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leptin, obesity, children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237763/bisphenol-a-phthalate-metabolites-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-healthy-normal-weight-children
#1
Amalie Carlsson, Kaspar Sørensen, Anna-Maria Andersson, Hanne Frederiksen, Anders Juul
INTRODUCTION: Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children and adolescents. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of The COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry, and fasting blood samples...
December 13, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223775/association-between-prenatal-bisphenol-a-and-phthalate-exposures-and-fetal-metabolic-related-biomarkers-the-hokkaido-study-on-environment-and-children-s-health
#2
Machiko Minatoya, Atsuko Araki, Chihiro Miyashita, Yu Ait Bamai, Sachiko Itoh, Jun Yamamoto, Yu Onoda, Kazuki Ogasawara, Toru Matsumura, Reiko Kishi
Bisphenol A and phthalates are widely detected in human urine, blood, breast milk, and amniotic fluid. Both bisphenol A and phthalates have been suggested as playing a role in obesity epidemics. Exposure to these chemicals during fetal development, and its consequences should be concerning because they can cross the placenta. Thus, this study aimed to assess the association between prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates, and cord blood metabolic-related biomarkers. Maternal serum was used during the first trimester, to determine prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212175/the-role-of-established-east-asian-obesity-related-loci-on-pediatric-leptin-levels-highlights-a-neuronal-influence-on-body-weight-regulation-in-chinese-children-and-adolescents-the-bcams-study
#3
Junling Fu, Ge Li, Lujiao Li, Jinhua Yin, Hong Cheng, Lanwen Han, Qian Zhang, Naishi Li, Xinhua Xiao, Struan F A Grant, Mingyao Li, Shan Gao, Jie Mi, Ming Li
Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple variants associated with adult obesity, mostly in European-ancestry populations. We aimed to systematically assess the contribution of key loci, which had been previously shown to be associated in East Asian adults, to childhood obesity, related adipokine profiles and metabolic traits in a Chinese pediatric population. Twelve single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) plus metabolic profiles and levels of five adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, fibroblast growth factor 21 and retinol binding protein 4) were evaluated in 3,506 Chinese children and adolescents aged 6-18...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205916/leptin-in-maternal-plasma-and-cord-blood-as-a-predictor-of-offspring-adiposity-at-5-years-a-follow-up-study
#4
Dorothy Marie Meyer, Christina Brei, Lynne Stecher, Daniela Much, Stefanie Brunner, Hans Hauner
OBJECTIVE: Perinatal leptin exposure may modulate the risk of adiposity in early childhood. In previous analyses, negative associations between maternal (32 weeks' gestation) and cord blood leptin and offspring body composition at 2 years were observed. METHODS: Associations between maternal/cord blood leptin were assessed with indirect (i.e., body weight, BMI percentiles, sum of 4 skinfold thicknesses), and direct (i.e., ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging in a subgroup) growth and adipose tissue (AT) measurements in 120 children aged 3 to 5 years...
December 3, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192796/the-effect-of-weight-loss-on-body-composition-serum-bone-markers-and-adipokines-in-prepubertal-obese-children-after-1-year-intervention
#5
Joanna Gajewska, Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Witold Klemarczyk, Magdalena Chełchowska, Halina Weker, Katarzyna Szamotulska
Purpose/Aim: The influence of weight loss on bone turnover and bone quality in childhood remains controversial, but it may implicate interactions between adiposity and bone metabolism. Therefore, we studied the relationships between bone markers and adipokines during weight loss in obese children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined serum leptin, soluble leptin receptor, adiponectin, bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), osteocalcin (OC), carboxylated-OC (Gla-OC), undercarboxylated-OC (Glu-OC), sclerostin, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in 40 obese prepubertal children before and after therapy...
December 1, 2017: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172804/postpartum-maternal-adipokines-and-infant-weight-for-length-at-1%C3%A2-year-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#6
Alexis Shub, Leonid Churilov, Manisha Miranda, Harry M Georgiou, Martha Lappas
BACKGROUND: Maternal, cord blood and childhood adipokines have been associated with childhood obesity. We investigated whether postpartum maternal adipokines are associated with increased weight at 1 year of age in children of women with gestational diabetes (GDM). METHODS: Plasma leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured in 160 women at approximately 12 weeks following pregnancy with GDM and compared to infant weight for length z-score at 1 year of age after adjustment for maternal and infant demographic variables...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166409/post-weaning-high-fat-diet-results-in-growth-cartilage-lesions-in-young-male-rats
#7
Samuel S Haysom, Mark H Vickers, Lennex H Yu, Clare M Reynolds, Elwyn C Firth, Sue R McGlashan
To determine if a high-fat diet (HF) from weaning would result in a pro-inflammatory state and affect joint cartilage, we fed male rats either HF or Chow diet post-weaning, and voluntary wheel exercise (EX) or cage only activity (SED) after 9 weeks of age. At 17 weeks body composition, plasma biomarkers and histomorphology scores of femoro-tibial cartilages of HF-SED, HF-EX, Chow-SED and Chow-EX groups were compared. Food intake and activity were not significantly different between groups. HF diet resulted in significantly higher weight gain, %fat, fat:lean ratio, and plasma leptin, insulin and TNFα concentrations, with significant interactions between diet and exercise...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135515/association-between-allergic-and-nonallergic-rhinitis-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#8
Ming Zheng, Xiangdong Wang, Luo Zhang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) are common disorders, which have been considered as potential risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This review summarizes the proposed underlying pathophysiological mechanisms to provide a better understanding of the relationship between these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: In adults, allergic rhinitis and NAR may be considered as symptoms potentiating, rather than risk potentiating factors in the pathophysiology of OSA, whereas in children, these are considered to be independent predictors for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and failure of adeno-tonsillectomy, the recommended first-line therapy for children with OSA...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093301/adipokines-are-associated-with-hypertension-in-metabolically-healthy-obese-mho-children-and-adolescents-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#9
Wenqing Ding, Hong Cheng, Fangfang Chen, Yinkun Yan, Meixian Zhang, Xiaoyuan Zhao, Dongqing Hou, Jie Mi
BACKGROUND: The potential mechanism underlying the relationship between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals remains unclear. The aim of the study was to prospectively investigate the potential role of the adipokines in the association between the MHO phenotype and hypertension in children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 1184 participants at baseline were recruited from a cohort of the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) study...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073286/differential-adipokine-receptor-expression-on-circulating-leukocyte-subsets-in-lean-and-obese-children
#10
Genoveva Keustermans, Laila B van der Heijden, Berlinda Boer, Rianne Scholman, Roos Nuboer, Gerard Pasterkamp, Berent Prakken, Wilco de Jager, Eric Kalkhoven, Arieke J Janse, Henk S Schipper
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity prevalence has increased worldwide and is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The production of inflammatory adipokines by obese adipose tissue contributes to the development of T2D and CVD. While levels of circulating adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin have been established in obese children and adults, the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells can modulate adipokine signalling, but has not been studied so far...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045048/relationship-of-circulating-spexin-with-markers-of-cardiovascular-disease-a-pilot-study-in-adolescents-with-obesity
#11
S Kumar, M J Hossain, A Javed, I J Kullo, P B Balagopal
PURPOSE: Spexin, a novel peptide, has potential implications in obesity, satiety and energy homeostasis. The current study examined the relationship of spexin with various biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and endothelial function in adolescents with obesity. METHODS: Nineteen adolescents with obesity (age, 15.8 ± 1.7 years) were studied. Spexin, leptin and various cardiovascular disease biomarkers were measured. Endothelial function was assessed by high-resolution Doppler ultrasonography of the right brachial artery...
October 18, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040067/early-onset-severe-obesity-due-to-complete-deletion-of-the-leptin-gene-in-a-boy
#12
Elif Ozsu, Serdar Ceylaner, Huseyin Onay
BACKGROUND: Monogenic obesity results from single gene mutations. Extreme obesity starting at an early age, especially in infancy, which is associated with endocrinopathy and metabolic disturbances is key to the diagnosis of monogenic obesity. CASE PRESENTATION: A 6-month-old boy was admitted to our clinic with severe obesity and food craving. He was born with a birth weight of 3400 g to first-cousin parents. He started to gain weight at an abnormal rate at the age of 2 months...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027597/lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-activity-in-obese-adolescents-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes
#13
Julia Seyfarth, Thomas Reinehr, Annika Hoyer, Christina Reinauer, Christina Bächle, Beate Karges, Ertan Mayatepek, Michael Roden, Sabine E Hofer, Susanna Wiegand, Joachim Woelfle, Wieland Kiess, Joachim Rosenbauer, Reinhard W Holl, Thomas Meissner
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) was identified as a strong predictor for cardiovascular events. Furthermore, it is highly associated with obesity. The role of Lp-PLA2 in diabetes mellitus is controversial and analyses, especially in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D), are missing. Therefore, we compared Lp-PLA2 activity between two obese age-, sex-, and BMI-matched cohorts of adolescents with and without T2D. Relationships between Lp-PLA2 activity and age, BMI, hemoglobin A1c, lipids, and adipokines were evaluated...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974763/maternal-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-increases-placental-and-foetal-lipoprotein-associated-phospholipase-a2-which-might-exert-protective-functions-against-oxidative-stress
#14
Carolin Schliefsteiner, Birgit Hirschmugl, Susanne Kopp, Sanja Curcic, Eva Maria Bernhart, Gunther Marsche, Uwe Lang, Gernot Desoye, Christian Wadsack
Increased Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) has been associated with inflammatory pathologies, including Type 2 Diabetes. Studies on LpPLA2 and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) are rare, and have focused mostly on maternal outcome. In the present study, we investigated whether LpPLA2 activity on foetal lipoproteins is altered by maternal GDM and/or obesity (a major risk factor for GDM), thereby contributing to changes in lipoprotein functionality. We identified HDL as the major carrier of LpPLA2 activity in the foetus, which is in contrast to adults...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952460/serum-and-exhaled-breath-condensate-leptin-levels-in-asthmatic-and-obesity-children-a-pilot-study
#15
A Bodini, L Tenero, M Sandri, C Maffeis, M Piazza, L Zanoni, D Peroni, A Boner, G Piacentini
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have highlighted the possible involvement of leptin in inflammation. The leptin receptor is also expressed by alveolar macrophages, T lymphocytes and bronchial epitelial cells, suggesting a possible role in the cascade of airway inflammation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the levels of leptin in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from asthmatic, normal- and overweight children, in relationship with airway inflammation. METHODS: 15 asthmatic non-obese children, 15 healthy non-asthmatic non-obese children, 11 obese children with asthma (OA) and 20 obese children without asthma (ONA) were enrolled...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904569/serum-insulin-and-leptin-levels-in-children-with-epilepsy-on-valproate-associated-obesity
#16
Talha Rehman, Deepak Sachan, Anubhuti Chitkara
BACKGROUND: Weight gain is a common adverse effect of sodium valproic acid (VPA) in children with epilepsy. Several mechanisms of VPA-induced obesity have been suggested such as increased appetite, facultative thermogenesis, and elevated insulin and leptin levels. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of Insulin and Leptin in the pathogenesis of weight gain caused by VPA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and serum insulin and leptin levels were measured in 45 consecutive patients and 45 controls...
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900314/evaluation-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-related-factors-in-children-affected-by-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#17
Soheila Zareifar, Sezaneh Haghpanah, Eslam Shorafa, Nader Shakibazad, Zohreh Karamizadeh
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is among the medical problems in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). These patients are at risk of metabolic syndrome (MS). The present study aimed to follow the patients with ALL regarding the incidence of MS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on all patients who referred to the oncology clinic from July 2012 to July 2013. The exclusion criteria of the study were ALL relapse, secondary malignancy, hypothyroidism, Down syndrome, and below 2 years of age...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899889/neck-circumference-and-clustered-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-children-and-adolescents-cross-sectional-study
#18
José Castro-Piñero, Alvaro Delgado-Alfonso, Luis Gracia-Marco, Sonia Gómez-Martínez, Irene Esteban-Cornejo, Oscar L Veiga, Ascensión Marcos, Víctor Segura-Jiménez
OBJECTIVE: Early detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as obesity, is crucial to prevent adverse long-term effects on individuals' health. Therefore, the aims were: (1) to explore the robustness of neck circumference (NC) as a predictor of CVD and examine its association with numerous anthropometric and body composition indices and (2) to release sex and age-specific NC cut-off values to classify youths as overweight/obese. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893745/a-new-risk-locus-in-chchd5-for-hypertension-and-obesity-in-a-chinese-child-population-a-cohort-study
#19
Lijun Wu, Liwang Gao, Xiaoyuan Zhao, Meixian Zhang, Jianxin Wu, Jie Mi
OBJECTIVE: Coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 5 (CHCHD5), a mitochondrial protein, is involved in the oxidative folding process in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. A previous study identified a hypertension-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs3748024, in CHCHD5 in adults, but there are no reports regarding the association between CHCHD5 and obesity, which is a known risk factor for hypertension. The aim of the present study is to investigate the associations of the SNP rs3748024 with hypertension and obesity...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860773/can-melatonin-prevent-or-improve-metabolic-side-effects-during-antipsychotic-treatments
#20
Maria-Cristina Porfirio, Juliana Paula Gomes de Almeida, Maddalena Stornelli, Silvia Giovinazzo, Diane Purper-Ouakil, Gabriele Masi
In the last two decades, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) were more frequently used than typical antipsychotics for treating both psychotic and nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in both children and adolescents, because of their lower risk of adverse neurological effects, that is, extrapyramidal symptoms. Recent studies have pointed out their effect on weight gain and increased visceral adiposity as they induce metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving SGAs often need to be treated with other substances to counteract metabolic side effects...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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