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Mohammad Adawi, Bishara Bisharat, Abdalla Bowirrat
BACKGROUND: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is an uncommon aggressive, multisystem form of non-Langerhans' cell histocytosis, which was firstly reported by Jakob Erdheim and William chester in 1930. The disease pathological features encompass an aberrant multiplication, overproduction and accumulation of white blood cells called histiocytes within multiple tissues and organs. Herein, we present a case of ECD owing to the rarity of this disease (roughly 550 cases have been described in the literature to date)...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Geert-Jan Will, Eveline A Crone, Pol A C van Lier, Berna Güroğlu
Childhood peer acceptance is associated with high levels of prosocial behavior and advanced perspective taking skills. Yet, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these associations have not been studied. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural correlates of sharing decisions in a group of adolescents who had a stable accepted status (n = 27) and a group who had a chronic rejected status (n = 19) across six elementary school grades. Both groups of adolescents played three allocation games in which they could share money with strangers with varying costs and profits to them and the other person...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Science
Martina F Callaghan, Siawoosh Mohammadi, Nikolaus Weiskopf
Quantitative MRI (qMRI) provides standardized measures of specific physical parameters that are sensitive to the underlying tissue microstructure and are a first step towards achieving maps of biologically relevant metrics through in vivo histology using MRI. Recently proposed models have described the interdependence of qMRI parameters. Combining such models with the concept of image synthesis points towards a novel approach to synthetic qMRI, in which maps of fundamentally different physical properties are constructed through the use of biophysical models...
October 18, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Tristram A Lett, Henrik Walter, Eva J Brandl
Genetic variation underlies both the response to antidepressant treatment and the occurrence of side effects. Over the past two decades, a number of pharmacogenetic variants, among these the SCL6A4, BDNF, FKBP5, GNB3, GRIK4, and ABCB1 genes, have come to the forefront in this regard. However, small effects sizes, mixed results in independent samples, and conflicting meta-analyses results led to inherent difficulties in the field of pharmacogenetics translating these findings into clinical practice. Nearly all antidepressant pharmacogenetic variants have potentially pleiotropic effects in which they are associated with major depressive disorder, intermediate phenotypes involved in emotional processes, and brain areas affected by antidepressant treatment...
October 17, 2016: CNS Drugs
Yanan Cao, Xiangyi Cao, Zhenzhu Yue, Ling Wang
Behavioral and recent neuroimaging findings have shown reversal of interference effects due to manipulating proportion congruency (PC), which suggests that task-irrelevant stimulus-response (S-R) associations are strengthened and applied to predict responses. However, it is unclear how the strengthened S-R associations are represented and applied in the brain. We investigated with a between-subjects PC paradigm of the Hedge and Marsh task using electroencephalography (EEG). The behavioral results showed the reversal of the conflict effects, suggesting that task-irrelevant S-R associations were strengthened and used to prepare responses...
October 17, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Ricarda A L Menke, Federica Agosta, Julian Grosskreutz, Massimo Filippi, Martin R Turner
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative, clinically heterogeneous syndrome pathologically overlapping with frontotemporal dementia. To date, therapeutic trials in animal models have not been able to predict treatment response in humans, and the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale, which is based on coarse disability measures, remains the gold-standard measure of disease progression. Advances in neuroimaging have enabled mapping of functional, structural, and molecular aspects of ALS pathology, and these objective measures may be uniquely sensitive to the detection of propagation of pathology in vivo...
October 17, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Lin Li, Mary Cazzell, Olajide Babawale, Hanli Liu
Atlas-guided diffuse optical tomography (atlas-DOT) is a computational means to image changes in cortical hemodynamic signals during human brain activities. Graph theory analysis (GTA) is a network analysis tool commonly used in functional neuroimaging to study brain networks. Atlas-DOT has not been analyzed with GTA to derive large-scale brain connectivity/networks based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements. We introduced an automated voxel classification (AVC) method that facilitated the use of GTA with atlas-DOT images by grouping unequal-sized finite element voxels into anatomically meaningful regions of interest within the human brain...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
E Mark Mahone, Deana Crocetti, Laura Tochen, Tina Kline, Stewart H Mostofsky, Harvey S Singer
BACKGROUND: Complex motor stereotypies in children are repetitive rhythmic movements that have a predictable pattern and location, seem purposeful, but serve no obvious function, tend to be prolonged, and stop with distraction, e.g., arm or hand flapping, waving. They occur in both "primary" (otherwise typically developing) and secondary conditions. These movements are best defined as habitual behaviors and therefore pathophysiologically hypothesized to reside in premotor to posterior putamen circuits...
September 8, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Bhim Mani Adhikari, Martin Norgaard, Kristen M Quinn, Jenine Ampudia, Justin Squirek, Mukesh Dhamala
Musical improvisation offers an excellent experimental paradigm for the study of real-time human creativity. It involves moment-to-moment decision-making, monitoring of one's performance, and utilizing external feedback to spontaneously create new melodies or variations on a melody. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to study the brain activity during musical improvisation, aiming to unlock the mystery of human creativity. What brain resources come together and how these are utilized during musical improvisation is not well understood...
October 18, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Kyu-Man Han, Daseul Kim, Youngbo Sim, June Kang, Aram Kim, Eunsoo Won, Woo-Suk Tae, Byung-Joo Ham
BACKGROUND: Morphologic changes of the brainstem in major depressive disorder (MDD) have rarely been reported in neuroimaging studies, even though, monoaminergic neurotransmitters are synthesized in several brainstem regions. We aimed to investigate volume changes in each region of the brainstem and their association with antidepressant use or the remission status of MDD. METHODS: A total of 126 patients with MDD and 101 healthy controls underwent T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Adriana Yock-Corrales, Flory Varela-Bulgarelli, Cary Barboza, Alfonso Gutierrez-Mata, Mark T Mackay, Franz Babl
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe clinical presentation, management, and outcomes of stroke in a tertiary emergency department (ED) of a developing country. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective case series of patients aged 1 month to 18 years presenting to an ED with radiological confirmed acute stroke during a 7-year period were studied. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients were identified. Twenty-five patients were excluded because of incomplete records (8) or not presenting via ED (17)...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Antonello Baldassarre, Lenny E Ramsey, Joshua S Siegel, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An important challenge in neurology is identifying the neural mechanisms underlying behavioral deficits after brain injury. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the effects of focal brain lesions on brain networks and behavior. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuroimaging studies indicate that the human brain is organized in large-scale resting state networks (RSNs) defined via functional connectivity, that is the temporal correlation of spontaneous activity between different areas...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Xiaohui Yao, Jingwen Yan, Sungeun Kim, Kwangsik Nho, Shannon L Risacher, Mark Inlow, Jason H Moore, Andrew J Saykin, Li Shen
Enrichment analysis has been widely applied in the genome-wide association studies, where gene sets corresponding to biological pathways are examined for significant associations with a phenotype to help increase statistical power and improve biological interpretation. In this work, we expand the scope of enrichment analysis into brain imaging genetics, an emerging field that studies how genetic variation influences brain structure and function measured by neuroimaging quantitative traits (QT). Given the high dimensionality of both imaging and genetic data, we propose to study Imaging Genetic Enrichment Analysis (IGEA), a new enrichment analysis paradigm that jointly considers meaningful gene sets (GS) and brain circuits (BC) and examines whether any given GS-BC pair is enriched in a list of gene-QT findings...
May 13, 2016: Brain Informatics
Qian Zhao, Xueqi Chen, Yun Zhou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, causing changes in memory, thinking, and other dysfunction of brain functions. More and more people are suffering from the disease. Early neuroimaging techniques of AD are needed to develop. This review provides a preliminary summary of the various neuroimaging techniques that have been explored for in vivo imaging of AD. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, such as functional MR imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, give opportunities to display not only anatomy and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe, but also at microstructural alterations or perfusion disturbance within the AD lesions...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Koon-Pong Wong, Marvin Bergsneider, Thomas C Glenn, Vladimir Kepe, Jorge R Barrio, David A Hovda, Paul M Vespa, Sung-Cheng Huang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity, placing a significant financial burden on the healthcare system worldwide. Non-invasive neuroimaging technologies have been playing a pivotal role in the study of TBI, providing important information for surgical planning and patient management. Advances in understanding the basic mechanisms and pathophysiology of the brain following TBI are hindered by a lack of reliable image analysis methods for accurate quantitative assessment of TBI-induced structural and pathophysiological changes seen on anatomical and functional images obtained from multiple imaging modalities...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Miaolin Fan, Chun-An Chou
Feature selection plays a key role in multi-voxel pattern analysis because functional magnetic resonance imaging data are typically noisy, sparse, and high-dimensional. Although the conventional evaluation criterion is the classification accuracy, selecting a stable feature set that is not sensitive to the variance in dataset may provide more scientific insights. In this study, we aim to investigate the stability of feature selection methods and test the stability-based feature selection scheme on two benchmark datasets...
September 2016: Brain Informatics
Cao Xiao, Jesse Bledsoe, Shouyi Wang, Wanpracha Art Chaovalitwongse, Sonya Mehta, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Thomas Grabowski
Today, diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) still primarily relies on a series of subjective evaluations that highly rely on a doctor's experiences and intuitions from diagnostic interviews and observed behavior measures. An accurate and objective diagnosis of ADHD is still a challenge and leaves much to be desired. Many children and adults are inappropriately labeled with ADHD conditions, whereas many are left undiagnosed and untreated. Recent advances in neuroimaging studies have enabled us to search for both structural (e...
September 2016: Brain Informatics
Milad Makkie, Shijie Zhao, Xi Jiang, Jinglei Lv, Yu Zhao, Bao Ge, Xiang Li, Junwei Han, Tianming Liu
Tremendous efforts have thus been devoted on the establishment of functional MRI informatics systems that recruit a comprehensive collection of statistical/computational approaches for fMRI data analysis. However, the state-of-the-art fMRI informatics systems are especially designed for specific fMRI sessions or studies of which the data size is not really big, and thus has difficulty in handling fMRI 'big data.' Given the size of fMRI data are growing explosively recently due to the advancement of neuroimaging technologies, an effective and efficient fMRI informatics system which can process and analyze fMRI big data is much needed...
December 2015: Brain Informatics
Bokai Cao, Xiangnan Kong, Jingyuan Zhang, Philip S Yu, Ann B Ragin
Investigating brain connectivity networks for neurological disorder identification has attracted great interest in recent years, most of which focus on the graph representation alone. However, in addition to brain networks derived from the neuroimaging data, hundreds of clinical, immunologic, serologic, and cognitive measures may also be documented for each subject. These measures compose multiple side views encoding a tremendous amount of supplemental information for diagnostic purposes, yet are often ignored...
December 2015: Brain Informatics
Bokai Cao, Xiangnan Kong, Philip S Yu
With rapid advances in neuroimaging techniques, the research on brain disorder identification has become an emerging area in the data mining community. Brain disorder data poses many unique challenges for data mining research. For example, the raw data generated by neuroimaging experiments is in tensor representations, with typical characteristics of high dimensionality, structural complexity, and nonlinear separability. Furthermore, brain connectivity networks can be constructed from the tensor data, embedding subtle interactions between brain regions...
December 2015: Brain Informatics
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