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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471549/glutamate-dehydrogenase-deficient-mice-display-schizophrenia-like-behavioral-abnormalities-and-ca1-specific-hippocampal-dysfunction
#1
Sharon S Lander, Usman Khan, Nicole Lewandowski, Darpan Chakraborty, Frank A Provenzano, Susana Mingote, Sergiy Chornyy, Francesca Frigerio, Pierre Maechler, Hanoch Kaphzan, Scott A Small, Stephen Rayport, Inna Gaisler-Salomon
Brain imaging has revealed that the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus is hyperactive in prodromal and diagnosed patients with schizophrenia (SCZ), and that glutamate is a driver of this hyperactivity. Strikingly, mice deficient in the glutamate synthetic enzyme glutaminase have CA1 hypoactivity and a SCZ-resilience profile, implicating glutamate-metabolizing enzymes. To address this further, we examined mice with a brain-wide deficit in the glutamate-metabolizing enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), encoded by Glud1, which should lead to glutamate excess due to reduced glutamate metabolism in astrocytes...
February 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471434/disease-definition-for-schizophrenia-by-functional-connectivity-using-radiomics-strategy
#2
Long-Biao Cui, Lin Liu, Hua-Ning Wang, Liu-Xian Wang, Fan Guo, Yi-Bin Xi, Ting-Ting Liu, Chen Li, Ping Tian, Kang Liu, Wen-Jun Wu, Yi-Huan Chen, Wei Qin, Hong Yin
Specific biomarker reflecting neurobiological substrates of schizophrenia (SZ) is required for its diagnosis and treatment selection of SZ. Evidence from neuroimaging has implicated disrupted functional connectivity in the pathophysiology. We aimed to develop and validate a method of disease definition for SZ by resting-state functional connectivity using radiomics strategy. This study included 2 data sets collected with different scanners. A total of 108 first-episode SZ patients and 121 healthy controls (HCs) participated in the current study, among which 80% patients and HCs (n = 183) and 20% (n = 46) were selected for training and testing in intra-data set validation and 1 of the 2 data sets was selected for training and the other for testing in inter-data set validation, respectively...
February 17, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471101/on-object-selectivity-and-the-anatomy-of-the-human-fusiform-gyrus
#3
Kevin S Weiner, Vaidehi S Natu, Kalanit Grill-Spector
pFs is a functionally-defined region in the human brain that is involved in recognizing objects. A recent trend refers to pFs as the posterior fusiform sulcus, which is a neuroanatomical structure that does not exist. Here, we correct this mistake. To achieve this goal, we first recount the original definitions of pFs and then review the identification of sulci within and surrounding the fusiform gyrus (FG) including the mid-fusiform sulcus (MFS), which is a tertiary sulcus within the FG. We highlight that tertiary sulci, such as the MFS, are often absent from brain atlases, which complicates the accurate localization of functional regions, as well as the understanding of structural-functional relationships in ventral temporal cortex (VTC)...
February 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471028/the-structural-and-functional-brain-networks-that-support-human-social-networks
#4
M P Noonan, R B Mars, J Sallet, R I M Dunbar, L K Fellows
Social skills rely on a specific set of cognitive processes, raising the possibility that individual differences in social networks are related to differences in specific brain structural and functional networks. Here, we tested this hypothesis with multimodality neuroimaging. With diffusion MRI (DMRI), we showed that differences in structural integrity of particular white matter (WM) tracts, including cingulum bundle, extreme capsule and arcuate fasciculus were associated with an individual's social network size (SNS)...
February 19, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470965/causal-evidence-for-a-neural-component-of-spatially-global-hemodynamic-signals
#5
Kathrin Müsch, Christopher J Honey
In this issue of Neuron, Turchi et al. (2018) reversibly inactivate the basal forebrain to show that this region magnifies global neocortical signal fluctuations without altering the topography of canonical resting-state networks. Thus, spatially diffuse signals measurable via functional neuroimaging may track large-scale neuromodulatory state changes in the primate brain.
February 21, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470796/peers-influence-adolescent-reward-processing-but-not-response-inhibition
#6
Ashley R Smith, Gail M Rosenbaum, Morgan A Botdorf, Laurence Steinberg, Jason M Chein
Most adolescent risk taking occurs in the presence of peers. Prior research suggests that peers alter adolescents' decision making by increasing reward sensitivity and the engagement of regions involved in the processing of rewards, primarily the striatum. However, the potential influence of peers on the capacity for impulse control, and the associated recruitment of the brain's control circuitry, has not yet been adequately examined. In the current study, adolescents underwent functional neuroimaging while they completed interleaved rounds of risk-taking and response-inhibition tasks...
February 22, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470411/stroke-like-episodes-and-cerebellar-syndrome-in-phosphomannomutase-deficiency-pmm2-cdg-evidence-for-hypoglycosylation-driven-channelopathy
#7
Mercè Izquierdo-Serra, Antonio F Martínez-Monseny, Laura López, Julia Carrillo-García, Albert Edo, Juan Darío Ortigoza-Escobar, Óscar García, Ramón Cancho-Candela, M Llanos Carrasco-Marina, Luis G Gutiérrez-Solana, Daniel Cuadras, Jordi Muchart, Raquel Montero, Rafael Artuch, Celia Pérez-Cerdá, Belén Pérez, Belén Pérez-Dueñas, Alfons Macaya, José M Fernández-Fernández, Mercedes Serrano
Stroke-like episodes (SLE) occur in phosphomannomutase deficiency (PMM2-CDG), and may complicate the course of channelopathies related to Familial Hemiplegic Migraine (FHM) caused by mutations in CACNA1A (encoding CaV 2.1 channel). The underlying pathomechanisms are unknown. We analyze clinical variables to detect risk factors for SLE in a series of 43 PMM2-CDG patients. We explore the hypothesis of abnormal CaV 2.1 function due to aberrant N -glycosylation as a potential novel pathomechanism of SLE and ataxia in PMM2-CDG by using whole-cell patch-clamp, N -glycosylation blockade and mutagenesis...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470170/sub-network-kernels-for-measuring-similarity-of-brain-connectivity-networks-in-disease-diagnosis
#8
Biao Jie, Mingxia Liu, Daoqiang Zhang, Dinggang Shen
As a simple representation of interactions among distributed brain regions, brain networks have been widely applied to automated diagnosis of brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its early stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In brain network analysis, a challenging task is how to measure the similarity between a pair of networks. Although many graph kernels (i.e., kernels defined on graphs) have been proposed for measuring the topological similarity of a pair of brain networks, most of them are defined using general graphs, thus ignoring the uniqueness of each node in brain networks...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470161/the-child-with-macrocephaly-differential-diagnosis-and-neuroimaging-findings
#9
Emanuele Orrù, Sonia F Calloni, Aylin Tekes, Thierry A G M Huisman, Bruno P Soares
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to offer a systematic approach to the imaging of children with macrocephaly and to illustrate key neuroimaging features of common and rare but important disorders. CONCLUSION: Macrocephaly is a common clinical finding in children. Increased volume of one of the intracranial compartments can enlarge the head either prenatally or postnatally while the cranial sutures are open. Imaging plays a central role in establishing a diagnosis and guiding management...
February 22, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469661/biological-evidence-regarding-psychopathy-does-not-affect-mock-jury-sentencing
#10
Rheanna J Remmel, Andrea L Glenn, Jennifer Cox
Research on the biological factors influencing criminal behavior is increasingly being introduced into court, necessitating research on how such evidence is perceived and influences decision makers. Research on how this evidence influences sentencing recommendations is inconclusive. In this study, we focus on biological evidence related to psychopathy, a construct commonly associated with criminal behavior. Approximately 800 community members were presented with a case vignette detailing an individual who is described as having a high level of psychopathic traits...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468065/neuroimaging-in-bulimia-nervosa-and-binge-eating-disorder-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Brooke Donnelly, Stephen Touyz, Phillipa Hay, Amy Burton, Janice Russell, Ian Caterson
Objective: In recent decades there has been growing interest in the use of neuroimaging techniques to explore the structural and functional brain changes that take place in those with eating disorders. However, to date, the majority of research has focused on patients with anorexia nervosa. This systematic review addresses a gap in the literature by providing an examination of the published literature on the neurobiology of individuals who binge eat; specifically, individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED)...
2018: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467711/eye-movement-abnormalities-in-multiple-sclerosis-pathogenesis-modeling-and-treatment
#12
REVIEW
Alessandro Serra, Clara G Chisari, Manuela Matta
Multiple sclerosis (MS) commonly causes eye movement abnormalities that may have a significant impact on patients' disability. Inflammatory demyelinating lesions, especially occurring in the posterior fossa, result in a wide range of disorders, spanning from acquired pendular nystagmus (APN) to internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), among the most common. As the control of eye movements is well understood in terms of anatomical substrate and underlying physiological network, studying ocular motor abnormalities in MS provides a unique opportunity to gain insights into mechanisms of disease...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467408/prediction-complements-explanation-in-understanding-the-developing-brain
#13
REVIEW
Monica D Rosenberg, B J Casey, Avram J Holmes
A central aim of human neuroscience is understanding the neurobiology of cognition and behavior. Although we have made significant progress towards this goal, reliance on group-level studies of the developed adult brain has limited our ability to explain population variability and developmental changes in neural circuitry and behavior. In this review, we suggest that predictive modeling, a method for predicting individual differences in behavior from brain features, can complement descriptive approaches and provide new ways to account for this variability...
February 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467145/electrophysiological-signatures-of-spatial-boundaries-in-the-human-subiculum
#14
Sang Ah Lee, Jonathan F Miller, Andrew J Watrous, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini Sharan, Gregory A Worrell, Brent M Berry, Joshua P Aronson, Kathryn A Davis, Robert E Gross, Bradley Lega, Sameer Sheth, Sandhitsu R Das, Joel M Stein, Richard Gorniak, Daniel S Rizzuto, Joshua Jacobs
Environmental boundaries play a crucial role in spatial navigation and memory across a wide range of distantly-related species. In rodents, boundary representations have been identified at the single-cell level in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex of the hippocampal formation. While studies of hippocampal function and spatial behavior suggest that similar representations might exist in humans, boundary-related neural activity has not been identified electrophysiologically in humans until now. To address this gap in the literature, we analyzed intracranial recordings from the hippocampal formation of surgical epilepsy patients (of both sexes) while they performed a virtual spatial navigation task and compared the power in three frequency bands (1-4 Hz, 4-10 Hz, 30-90 Hz) for target locations near and far from the environmental boundaries...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466802/healthy-and-pathological-brain-aging-from-the-perspective-of-oscillations-functional-connectivity-and-signal-complexity
#15
Ryouhei Ishii, Leonides Canuet, Yasunori Aoki, Masahiro Hata, Masao Iwase, Shunichiro Ikeda, Keiichiro Nishida, Manabu Ikeda
Healthy aging is associated with impairment in cognitive information processing. Several neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and near-infrared spectroscopy have been used to explore healthy and pathological aging by relying on hemodynamic or metabolic changes that occur in response to brain activity. Since electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are able to measure neural activity directly with a high temporal resolution of milliseconds, these neurophysiological techniques are particularly important to investigate the dynamics of brain activity underlying neurocognitive aging...
February 21, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466722/shared-and-distinct-regional-homogeneity-changes-in-bipolar-and-unipolar-depression
#16
Xudong Yao, Zhiyang Yin, Fang Liu, Shengnan Wei, Yifang Zhou, Xiaowei Jiang, Yange Wei, Ke Xu, Fei Wang, Yanqing Tang
BACKGROUND: Bipolar depression (BD) is easily misdiagnosed as unipolar depression (UD) or major depressive disorder (MDD) because the depressive symptoms can overlap. Regional homogeneity (ReHo), a measure commonly used for analyzing resting-state fMRI data, has been applied to the study of various neuropsychiatric disorders. However, to date, studies directly comparing BD and UD using ReHo have been relatively scarce. Further investigation is needed to study the latent pathophysiological mechanisms of BD and UD...
February 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465896/insights-into-the-structure-and-function-of-the-hippocampal-formation-relevance-to-parkinson-s-disease
#17
REVIEW
Orsolya Györfi, Helga Nagy, Magdolna Bokor, Szabolcs Kéri
The link between the hippocampus and declarative memory dysfunctions following the removal of the medial temporal lobe opened unexplored fields in neuroscience. In the first part of our review, we summarized current theoretical frameworks discussing the role of hippocampus in learning and memory. Several theories are highlighted suggesting that the hippocampus is responsible for assembling stimulus elements into a unitary representation that later can be utilized to simulate future events. The hippocampal formation has been implicated in a growing number of disorders, from neurodegenerative diseases to atypical cognitive ageing and depression...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465610/col6a-and-lama2-mutation-congenital-muscular-dystrophy-a-clinical-and-electrophysiological-study
#18
Sumit Verma, Parul Goyal, Lokesh Guglani, Charlotte Peinhardt, Diane Pelzek, Paul E Barkhaus
OBJECTIVES: COL6A and LAMA2 are subtypes of congenital muscular dystrophy. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of clinical findings, spirometry, muscle histology, muscle ultrasound, neuroimaging, and Electromyography (EMG)/Nerve Conduction Study data in genetically confirmed COL6A and LAMA2 subjects. RESULTS: We identified 8 COL6A and 6 LAMA2 subjects: the female-to-male ratio was 1.3:1 and the mean age was 11.9 ± 3.6 years. Gross motor delays since birth, proximal muscle weakness, and contractures were noted in both groups...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465479/ketamine-associated-brain-changes-a-review-of-the-neuroimaging-literature
#19
Dawn F Ionescu, Julia M Felicione, Aishwarya Gosai, Cristina Cusin, Philip Shin, Benjamin G Shapero, Thilo Deckersbach
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent conditions in psychiatry. Patients who do not respond to traditional monoaminergic antidepressant treatments have an especially difficult-to-treat type of MDD termed treatment-resistant depression. Subanesthetic doses of ketamine-a glutamatergic modulator-have shown great promise for rapidly treating patients with the most severe forms of depression. As such, ketamine represents a promising probe for understanding the pathophysiology of depression and treatment response...
February 20, 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464814/drd2-promoter-methylation-and-measures-of-alcohol-reward-functional-activation-of-reward-circuits-and-clinical-severity
#20
L Cinnamon Bidwell, Hollis C Karoly, Rachel E Thayer, Eric D Claus, Angela D Bryan, Barbara J Weiland, Sophie YorkWilliams, Kent E Hutchison
Studies have identified strong associations between D2 receptor binding potential and neural responses to rewarding stimuli and substance use. Thus, D2 receptor perturbations are central to theoretical models of the pathophysiology of substance dependence, and epigenetic changes may represent one of the fundamental molecular mechanisms impacting the effects of alcohol exposure on the brain. We hypothesized that epigenetic alterations in the promoter region of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene would be associated with cue-elicited activation of neural reward regions, as well as severity of alcohol use behavior...
February 21, 2018: Addiction Biology
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