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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239498/cognitive-pragmatic-rehabilitation-program-in-schizophrenia-a-single-case-fmri-study
#1
Ilaria Gabbatore, Francesca M Bosco, Elisabetta Geda, Luigi Gastaldo, Sergio Duca, Tommaso Costa, Bruno G Bara, Katiuscia Sacco
Introduction. The present study was intended to evaluate the effects of a rehabilitative training, the Cognitive Pragmatic Treatment (CPT), aimed at improving communicative-pragmatic abilities and the related cognitive components, on the cerebral modifications of a single case patient diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods. The patient underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, before and after the treatment. In order to assess brain changes, we calculated the Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation (ALFF) index of the resting-state fMRI signal, which is interpreted as reflecting the intensity of the spontaneous regional activity of the brain...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238860/who-needs-the-hotspot-the-effect-of-temperature-on-the-fish-host-immune-response-to-tetracapsuloides-bryosalmonae-the-causative-agent-of-proliferative-kidney-disease
#2
Christyn Bailey, Helmut Segner, Ayako Casanova-Nakayama, Thomas Wahli
Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) of salmonids, caused by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae may lead to high mortalities at elevated water temperatures. However, it has not yet been investigated how temperature affects the fish host immune response to T. bryosalmonae. We exposed YOY (young of the year) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to T. bryosalmonae at two temperatures (12 °C and 15 °C) that reflect a realistic environmental scenario and could occur in the natural habitat of salmonids. We followed the development of the parasite, host pathology and immune response over seven weeks...
February 23, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238835/hypoxia-regulates-microrna-expression-in-the-human-carotid-body
#3
Souren Mkrtchian, Kian Leong Lee, Jessica Kåhlin, Anette Ebberyd, Lorenz Poellinger, Malin Jonsson Fagerlund, Lars I Eriksson
The carotid body (CB) is the key sensing organ for physiological oxygen levels in the body. Under conditions of low oxygen (hypoxia), the CB plays crucial roles in signaling to the cardiorespiratory center in the medulla oblongata for the restoration of oxygen homeostasis. How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human CB remains poorly understood. While limited information on transcriptional regulation in animal CBs is available, the identity and impact of important post-transcriptional regulators such as non-coding RNAs, and in particular miRNAs are not known...
February 23, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238824/effect-of-chronic-stress-during-adolescence-in-prefrontal-cortex-structure-and-function
#4
Otávio Augusto de Araújo Costa Folha, Carlomagno Pacheco Bahia, Gisele Priscila Soares de Aguiar, Anderson Manoel Herculano, Nicole Leite Galvão Coelho, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro de Sousa, Victor Kenji Medeiros Shiramizu, Ana Cecília Galvão Menezes, Walther Carvalho, Antonio Pereira
Critical periods of plasticity (CPPs) are defined by intervals of postnatal brain development wherein neuronal circuits are most susceptible to environmental influences. The CPP of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which controls executive functions, extends up to early adulthood and, like other cortical areas, reflects the maturation of perineuronal nets (PNNs) surrounding the cell bodies of specialized inhibitory interneurons. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of chronic stress on the spatiotemporal distribution of PNN(+) neurons in the adolescent's rat PFC and behavior controlled by this cortical area...
February 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238656/moonwalker-descending-neurons-mediate-visually-evoked-retreat-in-drosophila
#5
Rajyashree Sen, Ming Wu, Kristin Branson, Alice Robie, Gerald M Rubin, Barry J Dickson
Insects, like most animals, tend to steer away from imminent threats [1-7]. Drosophila melanogaster, for example, generally initiate an escape take-off in response to a looming visual stimulus, mimicking a potential predator [8]. The escape response to a visual threat is, however, flexible [9-12] and can alternatively consist of walking backward away from the perceived threat [11], which may be a more effective response to ambush predators such as nymphal praying mantids [7]. Flexibility in escape behavior may also add an element of unpredictability that makes it difficult for predators to anticipate or learn the prey's likely response [3-6]...
February 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238653/tuned-smc-arms-drive-chromosomal-loading-of-prokaryotic-condensin
#6
Frank Bürmann, Alrun Basfeld, Roberto Vazquez Nunez, Marie-Laure Diebold-Durand, Larissa Wilhelm, Stephan Gruber
SMC proteins support vital cellular processes in all domains of life by organizing chromosomal DNA. They are composed of ATPase "head" and "hinge" dimerization domains and a connecting coiled-coil "arm." Binding to a kleisin subunit creates a closed tripartite ring, whose ∼47-nm-long SMC arms act as barrier for DNA entrapment. Here, we uncover another, more active function of the bacterial Smc arm. Using high-throughput genetic engineering, we resized the arm in the range of 6-60 nm and found that it was functional only in specific length regimes following a periodic pattern...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238585/recovery-from-rocuronium-induced-neuromuscular-block-was-longer-in-the-larynx-than-in-the-pelvic-limb-of-anesthetized-dogs
#7
Daniel M Sakai, Manuel Martin-Flores, Marta Romano, Chia T Tseng, Luis Campoy, Robin D Gleed, Jonathan Cheetham
OBJECTIVE: To determine if neuromuscular monitoring at the pelvic limb accurately reflects neuromuscular function in the larynx after administration of rocuronium in anesthetized dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental study. ANIMALS: Six healthy Beagle dogs. METHODS: Anesthesia was maintained in dogs with isoflurane and a continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine. Rocuronium (0.6 mg kg(-1)) was administered intravenously to induce neuromuscular block...
January 7, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238293/the-weighting-is-the-hardest-part-on-the-behavior-of-the-likelihood-ratio-test-and-the-score-test-under-a-data-driven-weighting-scheme-in-sequenced-samples
#8
Camelia C Minică, Giulio Genovese, Christina M Hultman, René Pool, Jacqueline M Vink, Michael C Neale, Conor V Dolan, Benjamin M Neale
Sequence-based association studies are at a critical inflexion point with the increasing availability of exome-sequencing data. A popular test of association is the sequence kernel association test (SKAT). Weights are embedded within SKAT to reflect the hypothesized contribution of the variants to the trait variance. Because the true weights are generally unknown, and so are subject to misspecification, we examined the efficiency of a data-driven weighting scheme. We propose the use of a set of theoretically defensible weighting schemes, of which, we assume, the one that gives the largest test statistic is likely to capture best the allele frequency-functional effect relationship...
February 27, 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238241/mitral-patient-prosthesis-mismatch-predicts-suboptimal-hemodynamic-recovery-after-mitral-valve-replacement
#9
Sertan Ozyalcin, Kerem M Vural, Ayse Colak
BACKGROUND: A possible relationship between an obstructive prosthesis and suboptimal hemodynamic recovery, as reflected by unsatisfactory regression in systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) and functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) following mitral valve replacement (MVR), was investigated. A delineating effective orifice area index (EOAI) value was sought in order to define a patient-prosthesis mismatch. METHODS: A total of 128 patients undergoing isolated mechanical MVR were followed up for a mean of 46 ± 9 months...
September 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237937/investigation-of-viscoelasticity-in-the-relationship-between-carotid-artery-blood-pressure-and-distal-pulse-volume-waveforms
#10
Jong Chan Lee, Zahra Ghasemi, Chang-Sei Kim, Hao-Min Cheng, Chen-Huan Chen, Shih-Hsien Sung, Ramakrishna Mukkamala, Jin-Oh Hahn
We investigated the relationship between carotid artery blood pressure (BP) and distal pulse volume waveforms (PVRs) via subject-specific mathematical modeling. We conceived three physical models to define the relationship: a tube-load model augmented with a gain (TLG), Voigt (TLV) and standard linear solid (TLS) models. We compared these models using PVRs measured via BP cuffs at an upper arm and an ankle as well as carotid artery tonometry waveform collected from 133 subjects. At both upper arm and ankle, PVR was related to carotid artery tonometry by TLV and TLS models better than by TLG model; when root-mean-squared over all the subjects, the systolic and diastolic BP errors between measured carotid artery tonometry waveform and the one estimated from distal PVR reduced from 4...
February 22, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237910/immune-markers-of-social-cognitive-bias-in-schizophrenia
#11
Patrick W Dunne, David L Roberts, Marlon P Quinones, Dawn I Velligan, Madelaine Paredes, Consuelo Walss-Bass
Social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia, is relatively independent of purely neurocognitive domains such as attention and executive functioning, and may be the strongest predictor of functional outcome in this disease. Within a motivated reasoning framework, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory Th2-associated cytokines, IL-10 and MDC, would be correlated with behavioral measures of social cognitive threat-detection bias (self-referential gaze detection bias and theory of mind (ToM) bias) in delusional versus non-delusional patients...
February 16, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237206/toward-a-hedonic-value-framework-in-health-care
#12
Anirban Basu, Sean D Sullivan
In well-functioning markets, a hedonic pricing scheme can reflect the marginal valuation of various attributes of a differentiated product at market equilibrium. It serves as an important tool to inform pricing of a new product with a specific combination of attributes. Because health cannot be bought and sold in a market setting, and health care markets are distorted by insurance or government subsidies, direct valuation of a health intervention as a differentiated good through observed market prices is difficult...
February 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237179/translating-the-biology-of-adipokines-in-atherosclerosis-and-cardiovascular-diseases-gaps-and-open-questions
#13
REVIEW
M Ruscica, A Baragetti, A L Catapano, G D Norata
AIM: Critically discuss the available data, to identify the current gaps and to provide key concepts that will help clinicians in translating the biology of adipokines in the context of atherosclerosis and cardio-metabolic diseases. DATA SYNTHESIS: Adipose tissue is nowadays recognized as an active endocrine organ, a function related to the ability to secrete adipokines (such as leptin and adiponectin) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and resistin)...
December 23, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236965/ror-family-receptor-tyrosine-kinases
#14
Sigmar Stricker, Verena Rauschenberger, Alexandra Schambony
ROR-family receptor tyrosine kinases form a small subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), characterized by a conserved, unique domain architecture. ROR RTKs are evolutionary conserved throughout the animal kingdom and act as alternative receptors and coreceptors of WNT ligands. The intracellular signaling cascades activated downstream of ROR receptors are diverse, including but not limited to ROR-Frizzled-mediated activation of planar cell polarity signaling, RTK-like signaling, and antagonistic regulation of WNT/β-Catenin signaling...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236964/wnk-kinases-in-development-and-disease
#15
Aylin R Rodan, Andreas Jenny
WNK (With-No-Lysine (K)) kinases are serine-threonine kinases characterized by an atypical placement of a catalytic lysine within the kinase domain. Mutations in human WNK1 or WNK4 cause an autosomal dominant syndrome of hypertension and hyperkalemia, reflecting the fact that WNK kinases are critical regulators of renal ion transport processes. Here, the role of WNKs in the regulation of ion transport processes in vertebrate and invertebrate renal function, cellular and organismal osmoregulation, and cell migration and cerebral edema will be reviewed, along with emerging literature demonstrating roles for WNKs in cardiovascular and neural development, Wnt signaling, and cancer...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236780/treating-conduct-disorder-an-effectiveness-and-natural-language-analysis-study-of-a-new-family-centred-intervention-program
#16
Kimberly A Stevens, Prof Kevin Ronan, Gene Davies
This paper reports on a new family-centred, feedback-informed intervention focused on evaluating therapeutic outcomes and language changes across treatment for conduct disorder (CD). The study included 26 youth and families from a larger randomised, controlled trial (Ronan et al., in preparation). Outcome measures reflected family functioning/youth compliance, delinquency, and family goal attainment. First- and last-treatment session audio files were transcribed into more than 286,000 words and evaluated through the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count Analysis program (Pennebaker et al...
November 27, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236656/recovery-from-desensitization-of-ige-dependent-responses-in-human-lung-mast-cells
#17
Amy Lewis, Donald W MacGlashan, S Kim Suvarna, Peter T Peachell
BACKGROUND: Clinical desensitization and oral food immunotherapy are therapeutic interventions that allow individuals who react adversely to an allergen (drug or food) to be made tolerant to the allergen. However, tolerance is brief and allergen hypersensitivity can recur within days following allergen withdrawal. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that the reason these treatments are temporary reflects rapid recovery of mast cells from a desensitized state. We sought to test this...
February 25, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236574/novel-biomarkers-of-human-gm1-gangliosidosis-reflect-the-clinical-efficacy-of-gene-therapy-in-a-feline-model
#18
Heather L Gray-Edwards, Debra S Regier, Jamie L Shirley, Ashley N Randle, Nouha Salibi, Sarah E Thomas, Yvonne L Latour, Jean Johnston, Gretchen Golas, Annie S Maguire, Amanda R Taylor, Donald C Sorjonen, Victoria J McCurdy, Peter W Christopherson, Allison M Bradbury, Ronald J Beyers, Aime K Johnson, Brandon L Brunson, Nancy R Cox, Henry J Baker, Thomas S Denney, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Cynthia J Tifft, Douglas R Martin
GM1 gangliosidosis is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects individuals of all ages. Favorable outcomes using adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene therapy in GM1 mice and cats have prompted consideration of human clinical trials, yet there remains a paucity of objective biomarkers to track disease status. We developed a panel of biomarkers using blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), electrodiagnostics, 7 T MRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in GM1 cats-either untreated or AAV treated for more than 5 years-and compared them to markers in human GM1 patients where possible...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236373/insidious-incrementalism-the-silent-failure-of-the-microcirculation-with-increasing-peripheral-vascular-disease-risk
#19
REVIEW
Kent Lemaster, Dwayne Jackson, Daniel Goldman, Jefferson C Frisbee
This review summarizes material presented in "Adaptive Outcomes of Microvascular Networks to Obesity and Type II Diabetes/Insulin Resistance" on July 30, 2016, at the Joint Meeting of the American Physiological Society and the Physiological Society, in Dublin, Ireland. We discuss the poor predictive power of traditional markers of vascular dysfunction for functional outcomes of muscle fatigue-resistance and active hyperemia within the setting of elevated peripheral vascular disease risk. Using the obese Zucker rat model of the metabolic syndrome, we describe how blood flow distribution at arteriolar bifurcations (γ) is altered with PVD risk reflecting increased spatial heterogeneity of distribution within networks...
February 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236171/reward-based-contextual-learning-supported-by-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#20
Akina Umemoto, Azadeh HajiHosseini, Michael E Yates, Clay B Holroyd
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is commonly associated with cognitive control and decision making, but its specific function is highly debated. To explore a recent theory that the ACC learns the reward values of task contexts (Holroyd & McClure in Psychological Review, 122, 54-83, 2015; Holroyd & Yeung in Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 122-128, 2012), we recorded the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) from participants as they played a novel gambling task. The participants were first required to select from among three games in one "virtual casino," and subsequently they were required to select from among three different games in a different virtual casino; unbeknownst to them, the payoffs for the games were higher in one casino than in the other...
February 24, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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