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Dexamethasone suppression

Yue Ma, Chunquan Zheng, Le Shi
Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), commonly divided into CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) is an inflammatory disease which mechanism remain unclear. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been proved to be a negative regulator of inflammation response while its role in pathogenesis of CRS has yet to be revealed. This research study was designed to investigate the relationship between the expression level and biologic role of LRRK2 in CRS. Methods: Expression of LRRK2 mRNA and noncoding repressor of NFAT (NRON) were examined by qRT-PCR...
2018: Clinical and Translational Allergy
Renping Liu, Peihong Wang, Caiqing Wu, Juan Chen, Chengxin Li, Yongtao Xie, Qi Wang, Jianming Liu, Huan He, Jing Zhu
Hedyotis diffusa Willd (HDW) is a constituent of several Chinese medicines used clinically to treat inflammatory diseases, including airway inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether HDW serves a protective role in suppressing chronic airway inflammation and its underlying mechanisms. A mouse model of chronic smoking was induced via exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) for 30 days, increasing the exposure time for up to 5 min per day and the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Hong-Ren Yu, You-Lin Tain, Mao-Meng Tiao, Chih-Cheng Chen, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, I-Chun Lin, Shih-Wen Li, Ching-Chou Tsai, Yu-Ju Lin, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Li-Tung Huang
BACKGROUND: Hypertension may result from high-fat (HF) diet induced-obesity and overexposure to glucocorticoids in utero. Recent studies demonstrated the potent contribution of adipose tissue's renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to systemic RAS, which plays a key role in regulating blood pressure (BP). In this study, we investigated the effects of prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and postnatal HF diet on RAS of adipose tissue. METHODS: RAS and BP of 6-month old rats exposed to prenatal DEX and/or postnatal HF diet were examined...
March 14, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Carine Ghassan Richa, Khadija Jamal Saad, Georges Habib Halabi, Elie Mekhael Gharios, Fadi Louis Nasr, Marie Tanios Merheb
The objective of this study is to report three cases of paraneoplastic or ectopic Cushing syndrome, which is a rare phenomenon of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing syndrome. Three cases are reported in respect of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment in addition to relevant literature review. The results showed that ectopic ACTH secretion can be associated with different types of neoplasm most common of which are bronchial carcinoid tumors, which are slow-growing, well-differentiated neoplasms with a favorable prognosis and small-cell lung cancer, which are poorly differentiated tumors with a poor outcome...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Zona Batacchi, Nicole K Andeen, Subbulaxmi Trikudanathan
A 62-year-old woman presented with an 11-month history of worsening nasal symptoms of rhinorrhoea, anosmia, nasal congestion and intermittent epistaxis. MRI revealed a large mass in the upper nasal vault. Biopsy of the mass revealed an olfactory neuroblastoma. While waiting resection, she acutely developed severe proximal muscle weakness, lethargy and lower extremity oedema. Blood glucose was elevated, and hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis was noted. Elevated serum cortisol level of 95.7 µg/dL (8.7-22.4 µg/dL) and markedly elevated 24-hour urinary cortisol level of 6962...
March 13, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
James M Hawley, Laura J Owen, Miguel De Bono, John Newell-Price, Brian G Keevil
BACKGROUND: Measurement of serum dexamethasone during the overnight dexamethasone-suppression test (ONDST) has been recommended to reduce false positive results when investigating Cushing's syndrome or increasingly commonly found adrenal incidentalomas. Despite this, there remains a paucity of well-validated dexamethasone methods currently available. Here, we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS serum dexamethasone assay and validate its utility in a cohort of postmenopausal females...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Jiang Qiu, Gang Huang, Ning Na, Lizhong Chen
Postmenopausal osteoporosis (OPM) is a common type of osteoporosis in females. It is a systemic, chronic bone disease that presents as microstructure degradation of osseous tissue, decreased bone mineral density and increased osteopsathyrosis caused by hypoovarianism and reduced estrogen levels in the body following menopause. In the present study, the role of microRNA (miR)‑214‑5p in the regulation of the expression of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) was investigated, and its molecular mechanism of osteogenic induction in vitro was assessed...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ying Huang, Gui-Quan Cai, Jian-Ping Peng, Chao Shen
Based on the results from our previous study, dexamethasone (Dex) increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and subsequently induces cell death and matrix catabolism in chondrocytes. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NADPH) oxidase 4 (NOX4) is one of the major enzymes responsible for intracellular ROS production during the inflammatory process. The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of NOX4 in Dex-induced ROS over-production...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Yang Zhao, Hui Guo, Ying Zhao, Bingyin Shi
Ectopic adrenal adenoma causing chronic Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare phenomenon. Diagnosis is usually made years after disease onset because of the insidious nature of the ectopic adrenal gland and because it overlaps with common symptoms, such as overweight and hypertension, in the general population (Kreitschmann-Andermahr et al., 2015). Here, we report the case of a 46-year-old male with a 15-year history of severe hypertension, facial plethora, and centripetal obesity. During treatment for herpes zoster, the patient presented with severe hypokalemia and flaccid paralysis, characteristic changes associated with CS...
March 7, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
Eric P Hoffman, Valerie Riddle, Maxime A Siegler, Daniel Dickerson, Miroslav Backonja, William G Kramer, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Jesse M Damsker, John M McCall
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid drugs are highly effective anti-inflammatory agents, but chronic use is associated with extensive pharmacodynamic safety concerns that have a considerable negative impact on patient quality of life. PURPOSE: Vamorolone (VBP15) is a first-in-class steroidal multi-functional drug that shows potent inhibition of pro-inflammatory NFkB pathways via high-affinity binding to the glucocorticoid receptor, high affinity antagonism for the mineralocorticoid receptor, and membrane stabilization properties...
March 7, 2018: Steroids
Guang Ren, Agnes M Rimando, Suresh T Mathews
Pterostilbene, a bioactive component of blueberries and grapes, shows structural similarity to resveratrol, and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, hypoglycemic, and cholesterol lowering effects. Recent evidence indicates that pterostilbene is an agonist of the nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α). Since PPAR-α agonists induce peroxisomal proliferation and fatty acid oxidation, we examined gene expression of acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1)...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Thierry Brue, Vincent Amodru, Frédéric Castinetti
With fewer than 200 reported cases, Cushing's syndrome (CS) in pregnancy remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In normal pregnancies, misleading signs may be observed such as striae or hypokalemia, while plasma cortisol and urinary free cortisol may rise up to 2-3-fold. While the dexamethasone suppression test is difficult to use, reference values for salivary cortisol appear valid. The predominant cause is adrenal adenoma (sometimes without decreased ACTH), rather than Cushing's disease. There are considerable imaging pitfalls in Cushing's disease...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Martina Blaschke, Regine Koepp, Julia Cortis, Marina Komrakova, Matthias Schieker, Ute Hempel, Heide Siggelkow
BACKGROUND: Crohn´s disease (CD) is associated with a higher prevalence of osteoporosis. The pathogenesis of bone affliction remains controversial, especially if inflammatory cytokines or glucocorticoid therapy are the main contributors. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, bone resorption is induced by IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α. In contrast, in children with CD, IL-6 exclusively decreased bone formation without affecting bone resorption. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to further clarify the pathophysiology of bone affliction in adult patients with CD with the use of an osteoblast and osteoclast cell model...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Leslee N Matheny, Sudipa Sarkar, Hanyuan Shi, Jiun-Ruey Hu, Hannah Harmsen, Ty W Abel, Shubhada M Jagasia, Shichun Bao
We present a case of a 52-year-old male who developed Cushing's Syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion from a large esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) of the nasal sinuses. The patient initially presented with polyuria, polydipsia, weakness, and confusion. Computed tomography scan of the head and magnetic resonance imaging showed a 7 cm skull base mass centered in the right cribriform plate without sella involvement. Work-up revealed ACTH-dependent hypercortisolemia, which did not suppress appropriately after high-dose dexamethasone...
2018: Case Reports in Endocrinology
Emilia Sbardella, Marianna Minnetti, Denise D'Aluisio, Laura Rizza, Maria Rosaria Di Giorgio, Fabio Vinci, Riccardo Pofi, Elisa Giannetta, Mary Anna Venneri, Annarita Vestri, Sergio Morelli, Andrea Lenzi, Andrea M Isidori
BACKGROUND: Low-grade incomplete post-dexamethasone cortisol suppression in patients with adrenal incidentalomas -recently defined as possible autonomous cortisol secretion (pACS)- has been associated with increased cardiovascular events and mortality. However, prospective studies documenting cardiac abnormalities in these patients are lacking. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Between July 2016 and September 2017, 71 consecutive patients with adrenal lesions were prospectively screened for hypercortisolism by dexamethasone suppression test (NCT02611258)...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Ágnes Molnár, Attila Patócs, István Likó, Gábor Nyírő, Károly Rácz, Miklós Tóth, Beatrix Sármán
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoid resistance is a rare, sporadic or familial condition caused by mutation of the gene encoding the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Clinically it is characterized by symptoms developed due to local, tissue-specific, or generalized partial insensitivity to glucocorticoids. CASE PRESENTATION: A 31-year-old woman was evaluated because of infertility at the Endocrine Unit of the 2nd Department of Medicine, Semmelweis University. During her laboratory investigations, elevated serum and salivary cortisol were observed which failed to be suppressed after administration of 1 mg dexamethasone...
March 6, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
Michael Bennaim, Robert E Shiel, Christopher Forde, Carmel T Mooney
BACKGROUND: Dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) may be more mildly affected at the time of diagnosis today, which could influence the prevalence of associated clinical and clinicopathological abnormalities and diagnostic test performance. Different low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) result patterns have not been evaluated individually. OBJECTIVES: To assess the current features of HAC and evaluate if the diagnostic test performance of individual LDDST result patterns differ...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Xiong Liu, Yuqi She, Hongrong Wu, Da Zhong, Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND: LncRNA Gas5 is known to be a key control element during growth, differentiation and development in mammalian species. However, the role and function of Gas5 in growth plate chondrocytes has not been determined. METHODS: The overexpression and knockdown models of Gas5 and miR-21 in cells and animals were constructed. Cell survival was determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Animal biochemical indices were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hematoxylin/eosin staining, immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridisation...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Keita Harada, Hidetada Matsuoka, Masumi Inoue
M-type K+ channels contribute to the resting membrane potential in the sympathetic ganglion neurons of various animals, whereas their expression in adrenal medullary (AM) cells has been controversial. The present experiment aims to explore the expression of M channels comprising the KCNQ2 subunit in the rat AM cell and its immortalized cell line PC12 cells at the protein level and how its expression in PC12 cells is regulated. The KCNQ2 isoform was recognized in homogenates of PC12 cells but not the rat adrenal medullae by immunoblotting and KCNQ2-like immunoreactivity (IR) was detected in PC12 cells but not in rat AM cells...
February 27, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Ling-Zhi Ding, Xiao Teng, Zhao-Bo Zhang, Chang-Jun Zheng, Shi-Hong Chen
Mangiferin is a xanthone glucoside, which possesses antioxidant, antiviral, antitumor and anti-inflammatory functions, and is associated with gene regulation. However, it remains unknown whether mangiferin protects osteoblasts, such as the MC3T3-E1 cell line, against glucocorticoid-induced damage. In the present study, MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with dexamethasone (Dex), which is a well-known synthetic glucocorticoid, in order to establish a glucocorticoid-induced cell injury model. After Dex and/or mangiferin treatment, cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured by Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry, respectively, and the concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) was measured by ELISA...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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