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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076559/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-lycopene-on-endotoxin-induced-uveitis-in-rats
#1
Tuğba Göncü, Elif Oğuz, Hatice Sezen, Sezen Koçarslan, Halit Oğuz, Ali Akal, Fatih Mehmet Adıbelli, Sevim Çakmak, Nurten Aksoy
Purpose: We evaluated the efficacy of lycopene, a dietary carotenoid and potent antioxidant, against ocular inflammation and oxidative stress in an experimental uveitis model. Methods: Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single subcutaneous injection of 200 μg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Induction of EIU was preceded by daily intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg lycopene for three consecutive days (Lycopene + LPS group) or equivolume vehicle (Vehicle + LPS group)...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069628/cushing-s-syndrome-a-practical-approach-to-diagnosis-and-differential-diagnoses
#2
Joseph M Pappachan, Christian Hariman, Mahamood Edavalath, Julian Waldron, Fahmy W Hanna
Diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS) and identification of the aetiology of hypercortisolism can be challenging. The Endocrine Society clinical practice guidelines recommends one of the four tests for initial screening of CS, namely, urinary-free cortisol, late night salivary cortisol, overnight dexamethasone suppression test or a longer low-dose dexamethasone suppression test, for 48 hours. Confirmation and localisation of CS requires additional biochemical and radiological tests. Radiological evaluation involves different imaging modalities including MRI with or without different radio-nuclear imaging techniques...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068807/annals-express-measuring-cortisol-in-serum-urine-and-saliva-are-our-assays-good-enough
#3
Nadia El-Farhan, D Aled Rees, Carol Evans
Cortisol is a steroid hormone produced in response to stress. It is essential for maintaining health and well-being; and leads to significant morbidity when deficient or present in excess. It is lipophillic and is transported bound to cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) and albumin; a small fraction (~10%) of total serum cortisol is unbound and biologically active. Serum cortisol assays measure total cortisol and their results can be misleading in patients with altered serum protein concentrations. Automated immunoassays are used to measure cortisol but lack specificity and show significant interassay differences...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063699/use-of-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio-and-aeromonas-salmonicida-for-detection-of-immunomodulatory-effects-of-chemicals-on-fish
#4
Kei Nakayama, Ryohei Yamashita, Shin-Ichi Kitamura
To develop a test for assessing the immunomodulatory effects of chemical pollutants on fish, we evaluated the effects of dexamethasone on the natural host-pathogen interaction between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Aeromonas salmonicida. Carp were exposed to 1mgL(-1) dexamethasone for the entire experimental period. One week after the exposure test started, the exposed fish, as well as unexposed fish, were bath-infected with A. salmonicida. One hundred percent mortality was observed in bacteria-infected fish exposed to dexamethasone, whereas no infection-associated mortality was observed in infected fish in the absence of dexamethasone exposure...
January 4, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061032/effects-of-platelet-rich-plasma-with-concomitant-use-of-a-corticosteroid-on-tenocytes-from-degenerative-rotator-cuff-tears-in-interleukin-1%C3%AE-induced-tendinopathic-conditions
#5
Chris Hyunchul Jo, Seung Yeon Lee, Kang Sup Yoon, Sue Shin
BACKGROUND: A corticosteroid injection is commonly used to treat tendinopathy, but it has been associated with negative effects on tendon homeostasis. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is known to have proliferative and anabolic effects as well as cytoprotective effects against corticosteroids on tenocytes. However, the combined effects of a corticosteroid and PRP on the anti-inflammatory, matrix synthesis, and cytoprotective potential of tenocytes in conditions simulating tendinopathy have not been investigated...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057851/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-improves-survival-in-pneumococcal-pneumonia-by-reducing-pulmonary-inflammation
#6
Brittney Burnley, Harlan P Jones
The use of glucocorticoids to reduce inflammatory responses is largely based on the knowledge of the physiological action of the endogenous glucocorticoid, cortisol. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide released from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of the central nervous system. This hormone serves as an important mediator of adaptive physiological responses to stress. In addition to its role in inducing downstream cortisol release that in turn regulates immune suppression, CRH has also been found to mediate inflammatory responses in peripheral tissues...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049438/important-modifications-by-sugammadex-a-modified-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-of-ion-currents-in-differentiated-nsc-34-neuronal-cells
#7
Hung-Te Hsu, Yi-Ching Lo, Yan-Ming Huang, Yu-Ting Tseng, Sheng-Nan Wu
BACKGROUND: Sugammadex (SGX) is a modified γ-cyclodextrin used for reversal of steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents during general anesthesia. Despite its application in clinical use, whether SGX treatment exerts any effects on membrane ion currents in neurons remains largely unclear. In this study, effects of SGX treatment on ion currents, particularly on delayed-rectifier K(+) current [I K(DR)], were extensively investigated in differentiated NSC-34 neuronal cells. RESULTS: After cells were exposed to SGX (30 μM), there was a reduction in the amplitude of I K(DR) followed by an apparent slowing in current activation in response to membrane depolarization...
January 3, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029028/the-recovery-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-is-rapid-in-subclinical-cushing-syndrome
#8
Hee Kyung Kim, Jee Hee Yoon, Yun Ah Jeong, Ho Cheol Kang
BACKGROUND: In subclinical Cushing syndrome (SC), it is assumed that glucocorticoid production is insufficient to cause a clinically recognizable syndrome. Differences in hormonal levels or recovery time of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis after adrenalectomy between patients with overt Cushing syndrome (OC) and SC remain unknown. METHODS: Thirty-six patients (10 with OC and 26 with SC) with adrenal Cushing syndrome who underwent adrenalectomy from 2004 to 2014 were reviewed retrospectively...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018289/choroidal-and-retinal-abnormalities-by-optical-coherence-tomography-in-endogenous-cushing-s-syndrome
#9
Maria Fernanda Abalem, Marcio Carlos Machado, Helen Nazareth Veloso Dos Santos, Rafael Garcia, John Helal, Pedro Carlos Carricondo, Sérgio Luis Gianotti Pimentel, Mario Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro, Cynthia X Qian, Marcello Delano Bronstein, Maria Cândida Villares Barisson Fragoso
CONTEXT: Cortisol has been suggested as a risk factor for choroidal thickening, which may lead to retinal changes. OBJECTIVE: To compare choroidal thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in patients with endogenous active Cushing's syndrome (CS) and to evaluate the occurrence of retinal abnormalities in the same group of patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Outpatient clinic. PATIENTS: Eleven female patients with CS in hypercortisolism state as determined by the presence of at least two abnormal measurements from urinary cortisol 24 h, no suppression of cortisol with low dose dexamethasone suppression test, and nocturnal salivary cortisol levels and 12 healthy controls...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011617/a-keratan-sulfate-disaccharide-prevents-inflammation-and-the-progression-of-emphysema-in-murine-models
#10
Congxiao Gao, Reiko Fujinawa, Takayuki Yoshida, Manabu Ueno, Fumi Ota, Yasuhiko Kizuka, Tetsuya Hirayama, Hiroaki Korekane, Shinobu Kitazume, Toshitaka Maeno, Kazuaki Ohtsubo, Keiichi Yoshida, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Bernd Lepenies, Jonas Aretz, Christoph Rademacher, Hiroki Kabata, Ahmed E Hegab, Peter H Seeberger, Tomoko Betsuyaku, Kozui Kida, Naoyuki Taniguchi
Emphysema is a typical component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a progressive and inflammatory airway disease. However, no effective treatment currently exists. Here we show that keratan sulfate (KS), one of the major glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) produced in the small airway, decreased in lungs of cigarette-smoke-exposed mice. In order to confirm the protective effect of KS in the small airway, a disaccharide repeating unit of KS designated L4 ([SO3--6]Galβ1-4[SO3--6]GlcNAc) was administered to two murine models: elastase-induced-emphysema and LPS-induced exacerbation of a cigarette smoke-induced emphysema...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009825/neuropeptide-y1-receptor-regulates-glucocorticoid-induced-inhibition-of-osteoblast-differentiation-in-murine-mc3t3-e1-cells-via-erk-signaling
#11
Wei Yu, Chao Zhu, Wenning Xu, Leisheng Jiang, Shengdan Jiang
High dose glucocorticoid (GC) administration impairs the viability and function of osteoblasts, thus causing osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. Neuropeptide Y1 receptor (Y1 receptor) is expressed in bone tissues and cells, and regulates bone remodeling. However, the role of Y1 receptor in glucocorticoid-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation remains unknown. In the present study, osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium was treated with or without of 10(-7) M dexamethasone (Dex), Y1 receptor shRNA interference, Y1 receptor agonist [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY, and antagonist BIBP3226...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002971/new-and-developing-therapies-for-al-amyloidosis
#12
Giulia Zumbo, Omid Sadeghi-Alavijeh, Philip N Hawkins, Marianna Fontana
Systemic light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is an infiltrative disorder associated with an underlying plasma cells dyscrasia, in which monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains accumulate in an abnormal misfolded form as amyloid fibrils in the extracellular space. Symptoms and prognosis are governed by which organs are affected, and cardiac involvement is the major determinant of survival. Diagnosis requires demonstration of amyloid deposition and confirmation of the fibril protein type. Areas covered: This review will focus on the available treatments for systemic AL amyloidosis and on new drug targets and therapeutic approaches...
December 29, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000962/hypoxia-causes-il-8-secretion-charcot-leyden-crystal-formation-and-suppression-of-corticosteroid-induced-apoptosis-in-human-eosinophils
#13
Linsey M Porter, Andrew S Cowburn, Neda Farahi, John Deighton, Stuart N Farrow, Christine A Fiddler, Jatinder K Juss, Alison M Condliffe, Edwin R Chilvers
BACKGROUND: Inflamed environments are typically hypercellular, rich in pro-inflammatory cytokines, and profoundly hypoxic. While the effects of hypoxia on neutrophil longevity and function have been widely studied, little is known about the consequences of this stimulus on eosinophils. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effects of hypoxia on several key aspects of eosinophil biology; namely secretion, survival, and their sensitivity to glucocorticosteroids (GCS), agents which normally induce eosinophil apoptosis...
December 21, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000445/delphinidin-prevents-muscle-atrophy-and-upregulates-mir-23a-expression
#14
Motoki Murata, Haruna Nonaka, Satomi Komatsu, Megumi Goto, Mai Morozumi, Shuhei Yamada, I-Chian Lin, Shuya Yamashita, Hirofumi Tachibana
Delphinidin, one of the major anthocyanidins, shows protective effects against a variety of pathologies, including cancer, inflammation, and muscle atrophy. The purpose of this study was to determine the preventive mechanism of delphinidin on disuse muscle atrophy. In vitro and in vivo models were used to validate the effects of delphinidin on the expression of MuRF1, miR-23a, and NFATc3. Delphinidin suppressed the upregulation of MuRF1 (1.77 ± 0.05 vs 1.03 ± 0.17, P < 0.05) expression and inhibited the downregulation of miR-23a (0...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996187/gasserian-ganglion-and-retrobulbar-nerve-block-in-the-treatment-of-ophthalmic-postherpetic-neuralgia-a-case-report
#15
Jie Huang, Ni Zhongge, Philip Finch
OBJECTIVES: Varicella-zoster virus reactivation can cause permanent histological changes in the central and peripheral nervous system. Neural inflammatory changes or damage to the dorsal root ganglia sensory nerve fibers during reactivation can lead to postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). For PHN of the first division of the fifth cranial nerve (ophthalmic division of the trigeminal ganglion), there is evidence of inflammatory change in the ganglion and adjacent ocular neural structures. First division trigeminal nerve PHN can prove to be difficult and sometimes even impossible to manage despite the use of a wide range of conservative measures, including anticonvulsant and antidepressant medication...
December 20, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994914/inhibitory-effect-of-pycnogenol-%C3%A2-on-airway-inflammation-in-ovalbumin-induced-allergic-rhinitis
#16
Ceren Günel, Buket Demirci, Aylin Eryılmaz, Mustafa Yılmaz, İbrahim Meteoğlu, İmran Kurt Ömürlü, Yeşim Başal
BACKGROUND: The supplement Pycnogenol(®) (PYC) has been used for the treatment of several chronic diseases including allergic rhinitis (AR). However, the in vivo effects on allergic inflammation have not been identified to date. AIMS: To investigate the treatment results of PYC on allergic inflammation in a rat model of allergic rhinitis. STUDY DESIGN: Animal experimentation. METHODS: Allergic rhinitis was stimulated in 42 rats by intraperitoneal sensitization and intranasal challenge with Ovalbumin...
November 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990354/effect-of-trapping-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-in-a-murine-model-of-dry-eye-with-inflammatory-neovascularization
#17
Jin Woo Kwon, Jin A Choi, Eun Young Shin, Tae Yoon La, Dong Hyun Jee, Yeon Woong Chung, Yang Kyung Cho
AIM: To evaluate whether trapping vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) would suppress angiogenesis and inflammation in dry eye corneas in a murine corneal suture model. METHODS: We established two groups of animals, one with non-dry eyes and the other with induced dry eyes. In both groups, a corneal suture model was used to induce inflammation and neovascularization. Each of two groups was again divided into three subgroups according to the treatment; subgroup I (aflibercept), subgroup II (dexamethasone) and subgroup III (phosphate buffered saline, PBS)...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967238/a-refill-for-the-brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-benefit-of-cortisol-add-on-to-dexamethasone-therapy
#18
Onno C Meijer, E Ronald de Kloet
Some serious medical conditions require life-saving treatment with high doses of synthetic glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone. A substantial number of patients subjected to this treatment develops psychosis, mood disturbance or sleep problems. A recent clinical trial demonstrated that dexamethasone therapy of young patients suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) caused in about 30% of these patients severe adverse psychological effects and sleep disturbances. These side effects were ameliorated by co-administration of a low dose of the naturally occurring glucocorticoid hormone cortisol...
December 14, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932593/dexamethasone-induced-intrauterine-growth-restriction-is-associated-with-altered-expressions-of-metastasis-tumor-antigens-and-cell-cycle-control-proteins-in-rat-placentas
#19
Mariam Alqaryyan, Narayana Kilarkaje, Abdeslam Mouihate, Maie D Al-Bader
Molecular mechanisms affecting placental formation in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) pregnancies are not clearly understood. Since metastasis tumor antigens (MTAs) MTA1 and MTA2 promote cell proliferation and MTA3 suppresses it, we hypothesized that IUGR alters cell survival/cell death programs driven by placental MTAs. To induce IUGR, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were given daily intraperitoneal injections of either saline or dexamethasone (0.4 mg/kg) starting from 14 days of gestation (dg) to either 19 dg or 21 dg...
December 8, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930971/losartan-and-dexamethasone-may-inhibit-chemotaxis-to-reduce-the-infiltration-of-th22-cells-in-iga-nephropathy
#20
Chenggen Xiao, Qiaoling Zhou, Xiaozhao Li, Hui Li, Yong Zhong, Ting Meng, Mengyuan Zhu, Hong Sun, Shuang Liu, Rong Tang, Jiaxi Pu, Yan Xu, Ping Xiao
Angiotensin II is considered a major profibrotic factor that is involved in tissue remodeling processes, as the inhibition of Angiotensin II can halt renal inflammatory processes. Dexamethasone, an important anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent, has been widely used to treat renal disease for decades. In this study, we explored the frequency of Th22 cells in a mouse model of IgA nephropathy and compared the possible effects of Losartan and Dexamethasone on Th22 cells. The experiments were performed using 6-week-old BALB/c female mice in an established IgA nephropathy model...
January 2017: International Immunopharmacology
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