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T cell immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679650/cmv-seronegative-donors-effect-on-clinical-severity-of-cmv-infection-and-reconstitution-of-cmv-specific-immunity
#1
P L J van der Heiden, H M van Egmond, S A J Veld, M van de Meent, M Eefting, L C de Wreede, C J M Halkes, J H F Falkenburg, W A F Marijt, I Jedema
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T-cells are crucial to prevent CMV disease. CMV seropositive recipients transplanted with stem cells from a CMV seronegative allogeneic donor (R+ D- ) may be at risk for CMV disease due to absence of donor CMV-specific memory T-cells in the graft. METHODS: We analyzed the duration of CMV reactivations and the incidence of CMV disease in R+ D- and R+ D+ patients after alemtuzumab-based T-cell depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation (TCD alloSCT)...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679611/control-of-t-cell-effector-functions-by-mirnas
#2
Daniel P Inácio, Tiago Amado, Bruno Silva-Santos, Anita Q Gomes
The differentiation of effector T cells is a tightly regulated process that relies on the selective expression of lineage-defining master regulators that orchestrate unique transcriptional programs, including the production of distinct sets of effector cytokines. miRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators that are now viewed as critical players in these gene expression networks and help defining cell identity and function. This review summarises the role of individual miRNAs in the regulation of the differentiation of effector T cell subsets, including CD4+ T helper cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and innate-like NKT cells...
April 18, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679556/a-novel-smac-mimetic-apg-1387-exhibited-dual-antitumor-effect-on-hbv-positive-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-high-expression-of-ciap2-by-inducing-apoptosis-and-enhancing-innate-anti-tumor-immunity
#3
Wentao Pan, Qiuyun Luo, Xianglei Yan, Luping Yuan, Hanjie Yi, Lin Zhang, Baoxia Li, Yuxin Zhang, Jian Sun, Miao-Zhen Qiu, Da-Jun Yang
Check point inhibitor anti-PD1 antibody produced some efficacy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) patients previously treated with sorafenib. Unfortunately, HCC patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection did not respond as well as uninfected patients. Previously, SMAC mimetics-the antagonist for inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) can rapidly reduce serum hepatitis B virus DNA in animal model. APG-1387 is a novel SMAC-mimetic, small molecule inhibitor targeting inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs)...
April 18, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679373/cytokine-producing-b-cells-promote-immune-mediated-bile-duct-injury-in-murine-biliary-atresia
#4
Joseph Bednarek, Brianna Traxinger, Dania Brigham, Jonathan Roach, David Orlicky, Dong Wang, Roberta Pelanda, Cara L Mack
Biliary atresia (BA) is a neonatal T cell-mediated inflammatory, sclerosing cholangiopathy. In the Rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-induced neonatal mouse model of BA (murine BA), mice lacking B cells do not develop BA, and the lack of B cells is associated with loss of T cell and macrophage activation. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of B cell-mediated immune activation (antigen presentation versus cytokine production) in murine BA. RESULTS: Normal neonatal B cells in the liver are predominantly at pro-B and pre-B cellular development...
April 20, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679127/-basic-principles-of-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-gliomas
#5
REVIEW
H-G Wirsching, T Weiss, P Roth, M Weller
BACKGROUND: Traditionally, gliomas were classified based on histopathological features alone. The revised World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system from 2016 integrated molecular features into the histopathological diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To summarize key aspects of the WHO classification from 2016 and implications for the clinical management of glioma patients. An overview of novel treatment approaches is also provided...
April 20, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678951/cyclooxygenase-1-and-2-play-contrasting-roles-in-listeria-stimulated-immunity
#6
Erin Theisen, Courtney E McDougal, Masako Nakanishi, David M Stevenson, Daniel Amador-Noguez, Daniel W Rosenberg, Laura J Knoll, John-Demian Sauer
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and are commonly used for pain relief and fever reduction. NSAIDs are used following childhood vaccinations and cancer immunotherapies; however, how NSAIDs influence the development of immunity following these therapies is unknown. We hypothesized that NSAIDs would modulate the development of an immune response to Listeria monocytogenes -based immunotherapy. Treatment of mice with the nonspecific COX inhibitor indomethacin impaired the generation of cell-mediated immunity...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678881/regulation-of-c-c-chemokine-receptor-5-ccr5-stability-by-lys-197-and-by-transmembrane-protein-aptamers-that-target-it-for-lysosomal-degradation
#7
Lisa M Petti, Sara A Marlatt, Yong Luo, Elizabeth H Scheideman, Ashish Shelar, Daniel DiMaio
C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a cell surface-associated, immune-regulatory G protein-coupled receptor (GCPR) with seven transmembrane helices. We previously reported the isolation and initial characterization of short artificial transmembrane protein aptamers, named "traptamers," that specifically down-regulate CCR5 expression and inhibit infection of human T cells by HIV strains that use CCR5 as a co-receptor. Here, we investigated the mechanism of traptamer-mediated CCR5 down-regulation and show that most of the traptamers (designated class 1 traptamers) form a stable complex with CCR5 and target it for lysosome-mediated degradation...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678809/delayed-immune-reconstitution-after-allogeneic-transplantation-increases-the-risks-of-mortality-and-chronic-gvhd
#8
Nelli Bejanyan, Claudio G Brunstein, Qing Cao, Aleksandr Lazaryan, Xianghua Luo, Julie Curtsinger, Rohtesh S Mehta, Erica Warlick, Sarah A Cooley, Bruce R Blazar, Jeffrey S Miller, Daniel Weisdorf, John E Wagner, Michael R Verneris
Slow immune reconstitution is a major obstacle to the successful use of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). As matched sibling donor (MSD) allo-HCT is regarded as the gold standard, we evaluated the pace of immune reconstitution in 157 adult recipients of reduced-intensity conditioning followed by MSD peripheral blood HCT (n = 68) and compared these to recipients of umbilical cord blood (UCB; n = 89). At day 28, UCB recipients had fewer natural killer (NK) cells than MSD recipients, but thereafter, NK cell numbers (and their subsets) were higher in UCB recipients...
April 24, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678747/predictive-markers-for-humoral-influenza-vaccine-response-in-patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency-cvid
#9
Ann Gardulf, Hassan Abolhassani, Rolf Gustafson, Lars E Eriksson, Lennart Hammarström
BACKGROUND: A subgroup of patients with common variable immunodeficiencies (CVID) responds to vaccination. The aim of the study was to try to identify predictive markers for those who developed a humoral immune response after influenza vaccination. METHODS: 48 patients with CVID (29 females, 19 males, mean age 59.4 years) were vaccinated with the A(H1N1) influenza vaccine Pandemrix® and boosted after one month. Blood samples were collected prior to each vaccination and two months later...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678689/using-high-resolution-x-ray-computed-tomography-to-create-an-image-based-model-of-a-lymph-node
#10
L J Cooper, B Zeller-Plumhoff, G F Clough, B Ganapathisubramani, T Roose
Lymph nodes are an important part of the immune system. They filter the lymphatic fluid as it is transported from the tissues before being returned to the blood stream. The fluid flow through the nodes influences the behaviour of the immune cells that gather within the nodes and the structure of the node itself. Measuring the fluid flow in lymph nodes experimentally is challenging due to their small size and fragility. In this paper, we present high resolution X-ray computed tomography images of a murine lymph node...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678672/genetic-restriction-of-antigen-presentation-dictates-allergic-sensitization-and-disease-in-humanized-mice
#11
Alina Neunkirchner, Bernhard Kratzer, Cordula Köhler, Ursula Smole, Lukas F Mager, Klaus G Schmetterer, Doris Trapin, Victoria Leb-Reichl, Edward Rosloniec, Ronald Naumann, Lukas Kenner, Beatrice Jahn-Schmid, Barbara Bohle, Rudolf Valenta, Winfried F Pickl
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin(Ig)E-associated allergies result from misguided immune responses against innocuous antigens. CD4+ T lymphocytes are critical for initiating and perpetuating that process, yet the crucial factors determining whether an individual becomes sensitized towards a given allergen remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the key factors for sensitization and allergy towards a given allergen. METHODS: We here created a novel human T cell receptor(TCR) and human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR1 (TCR-DR1) transgenic mouse model of asthma, based on the human-relevant major mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) pollen allergen Art v 1 to examine the critical factors for sensitization and allergy upon natural allergen exposure via the airways in the absence of systemic priming and adjuvants...
April 5, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678657/development-and-evaluation-of-an-optimal-human-single-chain-variable-fragment-derived-bcma-targeted-car-t-cell-vector
#12
Eric L Smith, Mette Staehr, Reed Masakayan, Ishan J Tatake, Terence J Purdon, Xiuyan Wang, Pei Wang, Hong Liu, Yiyang Xu, Sarah C Garrett-Thomson, Steven C Almo, Isabelle Riviere, Cheng Liu, Renier J Brentjens
B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) has recently been identified as an important multiple myeloma (MM)-specific target for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy. In CAR T cell therapy targeting CD19 for lymphoma, host immune anti-murine CAR responses limited the efficacy of repeat dosing and possibly long-term persistence. This clinically relevant concern can be addressed by generating a CAR incorporating a human single-chain variable fragment (scFv). We screened a human B cell-derived scFv phage display library and identified a panel of BCMA-specific clones from which human CARs were engineered...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678638/comprehensive-analysis-of-the-activation-and-proliferation-kinetics-and-effector-functions-of-human-lymphocytes-and-antigen-presentation-capacity-of-antigen-presenting-cells-in-xenogeneic-graft-versus-host-disease
#13
Yasufumi Kawasaki, Kazuya Sato, Hiroko Hayakawa, Norihito Takayama, Hirofumi Nakano, Ryoji Ito, Kiyomi Mashima, Iekuni Oh, Daisuke Minakata, Ryoko Yamasaki, Kaoru Morita, Masahiro Ashizawa, Chihiro Yamamoto, Kaoru Hatano, Shin-Ichiro Fujiwara, Ken Ohmine, Kazuo Muroi, Yoshinobu Kanda
Xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) models in highly immunodeficient mice are currently being used worldwide to investigate human immune responses against foreign antigens in vivo. However, the individual roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and donor/host hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the induction and development of GVHD have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we comprehensively investigated the immune responses of human T-cells and the antigen presentation capacity of donor/host hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic APCs in xenogeneic GVHD models using NOD/Shi-scid-IL2rgnull (NOG) mice...
April 17, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678553/recipient-and-donor-cells-in-the-graft-versus-solid-tumor-effect-it-takes-two-to-tango
#14
REVIEW
Isabelle Dierckx de Casterlé, An D Billiau, Ben Sprangers
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) produces -similar to the long-established graft-versus-leukemia effect- graft-versus-solid-tumor effects. Clinical trials reported response rates of up to 53%, occurring mostly but not invariably in association with full donor chimerism and/or graft-versus-host disease. Although donor-derived T cells are considered the principal effectors of anti-tumor immunity after alloHSCT or donor leukocyte infusion (DLI), growing evidence indicate that recipient-derived immune cells may also contribute...
April 12, 2018: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678458/immunization-of-balb-c-mice-with-a-combination-of-four-recombinant-brucella-abortus-proteins-aspc-dps-inpb-and-ndk-confers-a-marked-protection-against-a-virulent-strain-of-brucella-abortus
#15
Huynh Tan Hop, Lauren Togonon Arayan, Tran Xuan Ngoc Huy, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo Reyes, WonGi Min, Hu Jang Lee, Soo Jong Park, Hong Hee Chang, Suk Kim
In this study, we assessed the protective efficacy of single subunit vaccines, encoded by the B. abortus 544 genes aspC, dps, yaeC and inpB, against B. abortus infection in mice. First, immunization with these antigens, with the exception of the YaeC protein, was found to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses with IgG2a being dominant over IgG1. In addition, a massive production of IFN-γ but lower degree of IL-10 was observed, suggesting that all three antigens were able to induce predominantly cell-mediated immunity in response to B...
April 17, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678394/-dermatologic-toxicities-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#16
REVIEW
V Sibaud, S Boulinguez, C Pagès, L Riffaud, L Lamant, C Chira, S Boyrie, E Vigarios, E Tournier, N Meyer
The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 or CTLA-4) represents a significant advance in the treatment of multiple cancers. Given their particular mechanism of action, which involves triggering CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation and proliferation, they are associated with a specific safety profile. Their adverse events are primarily immune-related, and can affect practically all organs. In this context, dermatological toxicity is the most common, though it mostly remains mild to moderate and does not require discontinuation of treatment...
April 17, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678298/targeting-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#17
REVIEW
Bojun Wang, Tian Tian, Karl-Henning Kalland, Xisong Ke, Yi Qu
Despite the dramatic antitumor efficiency of certain immune checkpoint inhibitors, immunotherapy has met a bottleneck regarding the response rate and resistance in cancer patients. Increasing evidence indicates that Wnt/β-catenin signaling, one of the best-characterized cancer drivers, promotes cancer progression by regulating the tumor-immune cycle in most of the nodes, including dendritic cells, T cells, and tumor cells. Specifically, abnormal Wnt/β-catenin signaling directly alters a number of regulators critical for the antitumor activities of T cells, especially effector T cells, T helper cells, and regulatory T cells...
April 17, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678234/antibodies-to-in-silico-selected-gpi-anchored-theileria-parva-proteins-neutralize-sporozoite-infection-in-vitro
#18
James Nyagwange, Vishvanath Nene, Stephen Mwalimu, Sonal Henson, Lucilla Steinaa, Benjamin Nzau, Edwin Tijhaar, Roger Pelle
East Coast fever (ECF) caused by Theileria parva kills cattle in East, Central and Southern Africa leading to significant economic losses. Vaccination is used as a control strategy against ECF and is presently dependent on deliberate infection with live sporozoites and simultaneous treatment with a long-acting oxytetracycline. Although effective, this method has serious limitations; the immunity is parasite strain specific and immunized cattle can become life-long asymptomatic carriers of the parasite, posing risk for the spread of the disease...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678232/type-i-and-type-ii-cytokine-production-of-cd4-t-cells-in-immune-response-biased-dairy-cattle-around-calving
#19
M A Paibomesai, S Sharif, N Karrow, B A Mallard
The peripartum period is a period of high stress, transition and management changes for dairy cows. It is associated with higher incidence of both metabolic and pathogenic disease. Both antibody-(AMIR) and cell-(CMIR) mediated immune responses play a key role in the maintenance of health in mammals protecting against extracellular and intracellular pathogens, respectively. Generally, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) has been associated with CMIR, whereas interleukin 4 (IL-4) has been associated with AMIR bias, and interleukin 17 (IL-17A) is associated with pro-inflammatory...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678231/incorporation-of-membrane-anchored-flagellin-into-salmonella-gallinarum-bacterial-ghosts-induces-early-immune-responses-and-protection-against-fowl-typhoid-in-young-layer-chickens
#20
Irshad Ahmed Hajam, Je Hyoung Kim, John Hwa Lee
The present study aimed to investigate whether the incorporation of flagellin, a TLR5 agonist, in the bacterial ghosts (BGs) of Salmonella Gallinarum can enhance protective immune responses against fowl typhoid, a septicemic disease of poultry, in chickens. BGs are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria through the bacteriophage phiX174 gene E mediated lysis. In this study, the S. Gallinarum ghosts carrying flagellin were genetically constructed utilizing a lysis plasmid pJHL184-flagellin, designed for the coexpression of the flagellin and the lysis protein E...
May 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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