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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449397/differential-proteome-profiling-in-the-hippocampus-of-amnesic-mice
#1
Meghraj Singh Baghel, Mahendra Kumar Thakur
Amnesia or memory loss is associated with brain aging and several neurodegenerative pathologies including Alzheimer's disease (AD). This can be induced by a cholinergic antagonist scopolamine, but the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. The present study of proteome profiling in the hippocampus could provide conceptual insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in amnesia. To reveal this, mice were administered scopolamine to induce amnesia and memory impairment was validated by novel object recognition test...
April 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448453/working-memory-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#2
REVIEW
Shintaro Funahashi
The prefrontal cortex participates in a variety of higher cognitive functions. The concept of working memory is now widely used to understand prefrontal functions. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that stimulus-selective delay-period activity is a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information in working memory processes. The central executive, which is the master component of Baddeley's working memory model and is thought to be a function of the prefrontal cortex, controls the performance of other components by allocating a limited capacity of memory resource to each component based on its demand...
April 27, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447815/development-of-the-healthcare-triggering-questionnaire-in-adult-sexual-abuse-survivors
#3
Julie B Schnur, William F Chaplin, Kiran Khurshid, Jazmin N Mogavero, Rachel E Goldsmith, Young-Sun Lee, Leib Litman, Guy H Montgomery
OBJECTIVE: One in 4 women and 1 in 10 men in the United States are survivors of sexual abuse (SA). For these survivors, healthcare experiences may trigger memories, thoughts, feelings or sensations related to this past abuse. Such triggering can be associated with negative responses to healthcare (e.g., anxiety, avoidance). However, to date, no healthcare triggering assessment tool exists. Therefore, the study goal was to describe the prevalence of healthcare triggering, to develop a brief Healthcare Triggering Questionnaire (HTQ), and to examine its initial validity...
April 27, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447764/sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-pregnant-rats-negatively-affects-nerve-function-in-offspring-potentially-via-inhibition-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#4
Yiyao Wang, Yu Li, Qunzhi Xing, Xuechan G Han, Xu Dong, Yiping Lu, Mintao Zhou
Due to the rapid development of medical technology used to perform intrauterine procedures during pregnancy, the number of patients receiving fetal surgery under general anesthesia is increasing. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of anesthetics on the offspring of rats, and to identify the potential mechanisms underlying these effects. On day 14 of pregnancy, Sprague‑Dawley rats were equally divided into the following 3 groups (n=9): Control group (n=3), 3% sevoflurane group (n=3) and 4% sevoflurane group (n=3)...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446875/cannabinoid-modulation-of-memory-consolidation-in-rats-beyond-the-role-of-cannabinoid-receptor-subtype-1
#5
Patrizia Ratano, Maura Palmery, Viviana Trezza, Patrizia Campolongo
The effects induced by exogenous manipulation of endocannabinoid neurotransmission on emotion and memory are often contradictory. Among the different factors involved, of particular interest is the binding affinity of endocannabinoids, and their analogs, for other receptor families beyond cannabinoid receptors, such as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), and the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1). The aim of this study was to investigate which receptor subtype mediates cannabinoid effects on memory consolidation for emotionally arousing experiences...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446872/a-neurocomputational-model-of-goal-directed-navigation-in-insect-inspired-artificial-agents
#6
Dennis Goldschmidt, Poramate Manoonpong, Sakyasingha Dasgupta
Despite their small size, insect brains are able to produce robust and efficient navigation in complex environments. Specifically in social insects, such as ants and bees, these navigational capabilities are guided by orientation directing vectors generated by a process called path integration. During this process, they integrate compass and odometric cues to estimate their current location as a vector, called the home vector for guiding them back home on a straight path. They further acquire and retrieve path integration-based vector memories globally to the nest or based on visual landmarks...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445755/mapping-ryanodine-binding-sites-in-the-pore-cavity-of-ryanodine-receptors
#7
Van A Ngo, Laura L Perissinotti, Williams Miranda, S R Wayne Chen, Sergei Y Noskov
Ryanodine (Ryd) irreversibly targets ryanodine receptors (RyRs), a family of intracellular calcium release channels essential for many cellular processes ranging from muscle contraction to learning and memory. Little is known of the atomistic details about how Ryd binds to RyRs. In this study, we used all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with both enhanced and bidirectional sampling to gain direct insights into how Ryd interacts with major residues in RyRs that were experimentally determined to be critical for its binding...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445512/proportions-of-circulating-follicular-helper-t-cells-are-reduced-and-correlate-with-memory-b-cells-in-hiv-infected-children
#8
Daniel M Muema, Gladys N Macharia, Babatunde A Olusola, Amin S Hassan, Greg W Fegan, James A Berkley, Britta C Urban, Eunice W Nduati
INTRODUCTION: HIV causes defects in memory B cells in children, but the mechanisms of those defects have not been fully elucidated. One possible mechanism is the lack of T-cell help to B cells during immune reactions. However, few studies have assessed the effect of HIV on follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) in children. METHODS: In this study, follicular-homing CD4 T cells and memory B cells were assessed in HIV-infected children and compared with children from the community...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444848/biologically-meaningful-scents-a-framework-for-understanding-predator-prey-research-across-disciplines
#9
Michael H Parsons, Raimund Apfelbach, Peter B Banks, Elissa Z Cameron, Chris R Dickman, Anke S K Frank, Menna E Jones, Ian S McGregor, Stuart McLean, Dietland Müller-Schwarze, Elisa E Sparrow, Daniel T Blumstein
Fear of predation is a universal motivator. Because predators hunt using stealth and surprise, there is a widespread ability among prey to assess risk from chemical information - scents - in their environment. Consequently, scents often act as particularly strong modulators of memory and emotions. Recent advances in ecological research and analytical technology are leading to novel ways to use this chemical information to create effective attractants, repellents and anti-anxiolytic compounds for wildlife managers, conservation biologists and health practitioners...
April 26, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444767/the-dual-orexin-receptor-antagonist-dora-22-lowers-histamine-levels-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-and-prefrontal-cortex-without-lowering-hippocampal-acetylcholine
#10
Lihang Leon Yao, Andres Ramirez, Anthony J Roecker, Steven Fox, Jason Uslaner, Sean M Smith, Robert Hodgson, Paul J Coleman, John J Renger, Christopher J Winrow, Anthony L Gotter
Chronic insomnia is defined as a persistent difficulty with sleep initiation maintenance or non-restorative sleep. The therapeutic standard of care for this condition is treatment with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor modulators, which promote sleep but are associated with a panoply of side effects, including cognitive and memory impairment. Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) have recently emerged as an alternative therapeutic approach that acts via a distinct and more selective wake-attenuating mechanism with the potential to be associated with milder side effects...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444766/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediates-distinct-impacts-of-sevoflurane-on-different-subfields-of-immature-hippocampus
#11
Gang Zhu, Lei Tao, Ronglin Wang, Ying Xue, Xingqin Wang, Shaosong Yang, Xude Sun, Guodong Gao, Zixu Mao, Qian Yang
Sevoflurane, a typical inhaled anesthetic, is widely used in patients of all ages during surgery. The negative effects, such as inducing cell death and damaging spatial memory, of sevoflurane on neurodevelopment have raised increasing concerns in recent years. However, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The current study focused on the crucial role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in sevoflurane-induced hippocampal injury. Three-week-old rats were exposed to sevoflurane or control air for 5h with or without ER stress inhibitor (4-phenylbutyric acid, 4-PBA) injection...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444104/psychomotor-ability-and-short-term-memory-and-reading-and-mathematics-achievement-in-children
#12
Cherée Murrihy, Maria Bailey, John Roodenburg
Objective: The aim of our study was to examine whether the findings from previous research, indicating the role of short-term memory as a mediator of the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement in adolescents, is also evident in a younger child population. Method: The study utilized a quantative cross-sectional design involving 133 children aged 8-12. The McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) provided four indicators of psychomotor ability (Finger Nose, Walking, Balancing, and Jumping)...
April 24, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443631/a-peripheral-epigenetic-signature-of-immune-system-genes-is-linked-to-neocortical-thickness-and-memory
#13
Virginie Freytag, Tania Carrillo-Roa, Annette Milnik, Philipp G Sämann, Vanja Vukojevic, David Coynel, Philippe Demougin, Tobias Egli, Leo Gschwind, Frank Jessen, Eva Loos, Wolfgang Maier, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Martin Scherer, Christian Vogler, Michael Wagner, Elisabeth B Binder, Dominique J-F de Quervain, Andreas Papassotiropoulos
Increasing age is tightly linked to decreased thickness of the human neocortex. The biological mechanisms that mediate this effect are hitherto unknown. The DNA methylome, as part of the epigenome, contributes significantly to age-related phenotypic changes. Here, we identify an epigenetic signature that is associated with cortical thickness (P=3.86 × 10(-8)) and memory performance in 533 healthy young adults. The epigenetic effect on cortical thickness was replicated in a sample comprising 596 participants with major depressive disorder and healthy controls...
April 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443224/the-effect-of-lactobacillus-acidophilus-ptcc-1643-on-cultured-intestinal-epithelial-cells-infected-with-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis
#14
Mona Moshiri, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Farhad Rezaei, Masoumeh Douraghi, Laleh Sharifi, Zahra Noroozbabaei, Mehrdad Gholami, Abbas Mirshafiey
OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal disorders caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SesE) are a significant health problem around the globe. Probiotic bacteria have been shown to have positive effects on the immune responses. Lactobacillus acidophilus was examined for its capability to influence the innate immune response of HT29 intestinal epithelial cells towards SesE. The purpose of this work was to assess the effect of L. acidophilus PTCC 1643 on cultured intestinal epithelial cells infected with SesE...
February 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443098/the-lysine-methyltransferase-g9a-in-immune-cell-differentiation-and-function
#15
REVIEW
Sebastian Scheer, Colby Zaph
G9a (KMT1C, EHMT2) is a lysine methyltransferase (KMT) whose primary function is to di-methylate lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me2). G9a-dependent H3K9me2 is associated with gene silencing and acts primarily through the recruitment of H3K9me2-binding proteins that prevent transcriptional activation. Gene repression via G9a-dependent H3K9me2 is critically required in embryonic stem (ES) cells for the development of cellular lineages by repressing expression of pluripotency factors. In the immune system, lymphoid cells such as T cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) can differentiate from a naïve state into one of several effector lineages that require both activating and repressive mechanisms to maintain the correct gene expression program...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443005/waking-up-buried-memories-of-old-tv-programs
#16
Christelle Larzabal, Nadège Bacon-Macé, Sophie Muratot, Simon J Thorpe
Although it has been demonstrated that visual and auditory stimuli can be recalled decades after the initial exposure, previous studies have generally not ruled out the possibility that the material may have been seen or heard during the intervening period. Evidence shows that reactivations of a long-term memory trace play a role in its update and maintenance. In the case of remote or very long-term memories, it is most likely that these reactivations are triggered by the actual re-exposure to the stimulus...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443002/to-wait-or-not-to-wait-separate-mechanisms-in-the-oculomotor-circuit-of-basal-ganglia
#17
Masaharu Yasuda, Okihide Hikosaka
We reach a goal immediately after detecting the target, or later by withholding the immediate action. Each time, we choose one of these actions by suppressing the other. How does the brain control these antagonistic actions? We hypothesized that the output of basal ganglia (BG), substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), suppresses antagonistic oculomotor signals by sending strong inhibitory output to superior colliculus (SC). To test this hypothesis, we trained monkeys to perform two kinds of saccade task: Immediate (visually guided) and delayed (visually-withheld but memory-guided) saccade tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442711/temperature-dependent-fracture-properties-of-shape-memory-alloys-novel-findings-and-a-comprehensive-model
#18
Carmine Maletta, Emanuele Sgambitterra, Fabrizio Niccoli
Temperature dependent fracture properties of NiTi-based Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs), within the pseudoelastic regime, were analyzed. In particular, the effective Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) was estimated, at different values of the testing temperature, by a fitting of the William's expansion series, based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurements. It was found that temperature plays an important role on SIF and on critical fast fracture conditions. As a consequence, Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) approaches are not suitable to predict fracture properties of SMAs, as they do not consider the effects of temperature...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442424/thioredoxin-is-not-a-marker-for-treatment-resistance-depression-but-associated-with-cognitive-function-an-rtms-study
#19
Efruz Pirdogan Aydın, Abdullah Genc, Mihriban Dalkıran, Ece Türkyilmaz Uyar, Ömer Akil Özer, Kayıhan Oğuz Karamustafalıoğlu
Elevated oxidative stress is known to play an important role in development of depression and cognitive dysfunction. To date, thioredoxin (TRX), an antioxidant protein, has been investigated as a marker for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism but its relationship with depression is yet to be unknown. The aim of this study is to detect the TRX levels in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), analyse the effect of rTMS (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) application on TRX levels and display the relationship of TRX with cognitive areas...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442406/anti-amnesic-effect-of-extract-and-alkaloid-fraction-from-aerial-parts-of-peganum-harmala-on-scopolamine-induced-memory-deficits-in-mice
#20
Wei Liu, Yudan Zhu, Yongli Wang, Shenglan Qi, Yuwen Wang, Chao Ma, Shuping Li, Bo Jiang, Xuemei Cheng, Zhengtao Wang, Zhenyu Xuan, Changhong Wang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aerial parts of Peganum harmala Linn (APP) is used as traditional medical herb for treatment of forgetfulness in Uighur medicine in China. But, the active ingredients and underlying mechanisms are unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to investigate the improvement effects of extract and alkaloid fraction from APP on scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction and to elucidate their underlying mechanisms of action, and to support its folk use with scientific evidence, and lay a foundation for its further researches...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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