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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531865/glutamine-antagonist-mediated-immune-suppression-decreases-pathology-but-delays-virus-clearance-in-mice-during-nonfatal-alphavirus-encephalomyelitis
#1
Victoria K Baxter, Rebecca Glowinski, Alicia M Braxton, Michelle C Potter, Barbara S Slusher, Diane E Griffin
Infection of weanling C57BL/6 mice with the TE strain of Sindbis virus (SINV) causes nonfatal encephalomyelitis associated with hippocampal-based memory impairment that is partially prevented by treatment with 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON), a glutamine antagonist (Potter et al., J Neurovirol 21:159, 2015). To determine the mechanism(s) of protection, lymph node and central nervous system (CNS) tissues from SINV-infected mice treated daily for 1 week with low (0.3mg/kg) or high (0.6mg/kg) dose DON were examined...
May 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530344/-suppression-of-a-non-trauma-related-threatening-thought-as-an-avoidance-strategy-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-patients
#2
Lilach Abramsky-Arazi, Zeev Kaplan, Hagit Cohen
AIMS: Our goal was to examine how suppression of nontrauma- related thoughts differs between PTSD patients and patients with non-PTSD anxiety disorder compared to a group of matched controls. BACKGROUND: Intrusive recollections of aspects of the traumatic event and its sequelae are at the core of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). People who have suffered a traumatic event may implement some form of avoidance coping strategies in order to deal with the unwanted memories that accompany them...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529872/functional-network-changes-and-cognitive-control-in-schizophrenia
#3
Kimberly L Ray, Tyler A Lesh, Amber M Howell, Taylor P Salo, J Daniel Ragland, Angus W MacDonald, James M Gold, Steven M Silverstein, Deana M Barch, Cameron S Carter
Cognitive control is a cognitive and neural mechanism that contributes to managing the complex demands of day-to-day life. Studies have suggested that functional impairments in cognitive control associated brain circuitry contribute to a broad range of higher cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. To examine this issue, we assessed functional connectivity networks in healthy adults and individuals with schizophrenia performing tasks from two distinct cognitive domains that varied in demands for cognitive control, the RiSE episodic memory task and DPX goal maintenance task...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529337/dynamic-chromatin-technologies-from-individual-molecules-to-epigenomic-regulation-in-cells
#4
REVIEW
Olivier Cuvier, Beat Fierz
The establishment and maintenance of chromatin states involves multiscale dynamic processes integrating transcription factor and multiprotein effector dynamics, cycles of chemical chromatin modifications, and chromatin structural organization. Recent developments in genomic technologies are emerging that are enabling a view beyond ensemble- and time-averaged properties and are revealing the importance of dynamic chromatin states for cell fate decisions, differentiation and reprogramming at the single-cell level...
May 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529173/what-s-in-a-context-cautions-limitations-and-potential-paths-forward
#5
REVIEW
Shauna M Stark, Zachariah M Reagh, Michael A Yassa, Craig E L Stark
The purpose of memory is to guide current and future behavior based on previous experiences. Part of this process involves either discriminating between or generalizing across similar experiences that contain overlapping conditions (such as space, time, or internal state), which we often conceptualize as "contexts". In this review, we highlight major challenges facing the field as we attempt a neuroscience-based approach to the study of context and its impact on learning and memory. Here, we review some of the methodologies and approaches used to investigate context in both animals and humans, including the neurobiological mechanisms involved...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529068/adverse-outcome-pathways-application-to-enhance-mechanistic-understanding-of-neurotoxicity
#6
REVIEW
Anna Bal-Price, M E Meek
Recent developments have prompted the transition of empirically based testing of late stage toxicity in animals for a range of different endpoints including neurotoxicity to more efficient and predictive mechanistically based approaches with greater emphasis on measurable key events early in the progression of disease. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) has been proposed as a simplified organizational construct to contribute to this transition by linking molecular initiating events and earlier (more predictive) key events at lower levels of biological organization to disease outcomes...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528185/simvastatin-ameliorate-memory-deficits-and-inflammation-in-clinical-and-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-via-modulating-the-expression-of-mir-106b
#7
Wenzhong Huang, Zhenyu Li, Liandong Zhao, Wei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a neurodegenerative brain disorder is a devastating pathology leading to disastrous cognitive impairments and dementia, and several studies have shown that AD is closely related to the inflammation, so anti-inflammatory treatment may provide therapeutic benefits. In this study, the effect of simvastatin on inflammation was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were explored. METHODS: First, we tested the effect of simvastatin on AD in clinical research...
May 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527311/challenging-assumptions-from-emotion-dysregulation-psychological-treatments
#8
REVIEW
Andrada D Neacsiu, Megan Smith, Caitlin M Fang
BACKGROUND: Contemporary treatments assume that the inability to downregulate negative emotional arousal is a key problem in the development and maintenance of psychopathology and that lack of effective regulation efforts and a preference to use maladaptive regulation strategies is a primary mechanism. Though ubiquitous, there is limited empirical evidence to support this assumption. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine whether self-reported emotion dysregulation equated to difficulties reducing emotional arousal during a behavioral task and to primary use of maladaptive strategies to manage negative emotions...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526621/electrophysiological-signatures-of-phonological-and-semantic-maintenance-in-sentence-repetition
#9
Jed A Meltzer, Aneta Kielar, Lilia Panamsky, Kira A Links, Tiffany Deschamps, Rosie C Leigh
Verbal short-term memory comprises resources for phonological rehearsal, which have been characterized anatomically, and for maintenance of semantic information, which are less understood. Sentence repetition tasks tap both processes interactively. To distinguish brain activity involved in phonological vs. semantic maintenance, we recorded magnetoencephalography during a sentence repetition task, incorporating three manipulations emphasizing one mechanism over the other. Participants heard sentences or word lists and attempted to repeat them verbatim after a 5-second delay...
May 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526399/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-chronic-antidepressant-drug-treatments-in-the-hippocampal-mitochondria-a-proteomic-study-in-an-animal-model-of-depression
#10
Katarzyna Głombik, Aneta Stachowicz, Ewa Trojan, Rafał Olszanecki, Joanna Ślusarczyk, Maciej Suski, Katarzyna Chamera, Bogusława Budziszewska, Władysław Lasoń, Agnieszka Basta-Kaim
Several lines of evidence indicate that adverse experience in early life may be a triggering factor for disturbances in the brain mitochondrial proteins and lead to the development of depression in adulthood. On the other hand, little is known about the impact of chronic administration of various antidepressant drugs on the brain mitochondria, as a target for the pharmacotherapy of depression. The purpose of our study was to compare the impact of chronic treatment with two antidepressant drugs with different mechanisms of action, a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), imipramine, and an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class, fluoxetine, on the mitochondria-enriched subproteome profile in the hippocampus of 3-month-old male rats following a prenatal stress procedure (an animal model of depression)...
May 16, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526255/associations-of-objective-and-subjective-sleep-disturbance-with-cognitive-function-in-older-men-with-comorbid-depression-and-insomnia
#11
Daniel J Biddle, Sharon L Naismith, Kathleen M Griffiths, Helen Christensen, Ian B Hickie, Nicholas S Glozier
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether poor objective and subjective sleep quality are differentially associated with cognitive function. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Participants were recruited from primary and secondary care, and directly from the community, in Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 74 men 50years and older (mean [SD], 58.4 [6.2] years), with comorbid depression and above-threshold insomnia symptoms, participating in a trial of online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia...
June 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525587/assessing-the-psychedelic-after-glow-in-ayahuasca-users-post-acute-neurometabolic-and-functional-connectivity-changes-are-associated-with-enhanced-mindfulness-capacities
#12
Frederic Sampedro, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Marta Valle, Natalia Roberto, Elisabet Domínguez-Clavé, Matilde Elices, Luís Eduardo Luna, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Draulio B de Araujo, Pablo Friedlander, Steven A Barker, Enrique Álvarez, Joaquim Soler, Juan C Pascual, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Background: Ayahuasca is a plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmala monoamine-oxidase inhibitors. Acute administration leads to neurophysiological modifications in brain regions of the default mode network (DMN), purportedly through a glutamatergic mechanism. Post-acutely, ayahuasca potentiates mindfulness capacities in volunteers, and induces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant patients. However, the mechanisms underlying these fast and maintained effects are poorly understood...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522733/activation-of-perk-elicits-memory-impairment-through-inactivation-of-creb-and-downregulation-of-psd95-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Tanusree Sen, Rajaneesh Gupta, Helen Kaiser, Nilkantha Sen
The PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) a transmembrane protein resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and activation of PERK serve as a key sensor of ER-stress which has been implicated in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The loss of memory is one of the most common symptoms following TBI; however, the precise role of PERK activation in memory impairment after TBI has not been well elucidated. Here we have shown that blocking the activation of PERK using GSK2656157 prevents the loss of dendritic spines and rescues memory deficits following TBI...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522346/seeing-in-the-dark-phosphene-thresholds-with-eyes-open-versus-closed-in-the-absence-of-visual-inputs
#14
T A de Graaf, F Duecker, Y Stankevich, S Ten Oever, A T Sack
BACKGROUND: Voluntarily opening or closing our eyes results in fundamentally different input patterns and expectancies. Yet it remains unclear how our brains and visual systems adapt to these ocular states. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We here used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe the excitability of the human visual system with eyes open or closed, in the complete absence of visual inputs. METHODS: Combining Bayesian staircase procedures with computer control of TMS pulse intensity allowed interleaved determination of phosphene thresholds (PT) in both conditions...
May 3, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522119/neural-changes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-from-circuit-to-molecule-perspective-of-optogenetics
#15
REVIEW
Qinghu Yang, Da Song, Hong Qing
Alzheimer's disease (AD), as a crucial neurodegenerative disorder, affects neural activities at many levels. Synaptic plasticity and neural circuits are most susceptible in AD, but the detailed mechanism is unclear. Optogenetic tools provide unprecedented spatio-temporal specificity to stimulate specific neural circuits or synaptic molecules to reveal the precise function of normal brain and mechanism of deficits in AD models. Furthermore, using optogenetics to stimulate neurons can rescue learning and memory loss caused by AD...
May 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521881/acute-fasting-inhibits-central-caspase-1-activity-reducing-anxiety-like-behavior-and-increasing-novel-object-and-object-location-recognition
#16
Albert E Towers, Maci L Oelschlager, Jay Patel, Stephen J Gainey, Robert H McCusker, Gregory G Freund
BACKGROUND: Inflammation within the central nervous system (CNS) is frequently comorbid with anxiety. Importantly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine most commonly associated with anxiety is IL-1β. The bioavailability and activity of IL-1β are regulated by caspase-1-dependent proteolysis vis-a-vis the inflammasome. Thus, interventions regulating the activation or activity of caspase-1 should reduce anxiety especially in states that foster IL-1β maturation. METHODS: Male C57BL/6j, C57BL/6j mice treated with the capase-1 inhibitor biotin-YVAD-cmk, caspase-1 knockout (KO) mice and IL-1R1 KO mice were fasted for 24h or allowed ad libitum access to food...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521778/cortical-kainate-receptors-and-behavioral-anxiety
#17
REVIEW
Min Zhuo
The study of glutamatergic synapses mainly focuses on the memory-related hippocampus. Recent studies in the cortical areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) show that excitatory synapses can undergo long-term plastic changes in adult animals. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of cortical synapses may play important roles in chronic pain and anxiety. In addition to NMDA and AMPA receptors, kainate (KA) receptors have been found to play roles in synaptic transmission, regulation and presynaptic forms of LTP...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521621/family-member-deaths-in-childhood-predict-systemic-inflammation-in-late-life
#18
Maria C Norton, Daniel J Hatch, Ronald G Munger, Ken R Smith
Biological and epidemiological evidence has linked early-life psychosocial stress with late-life health, with inflammation as a potential mechanism. We report here the association between familial death in childhood and adulthood and increased levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation. The Cache County Memory Study is a prospective study of persons initially aged 65 and older in 1995. In 2002, there were 1,955 persons in the study with data on CRP (42.3 percent male, mean [SD] age = 81...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521477/t-cell-immunity-induced-by-a-bivalent-salmonella-based-ceacam6-and-4-1bbl-vaccines-in-a-rat-colorectal-cancer-model
#19
Chunhui Jin, Xiaoqing Duan, Yingying Liu, Jianhong Zhu, Ke Zhang, Yuanting Zhang, Tingting Xia, Yajun Fei, Jianxin Ye
The present study investigated the anti-tumor mechanisms of recombinant non-specific cross-reacting antigen (CEACAM6) and 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) Salmonella-based vaccines, and the effect that these vaccinations have on memory T cells and T helper (Th) cell polarization. Colon tumors were induced in rats via 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) injections. Rats were then treated with injections of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium carrying pIRES-CEACAM6, pIRES-4-1BBL or pIRES-CEACAM6-4-1BBL. In total, 4 vaccine injections, one every other week, were administered during the 8 weeks subsequent to the DMH injection...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521127/synaptic-plasticity-engrams-and-network-oscillations-in-amygdala-circuits-for-storage-and-retrieval-of-emotional-memories
#20
REVIEW
Marco Bocchio, Sadegh Nabavi, Marco Capogna
The neuronal circuits of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are crucial for acquisition, consolidation, retrieval, and extinction of associative emotional memories. Synaptic plasticity in BLA neurons is essential for associative emotional learning and is a candidate mechanism through which subsets of BLA neurons (commonly termed "engram") are recruited during learning and reactivated during memory retrieval. In parallel, synchronous oscillations in the theta and gamma bands between the BLA and interconnected structures have been shown to occur during consolidation and retrieval of emotional memories...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
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