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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346931/compositional-analysis-and-metabolism-of-human-milk-oligosaccharides-in-infants
#1
Clemens Kunz, Silvia Rudloff
It is a great success that biotechnological means are available today to produce amounts of single human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in a purity which allows performing metabolic and functional studies even in humans. As recent data indicate that there is a link between the Lewis blood group and the secretor status of an individual and certain inflammatory diseases, this review will also focus on the metabolic fate of secretor- and Lewis blood group-specific components. We conclude that there is no simple urinary or fecal excretion pattern of HMOs, although the pattern in urine often reflects the mother's secretor/nonsecretor status...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346923/gut-brain-axis-and-behavior
#2
Clair R Martin, Emeran A Mayer
In the last 5 years, interest in the interactions among the gut microbiome, brain, and behavior has exploded. Preclinical evidence supports a role of the gut microbiome in behavioral responses associated with pain, emotion, social interactions, and food intake. Limited, but growing, clinical evidence comes primarily from associations of gut microbial composition and function to behavioral and clinical features and brain structure and function. Converging evidence suggests that the brain and the gut microbiota are in bidirectional communication...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346765/the-medial-temporal-memory-system-in-down-syndrome-translating-animal-models-of-hippocampal-compromise
#3
Caron A C Clark, Fabian Fernandez, Stella Sakhon, Goffredina Spanò, Jamie O Edgin
Recent studies have highlighted the dentate gyrus as a region of increased vulnerability in mouse models of Down syndrome (DS). It is unclear to what extent these findings are reflected in the memory profile of people with the condition. We developed a series of novel tasks to probe distinct medial temporal functions in children and young adults with DS, including object, spatial, and serial order memory. Relative to mental age-matched controls (n = 45), individuals with DS (n = 28) were unimpaired on subtests involving short-term object or configural recall that was divorced from spatial or temporal contexts...
March 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346759/commentary-what-s-in-a-word-or-words-on-the-relations-among-self-regulation-self-control-executive-functioning-effortful-control-cognitive-control-impulsivity-risk-taking-and-inhibition-for-developmental-psychopathology-reflections-on-nigg-2017
#4
Nancy Eisenberg
In Nigg's excellent article, he deals with a variety of complex conceptual issues related to the constructs of self-regulation and executive functioning (EF). Overall, I agree that the terminology proposed by Nigg should be adopted; moreover, the conceptual distinctions he provides should help the field to move forward with regard to the understanding of varied constructs related to self-regulation. In the spirit of further clarification, I questioned Nigg's suggestions that (a) working memory should be considered as part of the construct of top-down regulation and (b) planning is a higher level component of EF but not part of effortful control...
April 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346754/commentary-what-makes-a-life-go-well-moral-functioning-and-quality-of-life-measurement-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-reflections-on-jonsson-et%C3%A2-al-2017
#5
Ilina Singh
Jonsson et al.'s excellent review of the literature on quality of life (QoL) and childhood mental and behavioural disorders (Jonsson et al., ) highlights the need for studies that utilise child self-reported QoL, in contrast to parent or proxy QoL measures, and further challenges the field to develop QoL measures that 'put the child's own views and priorities first'.
April 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346750/intuitive-understanding-of-%C3%AF-delocalization-in-loose-and-%C3%AF-localization-in-tight-helical-conformations-of-an-oligosilane-chain
#6
Milena Jovanovic, Dean Antic, David Rooklin, Annika Bande, Josef Michl
Conformational effects on σ-electron delocalization in oligosilanes are addressed by Hartree-Fock and time-dependent density functional theory (B3LYP, 6-311G**) at MP2 optimized geometries of permethylated uniformly helical linear oligosilanes (all-ω-SinR2n+2) up to n = 16 and for backbone dihedral angles ω = 55 - 180̊. The extent of σ delocalization is judged by the partition ratio of the highest occupied molecular orbital and is reflected in the dependence of its shape and energy and of UV absorption spectra on n...
March 27, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346692/embraces-are-lateralized-in-spider-monkeys-ateles-fusciceps-rufiventris
#7
Emily R Boeving, Starlie C Belnap, Eliza L Nelson
Side biases observed in behavior are thought to reflect underlying asymmetric brain function or hemispheric specialization. Previous work in multiple species identified left side biases (associated with the right hemisphere) for processing social behavior. In highly social species such as primates, many behaviors may be categorized as social, yet differences between such behaviors have not been examined as a test of asymmetric brain function. Using Colombian spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps rufiventris), we observed lateral positioning during two types of behaviors widely categorized as social affiliative: embracing and grooming, and identified a left bias for embracing, but not grooming...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346616/unilateral-amblyopia-affects-two-eyes-fellow-eye-deficits-in-amblyopia
#8
Kimberly Meier, Deborah Giaschi
Unilateral amblyopia is a visual disorder that arises after selective disruption of visual input to one eye during critical periods of development. In the clinic, amblyopia is understood as poor visual acuity in an eye that was deprived of pattern vision early in life. By its nature, however, amblyopia has an adverse effect on the development of a binocular visual system and the interactions between signals from two eyes. Visual functions aside from visual acuity are impacted, and many studies have indicated compromised sensitivity in the fellow eye even though it demonstrates normal visual acuity...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346539/is-there-a-relation-between-novelty-seeking-striatal-dopamine-release-and-frontal-cortical-thickness
#9
Natalia Jaworska, Sylvia M Cox, Kevin F Casey, Isabelle Boileau, Mariya Cherkasova, Kevin Larcher, Alain Dagher, Chawki Benkelfat, Marco Leyton
BACKGROUND: Novelty-seeking (NS) and impulsive personality traits have been proposed to reflect an interplay between fronto-cortical and limbic systems, including the limbic striatum (LS). Although neuroimaging studies have provided some evidence for this, most are comprised of small samples and many report surprisingly large effects given the challenges of trying to relate a snapshot of brain function or structure to an entity as complex as personality. The current work tested a priori hypotheses about associations between striatal dopamine (DA) release, cortical thickness (CT), and NS in a large sample of healthy adults...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345862/quantification-of-lipid-metabolism-in-living-cells-through-the-dynamics-of-lipid-droplets-measured-by-stimulated-raman-scattering-imaging
#10
Chi Zhang, Junjie Li, Lu Lan, Ji-Xin Cheng
Dysregulation of lipid metabolism is associated with many diseases including cancer. Lipid droplet (LD), a ubiquitous organelle in mammalian cells, serves as a hub for lipid metabolism. Conventional assays on the measurement of lipid metabolism rely on the quantification of the lipid composition or amount. Such methods cannot distinguish LDs having different bio-functionalities in living cells, and thus could be inaccurate in measuring the instantaneous lipogenesis of the living cells. We applied label-free stimulated Raman scattering microscopy to quantify the LDs' spatial-temporal dynamics, which showed direct links to cellular lipid metabolisms and can separate LDs involving in different metabolic events...
March 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345771/effect-of-intra-cellular-trafficking-on-flow-cytometric-measurement-of-neutrophil-s-oxidative-status-in-iron-deficient-pregnant-females
#11
Soha R Youssef, Sherif F Hendawy, Noha H Boshnak, Mariana S Sedhom
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are prevalent among pregnant women particularly in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the iron status among Egyptian pregnant women and its impact on their neutrophil's count and antimicrobial functions. METHOD: Ninety pregnant females underwent complete blood count, iron profile, flow cytometric studies for neutrophil myeloperoxidase expression & oxidative burst using dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) after phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulation as well as neutrophil phagocytic and lytic indices...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345764/the-tarsal-metatarsal-complex-of-caviomorph-rodents-anatomy-and-functional-adaptive-analysis
#12
Adriana M Candela, Nahuel A Muñoz, César M García-Esponda
Caviomorph rodents represent a major adaptive radiation of Neotropical mammals. They occupy a variety of ecological niches, which is also reflected in their wide array of locomotor behaviors. It is expected that this radiation would be mirrored by an equivalent disparity of tarsal-metatarsal morphology. Here, the tarsal-metatarsal complex of Erethizontidae, Cuniculidae, Dasyproctidae, Caviidae, Chinchillidae, Octodontidae, Ctenomyidae, and Echimyidae was examined, in order to evaluate its anatomical variation and functional-adaptive relevance in relation to locomotor behaviors...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345114/peripheral-endothelial-function-after-arterial-switch-operation-for-d-looped-transposition-of-the-great-arteries
#13
Heather Y Sun, Katie Jo Stauffer, Susan E Nourse, Chau Vu, Elif Seda Selamet Tierney
Coronary artery re-implantation during arterial switch operation in patients with D-looped transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) can alter coronary arterial flow and increase shear stress, leading to local endothelial dysfunction, although prior studies have conflicting results. Endothelial pulse amplitude testing can predict coronary endothelial dysfunction by peripheral arterial testing. This study tested if, compared to healthy controls, patients with D-TGA after arterial switch operation had peripheral endothelial dysfunction...
March 27, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345005/chronic-enzyme-replacement-to-the-brain-of-a-late-infantile-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis-mouse-has-differential-effects-on-phenotypes-of-disease
#14
Jennifer A Wiseman, Yu Meng, Yuliya Nemtsova, Paul G Matteson, James H Millonig, Dirk F Moore, David E Sleat, Peter Lobel
Late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL) is a fatal inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by loss of lysosomal protease tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1). We have investigated the effects of chronic intrathecal (IT) administration using enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) to the brain of an LINCL mouse model, in which locomotor function declines dramatically prior to early death. Median lifespan was significantly extended from 126 days to >259 days when chronic IT treatment was initiated before the onset of disease...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344570/tanycytes-as-regulators-of-seasonal-cycles-in-neuroendocrine-function
#15
REVIEW
Jo E Lewis, Francis J P Ebling
Annual cycles of physiology and behavior are highly prevalent in organisms inhabiting temperate and polar regions. Examples in mammals include changes in appetite and body fat composition, hibernation and torpor, growth of antlers, pelage and horns, and seasonal reproduction. The timing of these seasonal cycles reflects an interaction of changing environmental signals, such as daylength, and intrinsic rhythmic processes: circannual clocks. As neuroendocrine signals underlie these rhythmic processes, the focus of most mechanistic studies has been on neuronal systems in the hypothalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344440/increased-heterogeneity-of-ventricular-repolarization-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-population
#16
Vincenzo Russo, Andrea Antonio Papa, Anna Rago, Paola D'Ambrosio, Giovanni Cimmino, Alberto Palladino, Luisa Politano, Gerardo Nigro
Sudden cardiac death in myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) patients can be attributed to atrioventricular blocks as far as to the development of life-threatening arrhythmias which occur even in hearts with normal left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization is considered to provide an electrophysiological substrate for malignant arrhythmias. QTc dispersion (QTc-D), JTc dispersion (JTc-D) and transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) could reflect the physiological variability of regional and transmural ventricular repolarization...
October 2016: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344422/impaired-left-ventricular-diastolic-functions-and-thickened-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-is-correlated-with-das-28-score
#17
Sertac Alpaydın, Zafer Buyukterzi, Halil Ekrem Akkurt, Halim Yılmaz
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is known to be associated with high cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate whether RA disease activity reflected with disease activity score-28 (DAS-28) had an impact on left ventricular diastolic functions and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness in RA patients with no traditional CV risk factors. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 41 patients newly diagnosed with RA were included...
March 2017: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344378/the-long-and-the-short-of-it-a-global-analysis-of-hawkmoth-pollination-niches-and-interaction-networks
#18
Steven D Johnson, Marcela Moré, Felipe W Amorim, William A Haber, Gordon W Frankie, Dara A Stanley, Andrea A Coccuci, Robert A Raguso
1. Proboscis length has been proposed as a key dimension of plant pollination niches, but this niche space has not previously been explored at regional and global scales for any pollination system. Hawkmoths are ideal organisms for exploring pollinator niches as they are important pollinators in most of the biodiverse regions of the earth and vary greatly in proboscis length, with some species having the longest proboscides of all insects. 2. Using datasets for nine biogeographical regions spanning the Old and New World, we ask whether it is possible to identify distinct hawkmoth pollination niches based on the frequency distribution of proboscis length, and whether these niches are reflected in the depths of flowers that are pollinated by hawkmoths...
January 2017: Functional Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344152/trait-based-food-cravings-are-encoded-by-regional-homogeneity-in-the-parahippocampal-gyrus
#19
Shuaiyu Chen, Debo Dong, Todd Jackson, Qian Zhuang, Hong Chen
Food cravings can reflect an intense trait-like emotional-motivational desire to eat palatable food, often resulting in the failure of weight loss efforts. Studies have linked trait-based food-cravings to increased risk of overeating. However, little is known about resting-state neural mechanisms that underlie food cravings. We investigated this issue using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity occurs in regions implicated in emotional memory and reward motivation associated with food cravings...
March 23, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344124/comparative-genomics-of-transport-proteins-in-probiotic-and-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-enterica-strains
#20
Jimmy Do, Hassan Zafar, Milton H Saier
Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species that can be pathogenic, probiotic, commensal, or a harmless laboratory strain. Pathogenic strains of E. coli cause urinary tract infections, diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and pyelonephritis, while the two known probiotic E. coli strains combat inflammatory bowel disease and play a role in immunomodulation. Salmonella enterica, a close relative of E. coli, includes two important pathogenic serovars, Typhi and Typhimurium, causing typhoid fever and enterocolitis in humans, respectively, with the latter strain also causing a lethal typhoid fever-like disease in mice...
March 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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