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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793108/manganese-contamination-affects-the-motor-performance-of-wild-northern-quolls-dasyurus-hallucatus
#1
Ami Fadhillah Amir Abdul Nasir, Skye F Cameron, Amanda C Niehaus, Christofer J Clemente, Frank A von Hippel, Robbie S Wilson
Neuromotor deficits are an important sign of manganese (Mn) toxicity in humans and laboratory animals. However, the impacts of Mn exposure on the motor function of wild animals remains largely unknown. Here, we assessed the impact of chronic exposure to Mn from active mining operations on Groote Eylandt, Australia on the motor function of the semi-arboreal northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus), an endangered species. The three motor tests conducted-maximum sprint speed on a straight run, manoeuvrability around a corner, and motor control on a balance beam-showed that elevated Mn body burden did not diminish performance of these traits...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793048/dna-methylation-differences-at-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-in-depression-are-related-to-functional-alterations-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-and-to-early-life-emotional-abuse
#2
Chloё Farrell, Kelly Doolin, Niamh O' Leary, Chaitra Jairaj, Darren Roddy, Leonardo Tozzi, Derek Morris, Andrew Harkin, Thomas Frodl, Zsófia Nemoda, Moshe Szyf, Linda Booij, Veronica O'Keane
Depression is associated with alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. A proposed mechanism to explain these alterations are changes in DNA methylation levels, secondary to early life adversity (ELA), at stress-related genes. Two gene regions that have been implicated in the literature, the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) exon 1F and the FKBP5 gene intron 7 were examined in 67 individuals (33 depressed patients and 34 controls). We investigated whether cortisol concentrations, evaluated in 25 depressed patients and 20 controls, and measures of ELA were associated with the degree of methylation at these candidate gene regions...
May 8, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793028/cytosolic-distributions-of-highly-toxic-metals-cd-and-tl-and-several-essential-elements-in-the-liver-of-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-l-analyzed-by-size-exclusion-chromatography-and-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry
#3
Zrinka Dragun, Nesrete Krasnići, Nicol Kolar, Vlatka Filipović Marijić, Dušica Ivanković, Marijana Erk
Cytosolic distributions of nonessential metals Cd and Tl and seven essential elements among compounds of different molecular masses were studied in the liver of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the karstic Krka River in Croatia. Analyses were done by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography and high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Common feature of Cd and Tl, as highly toxic elements, was their distribution within only two narrow peaks. The increase of cytosolic Cd concentrations was reflected in marked increase of Cd elution within low molecular mass peak (maximum at ∼15 kDa), presumably containing metallothioneins (MTs), which indicated successful Cd detoxification in brown trout liver under studied exposure conditions...
May 15, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792470/the-science-of-teamwork-progress-reflections-and-the-road-ahead
#4
Eduardo Salas, Denise L Reyes, Susan H McDaniel
We need teams in nearly every aspect of our lives (e.g., hospitals, schools, flight decks, nuclear power plants, oil rigs, the military, and corporate offices). Nearly a century of psychological science has uncovered extensive knowledge about team-related processes and outcomes. In this article, we draw from the reviews and articles of this special issue to identify 10 key reflections that have arisen in the team literature, briefly summarized here. Team researchers have developed many theories surrounding the multilayered aspects of teams, such that now we have a solid theoretical basis for teams...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792457/evaluating-problem-solving-teams-in-k-12-schools-do-they-work
#5
Sylvia Rosenfield, Markeda Newell, Scott Zwolski, Lauren E Benishek
Teams and other collaborative structures have become commonplace in American schools, although historically school staff members functioned more independently from one another. In this article, we describe the growing influence of collaboration and teaming in a variety of school contexts, but focus on the empirical literature on problem-solving teams as reflecting the state of research and practice in the schools. A review of the research on problem-solving teams, using an input-mediator-outcome-input framework, provides evidence for how teaming could become more effective and efficient in this context as well as sets an agenda for what additional research is needed...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792034/soft-hydrogel-zwitterionic-coatings-minimize-fibroblast-and-macrophage-adhesion-on-polyimide-substrates
#6
Dusana Trelova, Alice Rita Salgarella, Leonardo Ricotti, Guido Giudetti, Annarita Cutrone, Petra Sramkova, Anna Zahoranova, Dusan Chorvat, Daniel Hasko, Claudio Canale, Silvestro Micera, Juraj Kronek, Arianna Menciassi, Igor Lacik
Minimizing the foreign body reaction to polyimide-based implanted devices has a pivotal role for several biomedical applications. In this work we propose materials exhibiting non-biofouling properties and a Young's modulus reflecting the one of soft human tissues. We describe the synthesis, characterization and in vitro validation of poly(carboxybetaine) hydrogel coatings covalently attached to polyimide substrates via a photolabile 4-azidophenyl group, incorporated in poly(carboxybetaine) chains at two concentrations of 1...
May 24, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791756/interactions-between-insulin-and-diet-on-striatal-dopamine-uptake-kinetics-in-rodent-brain-slices
#7
Jyoti C Patel, Melissa A Stouffer, Maria Mancini, Charles Nicholson, Kenneth D Carr, Margaret E Rice
Diet influences dopamine transmission in motor- and reward-related basal ganglia circuitry. In part, this reflects diet-dependent regulation of circulating and brain insulin levels. Activation of striatal insulin receptors amplifies axonal dopamine release in brain slices, and regulates food preference in vivo. The effect of insulin on dopamine release is indirect, and requires striatal cholinergic interneurons that express insulin receptors. However, insulin also increases dopamine uptake by promoting dopamine transporter (DAT) surface expression, which counteracts enhanced dopamine release...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791504/periconceptional-maternal-dairy-rich-dietary-pattern-is-associated-with-prenatal-cerebellar-growth
#8
Francesca Parisi, Melek Rousian, Irene V Koning, Sten P Willemsen, Jeanne H M de Vries, Eric A P Steegers, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen
BACKGROUND: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy has been related to intrauterine brain development and neurodevelopmental disabilities in adult life. We aim to investigate associations between periconceptional maternal dietary patterns and prenatal cerebellar growth from the first trimester onwards. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 126 women with singleton non-malformed pregnancies were enrolled before 8 weeks of gestation in the Rotterdam periconceptional cohort between 2013 and 2015...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791405/local-blur-analysis-and-phase-error-correction-method-for-fringe-projection-profilometry-systems
#9
Li Rao, Feipeng Da
We introduce a flexible error correction method for fringe projection profilometry (FPP) systems in the presence of local blur phenomenon. Local blur caused by global light transport such as camera defocus, projector defocus, and subsurface scattering will cause significant systematic errors in FPP systems. Previous methods, which adopt high-frequency patterns to separate the direct and global components, fail when the global light phenomenon occurs locally. In this paper, the influence of local blur on phase quality is thoroughly analyzed, and a concise error correction method is proposed to compensate the phase errors...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791154/high-precision-megahertz-to-terahertz-dielectric-spectroscopy-of-protein-collective-motions-and-hydration-dynamics
#10
Ali Charkhesht, Chola Regmi, Katie R Mitchell-Koch, Shengfeng Cheng, Nguyen Q Vinh
The low-frequency collective vibrational modes in proteins as well as the protein-water interface have been suggested as dominant factors controlling the efficiency of biochemical reactions and biological energy transport. It is thus crucial to uncover the mystery of hydration structure and dynamics as well as their coupling to collective motions of proteins in aqueous solutions. Here we report dielectric properties of aqueous BSA protein solutions as a model system using an extremely sensitive dielectric spectrometer with frequencies spanning from megahertz to terahertz...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790857/attenuation-correction-for-brain-pet-imaging-using-deep-neural-network-based-on-dixon-and-zte-mr-images
#11
Kuang Gong, Jaewon Yang, Kyungsang Kim, Georges El Fakhri, Youngho Seo, Quanzheng Li
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a functional imaging modality widely used in neuroscience studies. To obtain meaningful quantitative results from PET images, attenuation correction is necessary during image reconstruction. For PET/MR hybrid systems, PET attenuation is challenging as Magnetic Resonance (MR) images do not reflect attenuation coefficients directly. To address this issue, we present deep neural network methods to derive the continuous attenuation coefficients for brain PET imaging from MR images...
May 23, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790306/the-role-of-novel-prognostic-markers-prox1-and-foxc2-in-carcinogenesis-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
Neha S Agnihotri, Madhusudan Astekar
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the head and neck regions and accounts for more than 90% of cancers in the oral cavity. The angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and epithelial mesenchymal transition are known to be pivotal for tumor progression and metastasis. In the last decade, much data has been generated concerning the molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and its significance in pathological conditions. The main angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors have been identified as vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), forkhead box (FOX) C2 while vascular endothelial growth factor C/D (VEGF-C/D), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3), Prospero homeobox 1 (PROX1), LYVE-1, podoplanin, Tie/Angioprotein (Ang) 2 and EphrinB2 respectively...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790109/value-of-three-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-to-assess-left-ventricular-function-in-hyperuricemia-patients
#13
Xiaojie Zhang, Qing Lu, Zhuojun Zhang, Yongle Chen, Yanan Wang, Youngshi Wang, Zheng Li, Lindi Jiang
To assess the value of three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3D STE) in evaluating the left ventricular (LV) function in hyperuricemia patients. We enrolled 15 healthy controls and 40 hyperuricemia patients and collected and analyzed full-volume 3D STE images of the left ventricle in the apical four-chamber heart view. Laboratory tests and 3D STE parameters, including left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end-diastolic volume, left ventricular end-systolic volume, stroke volume (SV), global longitudinal strain (GLS), and global circumferential strain (GCS), were compared between hyperuricemia patients and healthy controls...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789944/the-association-between-age-at-menarche-and-later-risk-of-gestational-diabetes-is-mediated-by-insulin-resistance
#14
Clive J Petry, Ken K Ong, Ieuan A Hughes, Carlo L Acerini, David B Dunger
AIMS: Associations have been reported between age at menarche and the later risk of gestational diabetes. However, it is not known whether these associations reflect differences in insulin sensitivity and/or pancreatic β-cell function in pregnancy. METHODS: We examined this question in women enrolled in the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study who recalled their age at menarche in questionnaires during pregnancy. Polynomial logistic and linear regression models were used to relate menarche timing to the risk of gestational diabetes, both unadjusted and adjusted for the Homeostasis Model Assessments of insulin resistance (HOMA IR) and pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA B) at week 28 of pregnancy...
May 22, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789563/analysis-of-moisture-content-in-beetroot-using-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy-and-by-principal-component-analysis
#15
Noel Nesakumar, Chanthini Baskar, Srinivasan Kesavan, John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan, Subbiah Alwarappan
The moisture content of beetroot varies during long-term cold storage. In this work, we propose a strategy to identify the moisture content and age of beetroot using principal component analysis coupled Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Frequent FTIR measurements were recorded directly from the beetroot sample surface over a period of 34 days for analysing its moisture content employing attenuated total reflectance in the spectral ranges of 2614-4000 and 1465-1853 cm-1 with a spectral resolution of 8 cm-1 ...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789378/subthalamic-nucleus-neurons-differentially-encode-early-and-late-aspects-of-speech-production
#16
W J Lipski, A Alhourani, T Pirnia, P W Jones, C Dastolfo-Hromack, L B Helou, D J Crammond, S Shaiman, M W Dickey, L L Holt, R S Turner, J A Fiez, R M Richardson
Basal ganglia-thalamocortical loops mediate all motor behavior, yet little detail is known about the role of basal ganglia nuclei in speech production. Using intracranial recording during deep brain stimulation surgery in humans with Parkinson's disease, we tested the hypothesis that the firing rate of subthalamic nucleus neurons is modulated in sync with motor execution aspects of speech. Nearly half of seventy-nine unit recordings exhibited firing rate modulation, during a syllable reading task across twelve subjects (male and female)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788458/are-globals-for-health-well-being-and-quality-of-life-interchangeable-a-mixed-methods-study-in-ankylosing-spondylitis-patients-and-controls
#17
Astrid van Tubergen, Anouk Gulpen, Robert Landewé, Annelies Boonen
Objective: Patients' experience of overall health is often assessed through a single-item global question. Here, we evaluated among patients with AS and population controls whether single-item questions on the constructs health, well-being and quality of life (QoL) are interchangeable. Methods: In a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach, all subjects scored the three single-item globals on a numeric rating scale (0-10, best). Next, they indicated for each of the questions which aspects they had been considering when scoring...
May 19, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788448/inhibition-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-may-explain-the-high-cardiovascular-event-rate-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#18
Mohamad Adawi, Nina Pastuck, Golan Saaida, Rizak Sirchan, Abdalla Watad, Arnon Blum
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients may suffer cardiovascular (CV) events much more than the general population, and CV disease is the leading cause of death in patients with RA. Our hypothesis was that impaired function of endothelial progenitor cells may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and the clinical CV events of patients with RA. Methods: 27 RA patients (9 males and 18 females) with an active disease and 13 healthy subjects who served as the control group (9 males and 4 females) were enrolled to this prospective study...
May 16, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788410/differentiation-between-pediatric-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-based-on-fecal-scent-proof-of-principle-study
#19
Sofie Bosch, Nora van Gaal, Roy P Zuurbier, James A Covington, Alfian N Wicaksono, Maarten H Biezeveld, Marc A Benninga, Chris J Mulder, Nanne K H de Boer, Tim G J de Meij
Background: The diagnostic work-up of pediatric irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional abdominal pain-not otherwise specified (FAP-NOS) commonly includes invasive tests for discrimination from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). As this carries a high burden on patients, an ongoing need exists for development of noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers for IBS and FAP-NOS. Several studies have shown microbiota alterations in IBS/FAP, which are considered to be reflected by fecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs)...
May 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788295/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-resembles-cortical-architecture-at-various-levels-of-isoflurane-anesthesia
#20
Felix Fischer, Florian Pieper, Edgar Galindo-Leon, Gerhard Engler, Claus C Hilgetag, Andreas K Engel
Cortical single neuron activity and local field potential patterns change at different depths of general anesthesia. Here, we investigate the associated network level changes of functional connectivity. We recorded ongoing electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity from temporo-parieto-occipital cortex of 6 ferrets at various levels of isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia and determined functional connectivity by computing amplitude envelope correlations. Through hierarchical clustering, we derived typical connectivity patterns corresponding to light, intermediate and deep anesthesia...
May 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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