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Dexamethasone suppression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777869/subconjunctival-dendrimer-drug-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-dry-eye-in-rabbits-with-induced-autoimmune-dacryoadenitis
#1
Hui Lin, Ying Liu, Siva P Kambhampati, Chih-Chien Hsu, Rangaramanujam M Kannan, Samuel C Yiu
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of a single subconjunctival injection of dendrimer-dexamethasone to treat dry eye in a rabbit model of induced autoimmune dacryoadenitis (AID). METHOD: Dendrimer biodistribution after subconjuntival injection in AID animals was evaluated using Cy5-labelled dendrimer (D-Cy5) and confocal microscopy. Diseased animals were treated with free dexamethasone (Free-Dex), dendrimer-dexamethasone (D-Dex), or saline via a single subconjunctival injection...
May 16, 2018: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777278/low-platelet-count-as-risk-factor-for-infections-in-patients-with-primary-immune-thrombocytopenia-a-retrospective-evaluation
#2
Mingming Qu, Qiang Liu, Hong-Guo Zhao, Jun Peng, Heyu Ni, Ming Hou, A J Gerard Jansen
Infectious complications are common and sometimes life threatening in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), mainly due to the immune-suppressive therapy. Recent evidence suggests a potential role of platelets in the inflammation process. In this clinical study, we further investigated the role of thrombocytopenia on infections in patients with primary ITP. We retrospectively evaluated data from the recently published large randomized clinical trial of a cohort of 195 patients with primary ITP, who were randomized for prednisone or high-dose dexamethasone...
May 18, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775885/clinical-correlates-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-measures-in-individuals-at-risk-for-psychosis-and-with-first-episode-psychosis
#3
Javier Labad, Antonio Armario, Roser Nadal, Montse Solé, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Zotes, Itziar Montalvo, Lorena Moreno-Samaniego, Lourdes Martorell, Vanessa Sánchez-Gistau, Elisabet Vilella
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations in at-risk mental states (ARMS) resemble those observed in established psychosis but are less consistent. We aimed to explore HPA axis abnormalities in both first-episode psychosis (FEP) and ARMS patients, while controlling for psychopathological symptoms. We studied 21 ARMS, 34 FEP patients and 34 healthy subjects. Clinical assessment included psychopathological symptoms (positive, negative, disorganized, excited and depressive symptoms) and stress measures...
May 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772620/-development-of-ectopic-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-prostate-cancer-during-combined-androgen-blockade-therapy
#4
Yosuke Sekii, Mitsuhiro Yoshinaga, Masahiro Nakagawa, Hidefumi Kishikawa, Kazumasa Oka, Kenji Nishimura
A 74-year old man presented to us with difficulty urinating. The laboratory examinations revealed an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. A prostate biopsy revealed prostate adenocarcinoma. The computed tomography scan showed metastasis to lymph nodes in the pelvic cavity and both adrenal glands. Combined androgen blockade therapy was started, and PSA levels began to decrease gradually. However, 2 months later, he was hospitalized for treatment of cellulitis and was found to have hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hypokalemia...
April 2018: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763908/connexin-43-modulates-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-through-gsk-3beta-beta-catenin-signaling-pathways
#5
Fei-Xiang Lin, Gui-Zhou Zheng, Bo Chang, Rong-Chun Chen, Qi-Hao Zhang, Peng Xie, Da Xie, Guo-Yong Yu, Qin-Xiao Hu, De-Zhong Liu, Shi-Xin Du, Xue-Dong Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are multipotent precursors that give rise to osteoblasts, and contribute directly to bone formation. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most ubiquitous gap junction protein expressed in bone cell types, and plays crucial roles in regulating intercellular signal transmission for bone development, differentiation and pathology. However, the precise role and mechanism of Cx43 in BMSCs are less known. Here, we investigate the function of Cx43 in osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763585/seasonal-changes-in-acute-stressor-mediated-plasma-glucocorticoid-regulation-in-new-world-flying-squirrels
#6
Lanna M Desantis, Jeff Bowman, Mathilakath M Vijayan, Gary Burness
Southern flying squirrels have higher circulating cortisol levels than most vertebrates. However, regulation of tissue exposure to cortisol by the hormone's carrier protein, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), appears to be altered due to lower-than-expected CBG expression levels, and a reduced affinity for cortisol. To assess the capacity of flying squirrels to regulate acute stress-mediated cortisol levels, we used the dexamethasone (DEX) suppression test followed by the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test in both the breeding and non-breeding seasons, and quantified resultant changes in plasma cortisol and relative CBG levels...
May 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760304/metyrapone-responsive-ectopic-acth-secreting-pheochromocytoma-with-a-vicious-cycle-via-a-glucocorticoid-driven-positive-feedback-mechanism
#7
Minako Inoue, Ken Okamura, Chie Kitaoka, Fumio Kinoshita, Ryo Namitome, Udai Nakamura, Masaki Shiota, Kenichi Goto, Toshio Ohtsubo, Kiyoshi Matsumura, Yoshinao Oda, Masatoshi Eto, Takanari Kitazono
In ectopic ACTH-secreting pheochromocytoma, combined ACTH-driven hypercortisolemia and hyper-catecholaminemia are serious conditions, which can be fatal if not diagnosed and managed appropriately, especially when glucocorticoid-driven positive feedback is suggested with a high ACTH/cortisol ratio. A 46-year-old man presented with headache, rapid weight loss, hyperhidrosis, severe hypertension and hyperglycemia without typical Cushingoid appearance. Endocrinological examinations demonstrated elevated plasma and urine catecholamines, serum cortisol and plasma ACTH...
May 15, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757463/depression-related-behavioural-and-neuroendocrine-changes-in-the-spontaneously-diabetic-torii-sdt-fatty-rat-an-animal-model-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Katsuya Sakimura, Tatsuya Maekawa, Kazuo Sasagawa, Yukihito Ishii, Shin-Ichi Kume, Takeshi Ohta
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric diseases and is commonly comorbid with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the pathophysiology underlying the depressive state in DM remains poorly understood. Animal models are useful tools to investigate the association between depression and DM. In the present study we investigated whether the Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rat, a novel animal model of type 2 DM, shows depression-related features. We assessed depression-like behaviour, hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and neurotransmitter levels in the brain...
May 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755405/dual-paraneoplastic-endocrine-syndromes-heralding-onset-of-extrapulmonary-small-cell-carcinoma-a-case-report-and-narrative-review
#9
Jill B Feffer, Natalia M Branis, Jeanine B Albu
Objective: Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is rare and frequent metastases at presentation can complicate efforts to identify a site of origin. In particular, SCC comprises <1% of prostate cancers and has been implicated in castration resistance. Methods: Clinical, laboratory, imaging, and pathology data are presented. Results: A 56-year-old man with locally advanced prostate adenocarcinoma on androgen deprivation therapy presented with a clogged nephrostomy tube...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754638/recent-advances-on-subclinical-hypercortisolism
#10
REVIEW
Guido Zavatta, Guido Di Dalmazi
During the last 20 years, a significant body of literature has accumulated regarding subclinical hypercortisolism in patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Retrospective studies have indicated these patients have an increase in cardiovascular events and mortality. Current recommendations for patients with adrenal incidentalomas include an overnight low-dose dexamethasone suppression test and a thorough evaluation of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Further hormonal testing and close monitoring are necessary in patients with incomplete suppression...
June 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753869/dexamethasone-alleviates-pemetrexed-induced-senescence-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
Haiyan Ge, Jun Ke, Nuo Xu, Hongqing Li, Jin Gong, Xiangyang Li, Yuanlin Song, Huili Zhu, Chunxue Bai
Pemetrexed (PEM) is a novel and multi-targeted antifolate used as an antineoplastic agent for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pleural mesothelioma. Although glucocorticoid was often used with PEM to reduce toxicity during the chemotherapy, it is not clear yet whether glucocorticoid co-administration could affect PEM efficacy in NSCLC. Here we established NSCLC cell lines and examined the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on PEM sensitivity in vitro and in xenograft models. DEX co-administration reduced chemotherapy sensitivity to PEM in xenograft models...
May 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751108/basal-glucocorticoid-receptor-activation-induces-proliferation-and-inhibits-neuronal-differentiation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neuronal-precursor-cells
#12
Elina Nürnberg, Sandra Horschitz, Patrick Schloss, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
Glucocorticoids (GC) have first been shown to originate from the adrenal glands where synthesis and release is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recently, it was shown that GC and other steroid hormones are also synthesized in the central nervous system, so-called neurosteroids. GC bind to specific GC receptors (GR) which function as ligand-activated transcription factors. GR are expressed in nearly all cell types in the brain, and therefore GC have a strong impact on neuronal development...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749133/characteristics-of-adrenal-incidentalomas-in-a-large-prospective-computed-tomography-based-multicenter-study-the-coar-study-in-korea
#13
Seong Hee Ahn, Jae Hyeon Kim, Seung Hee Baek, Hyeonmok Kim, Yoon Young Cho, Sunghwan Suh, Beom Jun Kim, Seongbin Hong, Jung Min Koh, Seung Hun Lee, Kee Ho Song
PURPOSE: Previous studies on adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are limited by their retrospective design, small numbers of patients, Western populations, or use of an outdated imaging technique. We investigated the characteristics of AIs in Korean patients and compared them with those reported in the largest retrospective study in Italy to discover the effects of improved imaging techniques and ethnicity differences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional observational study including 1005 Korean patients...
June 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740485/effects-of-dexamethasone-on-c6-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-through-the-upregulation-of-aqp1
#14
Ying Guan, Jianqiang Chen, Yuefu Zhan, Hong Lu
Dexamethasone (Dex) is commonly used to treat glioma; however, the mechanism underlying the action of Dex remains unclear. In the present study, the hypothesis that aquaporin-1 (AQP1) may participate in tumor cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion was tested using small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results of the current study indicated that Dex could inhibit the proliferation, in addition to promoting the migration, of C6 cells. Dex was indicated to promote the expression of AQP1. Downregulation of AQP1, achieved using siRNAs, demonstrated the inhibition of cell proliferation, promotion of cell migration and suppression of invasion; therefore, Dex was indicated to serve a role in these effects in the C6 cells, via the upregulation of AQP1...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729496/progressive-increase-in-allergen-concentration-abrogates-immune-tolerance-in-ovalbumin-induced-murine-model-of-chronic-asthma
#15
Gurupreet S Sethi, Amarjit S Naura
Persistent inflammation and remodeling of airways are the major hallmarks of asthma. Though airway inflammation diminishes in ovalbumin (OVA)-based mouse model of chronic asthma owing to immune-tolerance linked with repeated allergen exposure, which limits the application of the disease model. Accordingly, the present study was designed to develop a murine model of chronic asthma which presents persistent airway inflammation coupled with remodeling traits. Herein, OVA-sensitized BALB/c mice were challenged with increasing (modified protocol) or constant concentration (conventional protocol) of the allergen for 6 weeks; 3 times/week...
May 2, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725582/circulating-thyrotropin-is-upregulated-by-estradiol
#16
Salvatore Benvenga, Flavia Di Bari, Roberta Granese, Irene Borrielli, Grazia Giorgianni, Loredana Grasso, Maria Le Donne, Roberto Vita, Alessandro Antonelli
After encountering two women with serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels greater in periovulatory phase than in other days of the menstrual cycle, we hypothesized that TSH levels could be sensitive to changes in circulating estrogens in women. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum TSH increases after an induced acute increase of serum estradiol, and compare serum TSH increase with that of prolactin (PRL) which is a classic estradiol-upregulated pituitary hormone. In this retrospective study, we resorted to stored frozen sera from 55 women who had undergone the GnRH agonist (buserelin)-acute stimulation test of ovarian steroidogenesis...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720835/combination-of-garcinia-cambogia-extract-and-pear-pomace-extract-additively-suppresses-adipogenesis-and-enhances-lipolysis-in-3t3-l1-cells
#17
Kushal Sharma, Siwon Kang, Dalseong Gong, Sung-Hwa Oh, Eun-Young Park, Min-Ho Oak, Eunyoung Yi
Background: Inhibition of adipogenesis has been a therapeutic target for reducing obesity and obesity-related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. For decades, anti-adipogenic potential of many herbal extracts has been investigated. One example is Garcinia cambogia extract (GE) containing (-)-hydroxycitric acid as an active ingredient. GE is currently marketed as a weight loss supplement, used alone or with other ingredients. Pear pomace extract (PE), another natural product, has been also shown to have anti-adipogenic activity in a recent report...
April 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719879/low-dose-and-standard-overnight-and-low-dose-two-day-dexamethasone-suppression-tests-in-patients-with-mild-and-or-episodic-hypercortisolism
#18
Mona Mojtahedzadeh, Nesyah Shaesteh, Mastaneh Haykani, Jennifer L A Tran, Michael Mangubat, Hraya K Shahinian, Rahul Nachnani, Mohan Zopey, Jason Saidian, Antolice Thomas, Martin L Lee, Ian E McCutcheon, Theodore C Friedman
We previously reported on the lack of utility of the 1 mg overnight dexamethasone (DEX) test in mild and/or periodic Cushing's syndrome, as most patients with the condition suppressed to 1 mg DEX. It is possible that a lower dose of DEX as part of an overnight DEX test might be able to distinguish between mild and/or periodic Cushing's syndrome and those without the condition. The objective of the current study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a 0.25 mg overnight DEX suppression test, the standard 1 mg overnight DEX suppression test, and the two-day low-dose (Liddle test) DEX suppression test with and without correction for DEX levels in patients evaluated for mild and/or periodic Cushing's syndrome...
May 2, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717464/alteration-in-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-women-with-subclinical-hypercortisolism
#19
Jae Hyeon Kim, Mi Kyung Kwak, Seong Hee Ahn, Hyeonmok Kim, Yoon Young Cho, Sunghwan Suh, Beom-Jun Kim, Kee-Ho Song, Seung Hun Lee, Jung-Min Koh
PURPOSE: Despite the well-known deleterious effects of cortisol on skeletal muscle, whether subtle cortisol excess in subclinical hypercortisolism (SH) affects skeletal muscle mass is unknown. Our objective was to understand the effects of the cortisol level on skeletal muscle mass in patients with SH. METHODS: We compared skeletal muscle mass and fat mass (FM) between 21 patients with SH (12 women and 9 men) and 224 controls (67 women and 157 men) with nonfunctioning adrenal incidentaloma (NFAI)...
May 1, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715306/pentoxifylline-dexamethasone-and-azithromycin-demonstrate-distinct-age-dependent-and-synergistic-inhibition-of-tlr-and-inflammasome-mediated-cytokine-production-in-human-newborn-and-adult-blood-in-vitro
#20
Esther M Speer, David J Dowling, Jianjin Xu, Lukasz S Ozog, Jaime A Mathew, Avinash Chander, Donglei Yin, Ofer Levy
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal inflammation, mediated in part through Toll-like receptor (TLR) and inflammasome signaling, contributes to adverse outcomes including organ injury. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a phosphodiesterase inhibitor which potently suppresses cytokine production in newborn cord blood, is a candidate neonatal anti-inflammatory agent. We hypothesized that combinations of PTX with other anti-inflammatory agents, the steroid dexamethasone (DEX) or the macrolide azithromycin (AZI), may exert broader, more profound and/or synergistic anti-inflammatory activity towards neonatal TLR- and inflammasome-mediated cytokine production...
2018: PloS One
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