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Dexamethasone suppression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340167/subcutaneous-glucagon-infusion-and-continuous-glucose-monitoring-enable-effective-management-of-hypoglycemia-in-a-patient-with-igf-2-producing-hemangiopericytoma
#1
Eric D Buras, Emily Weatherup, Jennifer Wyckoff
Background: Ectopic insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 production is a rare complication of an array of epithelial and mesenchymal tumors, and can clinically manifest as life-threatening hypoglycemia. Case presentation: A 49-year-old woman with 13-year history of metastatic hemangiopericytoma, previously treated with multiple rounds of chemotherapy and palliative radiation, presented to the emergency department after a hypoglycemic seizure. On arrival, glucose was 18 mg/dL (1...
2018: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338697/additional-dexamethasone-in-chemotherapies-with-carboplatin-and-paclitaxel-could-reduce-the-impaired-glycometabolism-in-rat-models
#2
Yanxiu Guo, Haoxia Zeng, Xiaohong Chang, Chaohua Wang, Heng Cui
BACKGROUND: Side-effects have been considered as the limitation of the chemotherapy agents' administration and life quality in patients with ovarian cancers. In order to explore the influence of the chemotherapy agents commonly used in ovarian cancer patients on the blood glucose metabolism in rat models, we conducted this study which simulated the conditions of clinical protocols. METHODS: Eighty clean-grade female Wistar rats were randomized into 8 groups: Group 1 (Negative control), Group 1' (Dexamethasone), Group 2 (Carboplatin), Group 2' (Carboplatin-plus-dexamethasone), Group 3 (Paclitaxel), Group 3' (Paclitaxel-plus-dexamethasone), Group 4 (Combined therapy), Group 4' (Combined-therapy-plus-dexamethasone)...
January 16, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332324/effects-of-macrolide-and-corticosteroid-in-neutrophilic-asthma-mouse-model
#3
Tai Joon An, Chin Kook Rhee, Ji Hye Kim, Young Rong Lee, Jin Young Chon, Chan Kwon Park, Hyoung Kyu Yoon
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a disease of chronic airway inflammation with heterogeneous features. Neutrophilic asthma is corticosteroid-insensitive asthma related to absence or suppression of TH2 process and increased TH1 and/or TH17 process. Macrolides are immunomodulatory drug that reduce airway inflammation, but their role in asthma is not fully known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of macrolides in neutrophilic asthma and compare their effects with those of corticosteroids...
January 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329878/course-dose-and-stage-dependent-toxic-effects-of-prenatal-dexamethasone-exposure-on-fetal-articular-cartilage-development
#4
Ze Chen, Zhe Zhao, Yunzepeng Li, Xingyu Zhang, Bin Li, Liaobin Chen, Hui Wang
Dexamethasone, a synthetic long-acting glucocorticoid, is routinely used for treating mothers at risk for preterm delivery. However, intrauterine overexposure to glucocorticoids induces low birth weight and cartilage dysplasia in offspring. Also, the "critical window" and safe dose of this treatment are largely unknown. This study investigated the course-, dose-, and stage-dependent toxic effects and the possible mechanisms of prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE) on fetal development and articular cartilage development...
January 9, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305605/role-of-the-autotaxin-lpa-pathway-in-dexamethasone-induced-fibrotic-responses-and-extracellular-matrix-production-in-human-trabecular-meshwork-cells
#5
Megumi Honjo, Nozomi Igarashi, Junko Nishida, Makoto Kurano, Yutaka Yatomi, Koji Igarashi, Kuniyuki Kano, Junken Aoki, Makoto Aihara
Purpose: Dexamethasone (Dex) regulates aqueous humor outflow by inducing reorganization of the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM) production. Rho kinase (ROCK) has an important role in this process, but the upstream pathway leading to its activation remains elusive. The purpose of the study was to determine the role of autotaxin (ATX), an enzyme involved in the generation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), in the Dex-induced fibrotic response and ECM production in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299744/the-role-of-ykl40-in-the-pathogenesis-of-crs-with-nasal-polyps
#6
Yue Ma, Chunquan Zheng, Le Shi
BACKGROUND: Many Chinese patients who experience chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) have been shown to exhibit specifically enhanced TH1/TH17 responses and excessive neutrophil accumulation without demonstrating significant eosinophilia. These patients may be subject to different pathologies and therapies compared to Western patients. YKL40 can be produced by neutrophil and is associated with many inflammatory diseases, while its role in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has yet to be determined...
January 3, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288381/modulation-of-the-il-23-il-17-axis-by-fenofibrate-ameliorates-the-ovalbumin-lipopolysaccharide-induced-airway-inflammation-and-bronchial-asthma-in-rats
#7
Samah M Elaidy, Soha S Essawy, Mona A Hussain, Mohamed K El-Kherbetawy, Eman R Hamed
The overlapping between asthmatic subtypes, including both CD4+ T helper (TH)2 and TH17 cells, is found in the natural course of allergic asthma, especially in exacerbations and severe and insensitive forms to steroids, which are in need of new molecular therapies. In the TH2-subset mediated asthma, fenofibrate displays therapeutic promises, besides evidenced therapeutic effects on TH17-mediated colitis and myocarditis. Therefore, the effects of fenofibrate versus dexamethasone on IL-23/IL-17 axis in ovalbumin (OVA)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway inflammation and bronchial asthma in rats were explored...
December 30, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274415/the-activation-and-function-of-il-36%C3%AE-in-neutrophilic-inflammation-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#8
Hai Wang, Zhi-Yong Li, Wen-Xiu Jiang, Bo Liao, Guan-Ting Zhai, Nan Wang, Zhen Zhen, Jian-Wen Ruan, Xiao-Bo Long, Heng Wang, Wei-Hong Liu, Geng-Tian Liang, Wei-Min Xu, Atsushi Kato, Zheng Liu
BACKGROUND: Although increased accumulation of neutrophils has been noted in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), the function and regulation of neutrophils in CRS are largely unknown. IL-36 family cytokines may play an important role in neutrophilic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression and function of IL-36 cytokines in CRS. METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and ELISA were used to investigate the expression of IL-36 cytokines and IL-36 receptor (IL-36R) in sinonasal mucosa...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260252/-functional-diagnostics-in-endocrinology
#9
REVIEW
C J Auernhammer, M Reincke
When investigating many endocrinological diseases, basal laboratory parameters are not sufficient to distinguish between physiological and pathological hormone secretion. Functional diagnostics plays a decisive role in this context. Stimulation and suppression tests are used depending on whether under- or over-function needs to be diagnosed. This review article discusses selected functional tests, each of which plays an important role in current guidelines. Indications and test principles, including their performance, reliability, and limitations, are discussed...
December 19, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231783/dexamethasone-exacerbates-cytotoxic-chemotherapy-induced-lethargy-and-weight-loss-in-female-tumor-free-mice
#10
John Wong, Lisa T Tran, Kaari A Lynch, Lisa J Wood
Cytotoxic chemotherapy can induce a systemic inflammatory response which has been proposed to be an underlying mechanism of cancer treatment related fatigue. Dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid that has potent anti-inflammatory effects, is incorporated into chemotherapy regimens to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The purpose of this study was to determine whether by suppressing cytotoxic chemotherapy-induced inflammation, dexamethasone could ameliorate chemotherapy induced fatigue/lethargy in tumor free mice...
December 12, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212586/hypercortisolemia-and-depressive-like-behaviors-in-a-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-involved-in-visual-research
#11
Sean C Adams, Christine M Guyot, Kristina M Berry, Seth T Wallack, Andrew S Loar, Mathias Leblanc
A 10-y-old cranially implanted rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) involved in visual research was presented for dull mentation and weight loss. Physical examination revealed alopecia and poor body conditioning, and bloodwork revealed marked hypercortisolemia (23 μg/dL). Differential diagnoses for hypercortisolemia, weight loss, and alopecia included Cushing and pseudo-Cushing syndromes. To further evaluate hypercortisolemia, we compared the urine cortisol:creatinine ratio (UCCR) at baseline and after low-dose dexamethasone suppression (LDDS) testing in the presenting animal and healthy naïve and implanted working monkeys...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212227/shift-in-energy-metabolism-caused-by-glucocorticoids-enhances-the-effect-of-cytotoxic-anti-cancer-drugs-against-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells
#12
Shigeki Aoki, Michie Morita, Takuya Hirao, Masashi Yamaguchi, Reika Shiratori, Megumi Kikuya, Hiroji Chibana, Kousei Ito
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy. Treatments include glucocorticoids (GCs) such as dexamethasone (Dex) and prednisolone, which may be of value when used alongside cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs. To predict therapeutic efficacy of GCs, their activity against ALL cells is usually examined prior to chemotherapy; however, few studies have examined their effects when used in combination with other drugs. The paradox is that cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs that are effective against proliferating cancer cells show synergistic effects when used with GCs that prevent cell proliferation...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208661/plasma-steroid-metabolome-for-diagnosis-and-subtyping-patients-with-cushing-syndrome
#13
Graeme Eisenhofer, Jimmy Masjkur, Mirko Peitzsch, Guido Di Dalmazi, Martin Bidlingmaier, Matthias Grüber, Julia Fazel, Andrea Osswald, Felix Beuschlein, Martin Reincke
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of Cushing syndrome requires a multistep process that includes verification of hypercortisolism followed by identification of the cause of adrenocortical hyperfunction. This study assessed whether pituitary, ectopic, and adrenal subtypes of Cushing syndrome were characterized by distinct plasma steroid profiles that might assist diagnosis. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, mass spectrometric measurements of a panel of 15 plasma steroids were applied to 222 patients tested for Cushing syndrome...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207032/autophagy-relieves-the-function-inhibition-and-apoptosis%C3%A2-promoting-effects-on-osteoblast-induced-by-glucocorticoid
#14
Yudi Han, Lihai Zhang, Yaling Xing, Licheng Zhang, Xiaojuan Chen, Peifu Tang, Zhongbin Chen
Autophagy may be a major mechanism by which osteoblasts (OBs) protect against the negative effects of chronic glucocorticoid (GC) usage. OBs are closely associated with the remodeling that occurs in GC‑induced osteoporosis (GIO). In osteocytes, in response to stress induced by GCs, several pathways are activated, including cell necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy. However, the role of autophagy in OBs following treatment with excess GCs has not been addressed. In the current study, confocal microscopy observation of green fluorescent protein‑microtubule‑associated protein 1 light chain 3β (LC3) punctuate, and western blotting for LC3Ⅱ and Beclin 1 were performed for detection of autophagy in the MC3T3‑E1 osteoblastic cell line...
February 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205258/sustained-intra-cartilage-delivery-of-low-dose-dexamethasone-using-a-cationic-carrier-for-treatment-of-post-traumatic-osteoarthritis
#15
A G Bajpayee, R E De la Vega, M Scheu, N H Varady, I A Yannatos, L A Brown, Y Krishnan, T J Fitzsimons, P Bhattacharya, E H Frank, A J Grodzinsky, R M Porter
Disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs) should reach their intra-tissue target sites at optimal doses for clinical efficacy. The dense, negatively charged matrix of cartilage poses a major hindrance to the transport of potential therapeutics. In this work, electrostatic interactions were utilised to overcome this challenge and enable higher uptake, full-thickness penetration and enhanced retention of dexamethasone (Dex) inside rabbit cartilage. This was accomplished by using the positively charged glycoprotein avidin as nanocarrier, conjugated to Dex by releasable linkers...
December 5, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203387/alpinumisoflavone-protects-against-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis-through-suppressing-the-apoptosis-of-osteoblastic-and-osteocytic-cells
#16
Yun Wang, Jiangtao Liu, Qingjiang Pang, Dongying Tao
The long-term use of glucocorticoids is found to cause osteoporosis. This study is designed to evaluate the protective effect of alpinumisoflavone (AIF), a naturally occurring flavonoid compound, on dexamethasone(Dex)-induced osteoporosis. We use a rat model to investigate the apoptosis of osteoblastic and osteocytic cells. The results indicate that AIF effectively protects against dexamethasone-induced osteoporosis. Moreover, AIF effectively reversed dexamethasone-induced apoptosis in osteoblastic and osteocytic cells through inhibiting ROS overproduction and regulating the Nrf2 pathway...
December 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196164/glucocorticoids-indirectly-decrease-colon-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-via-effects-on-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#17
Zuzanna Drebert, Elly De Vlieghere, Jolien Bridelance, Olivier De Wever, Karolien De Bosscher, Marc Bracke, Ilse M Beck
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) support cancer growth, invasion, and metastasis. Glucocorticoids (GCs), drugs often administered together with chemotherapy, are steroidal ligands of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), a transcription factor which upon activation regulates expression of multiple genes involved in suppression of inflammation. We have previously shown that in dexamethasone (Dex)-treated CAFs derived from colon cancer, production and secretion of several factors related to cancer progression, such as tenascin C (TNC) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), were strongly suppressed...
November 28, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195115/effect-of-dietary-carbohydrates-and-time-of-year-on-acth-and-cortisol-concentrations-in-adult-and-aged-horses
#18
S I Jacob, R J Geor, P S D Weber, P A Harris, M E McCue
Diagnosis of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) remains a challenge as multiple factors (stress, exercise, and time of year) influence ACTH and cortisol concentrations. To assess endocrine status in a study designed to evaluate the effects of age and diet on glucose and insulin dynamics, we performed thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation tests and overnight dexamethasone suppression tests in March, May, August, and October on 16 healthy Thoroughbred and Standardbred mares and geldings...
November 1, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190292/tnf-%C3%AE-blockade-suppresses-pericystic-inflammation-following-anthelmintic-treatment-in-porcine-neurocysticercosis
#19
Siddhartha Mahanty, Miguel A Orrego, Carla Cangalaya, M Paz Adrianzen, Gianfranco Arroyo, Juan Calcina, Armando E Gonzalez, Héctor H García, Cristina Guerra-Giraldez, Theodore E Nash
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infection of the brain with the larval cyst of the tapeworm, Taenia solium. Cysticidal treatment induces parasite killing resulting in a post inflammatory response and seizures, which generally requires corticosteroid treatment to control inflammation. The nature of this response and how to best control it is unclear. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of pretreatment with etanercept (ETN), an anti-tumor necrosis factor agent, or dexamethasone (DEX), a high potency corticosteroid, on the post treatment inflammatory response in naturally infected pigs with neurocysticercosis after a single dose of the cysticidal drug praziquantel (PZQ)...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183725/involuntary-swimming-exercise-in-pregnant-rats-disturbs-erk1-2-signaling-in-embryonic-neurons-through-increased-cortisol-in-the-amniotic-fluid
#20
Yongwoo Jang, Byeongjun Lee, Eun-Kyung Kim, Won-Sik Shim, Young Duk Yang, Sung Min Kim
Harmful maternal behaviors, such as drinking and smoking, negatively affect embryonic development. In contrast, regular maternal exercise is believed to be beneficial to the fetus. Although it is not surprising that voluntary physical activities are advantageous to fetal development, it remains unclear whether involuntary maternal exercise has similar effects. The constituents of the amniotic fluid (AF) inevitably reflect the maternal plasma. Therefore, it is speculated that exercise-induced changes in maternal plasma can influence fetal development through changes in AF composition...
November 25, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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