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Dexamethasone suppression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338398/dexamethasone-suppresses-jmjd3-gene-activation-via-a-putative-negative-glucocorticoid-response-element-and-maintains-integrity-of-tight-junctions-in-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#1
Wonho Na, Jee Y Shin, Jee Y Lee, Sangyun Jeong, Won-Sun Kim, Tae Y Yune, Bong-Gun Ju
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) exhibits a highly selective permeability to support the homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). The tight junctions in the BBB microvascular endothelial cells seal the paracellular space to prevent diffusion. Thus, disruption of tight junctions results in harmful effects in CNS diseases and injuries. It has recently been demonstrated that glucocorticoids have beneficial effects on maintaining tight junctions in both in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. In the present study, we found that dexamethasone suppresses the expression of JMJD3, a histone H3K27 demethylase, via the recruitment of glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) and nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) to the negative glucocorticoid response element (nGRE) in the upstream region of JMJD3 gene in brain microvascular endothelial cells subjected to TNFα treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332004/social-setting-social-rank-and-hpa-axis-response-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#2
Vanessa A Jimenez, Daicia C Allen, Megan N McClintick, Kathleen A Grant
RATIONALE: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity under different social settings in non-human primates is understudied. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the response of pituitary-adrenal hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol) to pharmacological challenges of the HPA axis in male cynomolgus macaques under different social settings. METHODS: Male cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, n = 11) were individually (A) and socially housed (B) in alternation, over consecutive months, in an ABA design...
March 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330503/caffeine-modulates-glucocorticoid-induced-expression-of-ctgf-in-lung-epithelial-cells-and-fibroblasts
#3
Markus Fehrholz, Kirsten Glaser, Christian P Speer, Silvia Seidenspinner, Barbara Ottensmeier, Steffen Kunzmann
BACKGROUND: Although caffeine and glucocorticoids are frequently used to treat chronic lung disease in preterm neonates, potential interactions are largely unknown. While anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids are well defined, their impact on airway remodeling is less characterized. Caffeine has been ascribed to positive effects on airway inflammation as well as remodeling. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2) plays a key role in airway remodeling and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants...
March 23, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329022/annexin-a1-in-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-its-association-with-inflammatory-status-and-glucocorticoid-sensitivity
#4
Ida Bergström, Anna K Lundberg, Simon Jönsson, Eva Särndahl, Jan Ernerudh, Lena Jonasson
Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is a key player in resolution of inflammation and a mediator of glucocorticoid actions. In atherosclerotic tissue, increased expression of AnxA1 has been associated with protective plaque-stabilizing effects. Here, we investigated the expression of AnxA1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Blood was collected from 57 patients with stable CAD (SCAD) and 41 healthy controls. We also included a minor group (n = 10) with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324010/separating-the-anti-inflammatory-and-diabetogenic-effects-of-glucocorticoids-through-lxr%C3%AE-antagonism
#5
Rucha Patel, Lilia Magomedova, Ricky Tsai, Stéphane Angers, Arturo Orellana, Carolyn L Cummins
Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) including dexamethasone (DEX) are powerful anti-inflammatory drugs. Long-term use of GCs, however, can result in metabolic side effects such as hyperglycemia, hepatosteatosis, and insulin resistance. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and liver X receptors (LXRα and LXRβ) regulate overlapping genes involved in gluconeogenesis and inflammation. We have previously shown that Lxrβ-/- mice are resistant to the diabetogenic effects of DEX, but still sensitive to its immunosuppressive actions...
January 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323887/involvement-of-small-g-protein-rhob-in-the-regulation-of-proliferation-adhesion-and-migration-by-dexamethasone-in-osteoblastic-cells
#6
Fei Diao, Kangyao Chen, Yan Wang, Yidong Li, Weidong Xu, Jian Lu, Yu-Xia Chen
Long-term exposure to therapeutic doses of glucocorticoids (GCs) results in bone remodeling, which frequently causes osteoporosis and fracture healing retardation because of the abnormality of osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation. The mechanisms of GCs' effect on osteoblasts are largely unknown. In this present study, we found that dexamethasone (Dex) could induce the expression of the small G protein, RhoB, in mRNA and protein levels in the osteoblast-derived osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63. The up-regulation of RhoB mRNA by Dex mainly occurs at posttranscriptional level by increasing its mRNA stability through PI-3K/Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321652/role-of-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-in-glucocorticoid-induced-muscle-change-in-mice
#7
Yukinori Tamura, Naoyuki Kawao, Takeshi Shimoide, Kiyotaka Okada, Osamu Matsuo, Hiroshi Kaji
We recently revealed that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a serine protease inhibitor, is involved in diabetes, osteoporosis and muscle wasting induced by glucocorticoid (GC) treatment in mice. In the present study, we investigated the detailed mechanisms by which GC induces muscle wasting through PAI-1 in vivo and in vitro. PAI-1 deficiency suppressed the mRNA levels of atrogin1 and muscle RING-Finger Protein 1 (MuRF1), ubiquitin ligases leading to muscle degradation, elevated by GC treatment in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319850/methylation-of-hpa-axis-related-genes-in-men-with-hypersexual-disorder
#8
Jussi Jokinen, Adrian E Boström, Andreas Chatzittofis, Diana M Ciuculete, Katarina Görts Öberg, John N Flanagan, Stefan Arver, Helgi B Schiöth
Hypersexual Disorder (HD) defined as non-paraphilic sexual desire disorder with components of compulsivity, impulsivity and behavioral addiction, and proposed as a diagnosis in the DSM 5, shares some overlapping features with substance use disorder including common neurotransmitter systems and dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. In this study, comprising 67 HD male patients and 39 male healthy volunteers, we aimed to identify HPA-axis coupled CpG-sites, in which modifications of the epigenetic profile are associated with hypersexuality...
March 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315446/targeted-delivery-of-morin-a-dietary-bioflavanol-encapsulated-mannosylated-liposomes-to-the-macrophages-of-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-rats-inhibits-inflammatory-immune-response-and-osteoclastogenesis
#9
Farhath Sultana, Manoj Kumar Neog, MahaboobKhan Rasool
The purpose of the study was to develop a liposomal drug delivery system for morin, a dietary polyphenol, in order to target the synovial macrophages and investigate the remission of disease severity in the adjuvant-induced arthritic (AIA) rats. To do so, mannose decorated liposomal morin (ML-Morin) was prepared using the thin film hydration method and the physicochemical properties were characterized. The particle size and zeta potential of liposomal morin (L-Morin) was found to be 127.9nm ± 2.6 and -24.5mV ± 0...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314545/loneliness-in-older-adults-is-associated-with-diminished-cortisol-output
#10
N Schutter, T J Holwerda, M L Stek, J J M Dekker, D Rhebergen, H C Comijs
OBJECTIVE: Loneliness in older adults has been associated with increased mortality and health problems. One of the assumed underlying mechanisms is dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA-axis). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether loneliness in older adults is associated with HPA-axis dysregulation and whether this association differs between depressed and non-depressed persons. METHODS: Cross-sectional data of 426 lonely and non-lonely older adults in the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO) were used...
April 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302381/an-entomopathogenic-bacterium-xenorhabdus-hominickii-anu101-produces-oxindole-and-suppresses-host-insect-immune-response-by-inhibiting-eicosanoid-biosynthesis
#11
Md Sadekuzzaman, Youngjin Park, Seunghee Lee, Kunwoo Kim, Jin Kyo Jung, Yonggyun Kim
An entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus hominickii ANU101, was isolated from an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema monticolum. X. hominickii exhibited significant insecticidal activities at ≥6.6×10(2) colony-forming units per larva against a lepidopteran insect, Spodoptera exigua with hemocoelic injection. The insecticidal activity of X. hominickii was reduced by an addition of arachidonic acid (AA, a catalytic product of PLA2), but enhanced by an addition by dexamethasone (DEX, a specific inhibitor of PLA2)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299397/suppression-of-cytokine-production-by-glucocorticoids-is-mediated-by-mkp-1-in-human-lung-epithelial-cells
#12
Tiina Keränen, Eeva Moilanen, Riku Korhonen
Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) expression is induced by inflammatory factors and serves as an endogenous p38 MAPK suppressor to limit inflammatory response. Glucocorticoids are very effective anti-inflammatory drugs and they are used for the treatment of many inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and COPD. We investigated the role of MKP-1 in the inhibition of cytokine production by dexamethasone in human A549 bronchial epithelial cells. We found that dexamethasone increased MKP-1 expression, inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation, and suppressed TNF and MIP-3α production in A549 cells...
March 15, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298353/simultaneous-assay-of-cortisol-and-dexamethasone-improved-diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-dexamethasone-suppression-test
#13
Grethe Åstrøm Ueland, Paal Methlie, Ralf Kellmann, Marit R Bjørgaas, Bjorn O Asvold, Ketil Thorstensen, Oskar Kelp, Hrafnkell B Thordarson, Gunnar Mellgren, Kristian Løvås, Eystein Sverre Husebye
OBJECTIVES: The overnight dexamethasone (DXM)-suppression test (DST) has high sensitivity, but moderate specificity, for diagnosing hypercortisolism. We have evaluated if simultaneous measurement of S-DXM may correct for variable DXM bioavailability and increase diagnostic performance of DST, and if saliva (sa) is a feasible adjunct or alternative to serum. DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective study of DST in suspected Cushing's syndrome (CS) (n= 49), incidentaloma (n= 152), and controls (n= 101)...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287112/glucocorticoid-receptor-promotes-the-function-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-by-suppressing-hif1%C3%AE-dependent-glycolysis
#14
Yun Lu, Huanrong Liu, Yujing Bi, Hui Yang, Yan Li, Jian Wang, Zhengguo Zhang, Yu Wang, Chunxiao Li, Anna Jia, Linian Han, Ying Hu, Yong Zhao, Ruoning Wang, Guangwei Liu
Immunomodulatory signaling imposes tight regulations on metabolic programs within immune cells and consequentially determines immune response outcomes. Although the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has been recently implicated in regulating the function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), whether the dysregulation of GR in MDSCs is involved in immune-mediated hepatic diseases and how GR regulates the function of MDSCs in such a context remains unknown. Here, we revealed the dysregulation of GR expression in MDSCs during innate immunological hepatic injury (IMH) and found that GR regulates the function of MDSCs through modulating HIF1α-dependent glycolysis...
March 13, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277127/a-successful-case-of-pregnancy-in-a-woman-with-acth-independent-cushing-s-syndrome-treated-with-ketoconazole-and-metyrapone
#15
Wojciech Zieleniewski, Renata Michalak
Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disease caused by a chronic excess of cortisol. Hypercortisolaemia may affect reproductive system leading to infertility in women. However, some of the patients remain fertile, although pregnancy is uncommon. In our report, we describe the case of a 31-years old woman suffering from hypertension, oligomenorrhea, easy bruising, muscle weakness and elevated levels of cortisol. During hospitalization, high level of serum cortisol with stiff diurnal rhythm and undetectable plasma ACTH concentration were found...
February 26, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273124/blockade-of-cyclophilin-d-rescues-dexamethasone-induced-oxidative-stress-in-gingival-tissue
#16
Yuting He, Ling Zhang, Zhuoli Zhu, Anqi Xiao, Haiyang Yu, Xueqi Gan
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are frequently used for the suppression of inflammation in chronic inflammatory diseases. Excessive GCs usage is greatly associated with several side effects, including gingival ulceration, the downward migration of the epithelium, attachment loss and disruption of transeptal fibers. The mechanisms underlying GCs-induced impairments in gingival tissue remains poorly understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with various oral diseases, such as chronic periodontitis, age-related alveolar bone loss and hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury in gingival...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272695/the-glucocorticoid-inhibits-neutrophils-formed-extracellular-traps-nets-and-suppresses-the-inflammation-caused-by-fallopian-tube-staphylococcal-infection
#17
S-X Luan, X-H Chen
OBJECTIVE: Fallopian tube can transport zygote into the uterine cavity, while inflammation may cause certain influences on the fallopian tube's function. Neutrophils formed extracellular traps (NET) can kill pathogenic microorganisms. This study intends to analyze the role of glucocorticoid in the regulation of NETs sterilization during the fallopian tube staphylococcal infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat fallopian tube staphylococcal infection model was established...
February 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257662/daucane-esters-from-laserwort-laserpitium-latifolium-l-inhibit-cytokine-and-chemokine-production-in-human-lung-epithelial-cells
#18
Višnja Popović, Jan Goeman, Jonathan Thommis, Arne Heyerick, Jurgen Caroen, Johan Van der Eycken, Karolien De Bosscher
BACKGROUND: Laserwort, Laserpitium latifolium L. (Apiaceae), is a European medicinal plant. Its roots and rhizomes were traditionally used as a general tonic and to treat inflammatory and infective diseases. PURPOSE: The anti-inflammatory potential of daucane esters, isolated from underground parts extract of L. latifolium and specific structural features that contribute to their activity were investigated. In addition, we studied their interference with the transactivation capacity of the Glucocorticoid Receptor when added together with a classic glucocorticoid (GC), dexamethasone (DEX)...
March 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249186/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-stress-related-biomarkers
#19
S W N Vogel, D Bijlenga, J Verduijn, T I Bron, A T F Beekman, J J S Kooij, B W J H Penninx
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined whether (a) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms were associated with dysregulation of stress-related mechanisms, and (b) whether ADHD symptoms interact with affective disorders in their association with dysregulated stress-related mechanisms. METHODS: Data were obtained from 2307 subjects participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Stress-related mechanisms were reflected by the following biomarkers: (1) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis indicators (salivary cortisol awakening curve, evening cortisol, cortisol suppression after a 0...
February 13, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247312/interference-in-acth-immunoassay-negatively-impacts-the-management-of-subclinical-hypercortisolism
#20
Serkan Yener, Leyla Demir, Mustafa Demirpence, Mustafa Mahmut Baris, Ilgin Yildirim Simsir, Secil Ozisik, Abdurrahman Comlekci, Tevfik Demir
PURPOSE: Low plasma corticotropin is considered a useful parameter for the diagnosis of subclinical hypercortisolism in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma. However, immunoassays are vulnerable to interference from endogenous antibodies. In this study, subjects who underwent Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis evaluation for the assessment of subclinical hypercortisolism were evaluated. The objective of the study was to ascertain whether antibody interference in corticotropin immunoassay affected the diagnostic work-up and clinical decisions...
February 28, 2017: Endocrine
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