory T cells during antigen-independent proliferation, human naïve and memory CD8 T cells can be sorted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), labeled with the proliferation-tracking dye carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), and then purified based on their levels of cell division...
November 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226090/inhibition-of-il-18-mediated-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-accumulation-enhances-anti-pd1-efficacy-against-osteosarcoma-cancer
#19
Ying Guan, Rui Zhang, Zhibin Peng, Daming Dong, Guojun Wei, Yansong Wang
Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are very important in tumor immune evasion and they dramatically increased in peripheral blood of patients with osteosarcoma cancer. The association between MDSC and various cytokines has been studied in the peripheral blood. However, little is known about the mechanism drawing MDSC into tumor parenchyma. This study was to analyze the correlation between MDSC subsets and interleukin 18 (IL-18) level in osteosarcoma tumor model and its effect on the immunotherapy. MDSC were isolated from the blood and parenchyma and analyzed in the osteosarcoma tumor model...
November 2017: Journal of Bone Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226015/conserved-hiv-epitopes-for-an-effective-hiv-vaccine
#20
Bikash Sahay, Cuong Q Nguyen, Janet K Yamamoto
Despite major advances in antiretroviral therapy against HIV-1, an effective HIV vaccine is urgently required to reduce the number of new cases of HIV infections in the world. Vaccines are the ultimate tool in the medical arsenal to control and prevent the spread of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS. Several failed phase-IIb to -III clinical vaccine trials against HIV-1 in the past generated a plethora of information that could be used for better designing of an effective HIV vaccine in the future. Most of the tested vaccine candidates produced strong humoral responses against the HIV proteins; however, failed to protect due to: 1) the low levels and the narrow breadth of the HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies and the HIV-specific antibody-dependent Fc-mediated effector activities, 2) the low levels and the poor quality of the anti-HIV T-cell responses, and 3) the excessive responses to immunodominant non-protective HIV epitopes, which in some cases blocked the protective immunity and/or enhanced HIV infection...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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