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Pediatric pharmacy

Laura L Bio, Brandon J Patterson, Sanchita Sen, Angela L Bingham, Jane F Bowen, Benjamin Ereshefsky, Laura A Siemianowski
Objective. To identify the temporal effect and factors associated with student pharmacist self-initiation of interventions during acute patient care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE). Methods. During the APPE, student pharmacists at an academic medical center recorded their therapeutic interventions and who initiated the intervention throughout clinical rotations. At the end of the APPE student pharmacists completed a demographic survey. Results. Sixty-two student pharmacists were included. Factors associated with lower rates of self-initiated interventions were infectious diseases and pediatrics APPEs and an intention to pursue a postgraduate residency...
September 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Jing Yuan, Zhiqiang Kevin Lu, Yanjun Zhang, Jun Wu, Bryan L Love, Richard M Schulz
OBJECTIVE: Racemic albuterol and levalbuterol are used to treat acute episodes of asthma. The main objective of this study was to compare levalbuterol therapy to albuterol therapy on incidence rates of subsequent emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of asthmatic children who had pharmacy refills for levalbuterol/albuterol in the South Carolina Medicaid database in 2002-2011. Children receiving levalbuterol were matched to those receiving albuterol using propensity score matching technique...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Yangyang R Yu, Paulette I Abbas, Carolyn M Smith, Kathleen E Carberry, Hui Ren, Binita Patel, Jed G Nuchtern, Monica E Lopez
PURPOSE: As reimbursement programs shift to value-based payment models emphasizing quality and efficient healthcare delivery, there exists a need to better understand process management to unearth true costs of patient care. We sought to identify cost-reduction opportunities in simple appendicitis management by applying a time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) methodology to this high-volume surgical condition. METHODS: Process maps were created using medical record time stamps...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Lucie Blais, Fatima-Zohra Kettani, Amélie Forget, Marie-France Beauchesne, Catherine Lemière, Francine M Ducharme
PURPOSE: There are very few studies on primary adherence (i.e., first filling of a prescription) to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in asthma patients; two have involved children. Moreover, adherence can be overestimated when considering only secondary adherence (i.e., following the medication recommendations for a defined period) and ignoring primary adherence. We aimed thus to evaluate the real-world primary and secondary adherence to ICS and to develop an integrated primary and secondary adherence (IPSA) measure...
October 1, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Ana Santoveña, Irma Charola, Javier Suárez-González, Nuria Teigell-Pérez, Susana García-van Nood, Mabel Soriano, José B Fariña
There is as yet no commercialized preparation for oral administration of flecainide acetate (FA) to children. In such cases, manipulation of commercial tablets is the usual practice in pharmacy services of hospitals and compounding pharmacies, to provide a suitable dosage form for this vulnerable pediatric population group. In this study we have formulated FA as an oral solution, as an alternative to the suspension elaborated from commercial tablets. Due to this sensitivity of young patients, we have used the pure active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the lowest permitted levels of pediatric excipients...
September 23, 2016: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Lucas Miyake Okumura, Daniella Matsubara da Silva, Larissa Comarella
OBJECTIVE: Clinical Pharmacy Services (CPS) are considered standard of care and they are endorsed by the Joint Commission International, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American College of Clinical Pharmacy. In Brazil, single experiences have been discreetly arising and the importance of these services to children and adolescents care has led to interesting results, but certainly are under reported. This short report aims to discuss the effect of implementing a bedside CPS at a Brazilian Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU)...
August 12, 2016: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Moran Lazaryan, Ibrahim Abu-Kishk, Noa Rosenfeld-Yehoshua, Sofia Berkovitch, Michal Toledano, Iris Reshef, Tal Kanari, Tomer Ziv-Baran, Matitiahu Berkovitch
BACKGROUND: One aspect of ordering and prescribing medication is the requirement for a trained professional to review medication orders or prescriptions for appropriateness. In practice, this review process is usually performed by a clinical pharmacist. However, in many medical centers there is a shortage of staff and a pharmacist is not always available. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether remote review of medication orders by a pharmacist is a plausible method in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU)...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Chris I Wong Quiles, Stephanie Gottsch, Usha Thakrar, Belen Fraile, Amy L Billett
BACKGROUND: The impact of ambulatory bloodstream infections (Amb-BSIs) in pediatric oncology and stem cell transplant (PO/SCT) patients is poorly understood, although a large portion of their treatment increasingly occurs in this setting. This study aimed to understand the economic impact and length of stay (LOS) associated with these infections. PROCEDURE: Charges and LOS were retrospectively collected and analyzed for Amb-BSI events leading to a hospital admission between 2012 and 2013 in a tertiary, university-affiliated hospital...
August 24, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Saul Castaneda, Samuel Melendez-Lopez, Esbeydy Garcia, Hermelinda De la Cruz, Jose Sanchez-Palacio
INTRODUCTION: Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are the most common benign vascular tumors of childhood, with an incidence of 5-10% during the first year of age. Propranolol is considered the first-line treatment for this condition. Potentially there is a high probability of negative results to therapy, because in many countries there are no treatment protocols or propranolol formulations appropriate for the pediatric population. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist interventions such as detecting, analyzing, and solving problems presented during treatment with propranolol in patients with IH...
October 2016: Advances in Therapy
Alina R Rashid, Mark Duffett
BACKGROUND: Seamless and safe discharge of children from hospital requires successful collaboration with community pharmacists, for whom pediatrics is often a small part of their practice. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to understand community pharmacists' comfort level and confidence in providing care for children. METHODS: We conducted a self-administered online survey of community pharmacists in Ontario, Canada. Respondents rated their comfort and confidence on a scale of 1 to 7 in each of 3 scenarios: oral morphine, prednisone, and amoxicillin...
May 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Menen E Mund, Christoph Gyo, Dörthe Brüggmann, David Quarcoo, David A Groneberg
Acetylsalicylic acid is a frequently used medication worldwide. It is not used in pediatrics due its association with Reye syndrome. However, in case of pediatric intoxication, children are more fragile to salicylate poisoning because of their reduced ability of buffer the acid stress. Intoxication leads to a decoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and subsequently to a loss in mitochondrial function. Symptoms of poisoning are diverse; eventually they can lead to the death of the patient. Governmental websites of various EU countries were searched for legal information on acetylsalicylic acid availability in pharmacies and non-pharmacy stores...
2016: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
Caleb Hui, Regis Vaillancourt, Lissa Bair, Elaine Wong, James W King
BACKGROUND: Detection, monitoring and treatment of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are paramount to patient safety. The use of a comprehensive electronic health record (EHR) system has the potential to address inadequacies in ADR documentation and to facilitate ADR reporting to health agencies. However, effective methods to maintain the quality of documented ADRs within an EHR have not been well studied. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of ADR documentation transfer throughout the implementation of a comprehensive EHR system...
June 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Huan-Keat Chan, Mohamed A Hassali, Ching-Jou Lim, Fahad Saleem, Norazila A Ghani
BACKGROUND: Inadequacies of drug labeling have been frequently reported among Malaysian healthcare institutes, in which the Hospital Information System (HIS) is used. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential areas to improve the existing labels used for pediatric liquid medications. METHODS: This study was qualitative in nature, whereby focus group discussions (FGDs), face-to-face interviews (FTFIs), and onsite observation were used for data collection...
April 2016: Pharmacy Practice
Hani Mowafi, Mahmoud Hariri, Houssam Alnahhas, Elizabeth Ludwig, Tammam Allodami, Bahaa Mahameed, Jamal Kaby Koly, Ahmed Aldbis, Maher Saqqur, Baobao Zhang, Anas Al-Kassem
IMPORTANCE: The Syrian civil war has resulted in large-scale devastation of Syria's health infrastructure along with widespread injuries and death from trauma. The capacity of Syrian trauma hospitals is not well characterized. Data are needed to allocate resources for trauma care to the population remaining in Syria. OBJECTIVE: To identify the number of trauma hospitals operating in Syria and to delineate their capacities. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: From February 1 to March 31, 2015, a nationwide survey of 94 trauma hospitals was conducted inside Syria, representing a coverage rate of 69% to 93% of reported hospitals in nongovernment controlled areas...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Surgery
Melanie J Engels, Scott L Ciarkowski, Janis Rood, Bryan Wang, Larry D Wagenknecht, Chris J Dickinson, James G Stevenson
PURPOSE: The development, dissemination, and adoption of standard concentrations for compounded oral liquids for pediatric patients in Michigan are described. SUMMARY: A baseline assessment of current practices in Michigan revealed significant variations in the concentrations of commonly used oral liquid medicines for pediatric patients. A statewide collaborative initiative in Michigan was created to standardize the concentrations of compounded oral liquids for pediatric patients...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Nikita Arora, Sandra Knowles, Tara Gomes, Muhammad M Mamdani, David N Juurlink, Corine Carlisle, Mina Tadrous
OBJECTIVE: Although antidepressants and antipsychotics are valuable medications in the treatment of select psychiatric disorders, there is increasing focus on the balance of risks and benefits of these drugs as prescribed, particularly in the pediatric population. We examined recent national trends and interprovincial variation in dispensing of antipsychotic and antidepressant prescriptions to the Canadian pediatric population. METHOD: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of antidepressant and antipsychotic prescriptions dispensed by Canadian pharmacies to the pediatric population (≤18 years) between 2010 and 2013...
May 12, 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Charles M Samson, Douglas Mager, Sharon Frazee, Feliciano Yu
OBJECTIVES: To utilize pharmacy benefit management (PBM) prescription claims data to assess refill adherence in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and correlate adherence with clinical outcomes in pediatric IBD. METHODS: We identified 362 pediatric IBD patients seen at Washington University from 9/1/2012 to 8/31/2013 and matched them within Express Scripts' member eligibility files for clients allowing use of prescription drug data for research purposes...
June 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Christina Karamanidou, Kostas Dimopoulos
BACKGROUND: Every year in Europe 60,000 women develop cervical cancer and 30,000 die from the disease. HPV vaccines are currently believed to constitute an important element of cervical cancer control strategy. Currently in Greece, the HPV vaccine is given on demand after prescription by a healthcare professional. Health care professionals' role is key as they are in a position to discuss HPV vaccination with parents, adolescents and young women. This study is aiming to explore health care professionals' perceptions of the HPV vaccine, state policy recommendations and their own role with regards to communication of relevant health information...
2016: BMC Public Health
Vivek V Shukla, Somashekhar M Nimbalkar, Jaishree D Ganjiwale, Denny John
OBJECTIVE: To assess the direct costs involved in treatment of children receiving intensive care in a university-affiliated teaching hospital and its associated implications on the children's families, in rural India. METHODS: It was a prospective observational study for cost-analysis using questionnaire based interviews and billing records data collection for admissions to the PICU over 27 consecutive months (January 2010 through March 2012). RESULTS: A total of 784 children were admitted to the unit during the assessment period...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Courtney L Bradley, Heidi R Luder, Andrew F Beck, Rachel Bowen, Pamela C Heaton, Robert S Kahn, Mona Mansour, Stephen Obszarski, Stacey M Frede
OBJECTIVES: To design and implement a collaborative medication therapy management (MTM) program targeting pediatric patients with high-risk asthma in a community pharmacy. SETTING: Underserved inner city of Cincinnati, OH. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: A large national grocery store chain pharmacy and an academic hospital developed a partnership aimed at improving asthma care for shared patients. An interdisciplinary project team was formed, including 2 clinical pharmacists, 1 pharmacy district clinical coordinator, 1 pharmacy division clinical coordinator, 1 associate professor at a college of pharmacy, 1 pharmacy resident, and 3 pediatric physicians...
July 2016: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
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