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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214838/the-role-of-hippocampal-structural-synaptic-plasticity-in-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-improve-cognitive-function-in-male-samp8-mice
#1
Jiang Ma, Jinhua Wang, Chaonan Lv, Jingjuan Pang, Bing Han, Mingwei Wang, Yuan Gen
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to improve cognitive function, but the stimulation protocols are variable and the underlying mechanism is unclear. Therefore, we intend to examine whether 5Hz rTMS with 30% maximum output could improve cognitive functions in senescence-accelerated-prone mouse 8 (SAMP8) through changing synaptic plasticity. METHODS: SAMP8 and senescence-accelerated-prone mouse/resistant 1 (SAMR1) (7-month old male) were randomly divided into 3 groups: SMAP8 rTMS group (P8-rTMS), SMAP8 sham-rTMS group (P8-sham), and SAMR1 sham-rTMS group (R1-sham)...
January 18, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214769/supporting-older-and-younger-adults-memory-for-recent-everyday-events-a-prospective-sampling-study-using-sensecam
#2
Ali Mair, Marie Poirier, Martin A Conway
This study measured the effect of a wearable camera, SenseCam, on older and younger adults' memories of recently experienced everyday events. Participants used SenseCam to prospectively sample events from a typical week, which they recalled two weeks later. Recall was cued by a self-generated title only (control condition), by the title and forward-order SenseCam images, or by the title and random-order SenseCam images. In the control condition, older and younger adults' memories were comparably episodic, but older adults recalled more semantic details...
February 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214576/amplified-induced-neural-oscillatory-activity-predicts-musicians-benefits-in-categorical-speech-perception
#3
Gavin M Bidelman
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) reveal musical experience refines neural encoding and confers stronger categorical perception (CP) and neural organization for speech sounds. In addition to evoked brain activity, the human EEG can be decomposed into induced (non-phase-locked) response whose various frequency bands reflect different mechanisms of perceptual-cognitive processing. Here, we aimed to clarify which spectral properties of these neural oscillations are most prone to music-related neuroplasticity and which are linked to behavioral benefits in the categorization of speech...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214522/prelimbic-cortex-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-activation-is-required-for-memory-retrieval-of-long-term-inhibitory-avoidance
#4
Fei Luo, Jian Zheng, Xuan Sun, Wei-Ke Deng, Fang Liu, Bao-Ming Li
Neural mechanism underlying memory retrieval has been extensively studied in the hippocampus and amygdala. However, little is known about the role of medial prefrontal cortex in long-term memory retrieval. We evaluate this issue in one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance (IA) paradigm. Our results showed that, 1) inactivation of mPFC by local infusion of GABAA-receptor agonist muscimol caused severe deficits in retrieval of 1-day and 7-day but had no effects on 2-hour inhibitory avoidance memory; 2) the protein level of phosphorylated-ERK1/2 in mPFC were significantly increased following retrieval of 1-day and 7-day IA memory, so did the numbers of phosphorylated-ERK (pERK) and phosphorylated-CREB (pCREB) labeled neurons; 3) intra-mPFC infusion of ERK kinase inhibitor PD98095 significantly reduced phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels and phosphorylated-ERK1/2 and phosphorylated-CREB labeled cells, and severely impaired retrieval of 7-day IA memory when the drugs were administrated 30 min prior to test...
February 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214378/calcium-signaling-through-l-type-calcium-channels-role-in-pathophysiology-of-spinal-nociceptive-transmission
#5
REVIEW
Olivier Roca-Lapirot, Houda Radwani, Franck Aby, Frédéric Nagy, Marc Landry Pascal Fossat
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are ubiquitous channels in the central nervous system. L-type calcium channels (LTCs) are mostly post-synaptic channels regulating neuronal firing and gene expression. They play a role in important physio-pathological processes such as learning and memory, Parkinson's disease, autism and, as recognized more recently, in the pathophysiology of pain processes. Classically, the fundamental role of these channels in cardiovascular functions has limited the use of classical molecules to treat LTC-dependent disorders...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213929/exploration-of-the-brn4-regulated-genes-enhancing-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-by-rna-sequencing
#6
Jingjing Guo, Xiang Cheng, Lei Zhang, Linmei Wang, Yongxin Mao, Guixiang Tian, Wenhao Xu, Yuhao Wu, Zhi Ma, Jianbing Qin, Meiling Tian, Guohua Jin, Wei Shi, Xinhua Zhang
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is essential for learning and memory, and its dysfunction is involved in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adult hippocampal neurogenesis are still largely unknown. Our previous studies indicated that the transcription factor Brn4 was upregulated and promoted neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the surgically denervated hippocampus in rats. In this study, we use high-throughput RNA sequencing to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis induced by lentivirus-mediated Brn4 overexpression in vivo...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213636/decrease-of-glial-cell-derived-neurotrophic-factor-contributes-to-anesthesia-and-surgery-induced-learning-and-memory-dysfunction-in-neonatal-rats
#7
Lingli Gui, Xi Lei, Zhiyi Zuo
: Long duration of anesthesia may induce toxicity in the developing brain. However, little is known about the effects of the combination of surgery and anesthesia on the developing brain. The mechanisms for the effects are not clear. To determine these effects, postnatal day 7 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3% sevoflurane for 2 h with or without right common carotid exposure. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an anti-inflammatory agent, was given 30 min before and 6 h after the carotid exposure...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213444/the-dendrites-of-ca2-and-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-differentially-regulate-information-flow-in-the-cortico-hippocampal-circuit
#8
Kalyan V Srinivas, Eric W Buss, Qian Sun, Bina Santoro, Hiroto Takahashi, Daniel A Nicholson, Steven A Siegelbaum
The impact of a given neuronal pathway depends on the number of synapses it makes with its postsynaptic target, the strength of each individual synapse and the integrative properties of the postsynaptic dendrites. Here we explore the cellular and synaptic mechanisms responsible for the differential excitatory drive from the entorhinal cortical pathway onto mouse CA2 compared to CA1 pyramidal neurons (PNs). Although both types of neurons receive direct input from entorhinal cortex onto their distal dendrites, these inputs produce a 5-6 fold larger excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) at the soma of CA2 compared to CA1 PNs, which is sufficient to drive action potential output from CA2 but not CA1...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213439/tau-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-are-associated-with-medial-temporal-lobe-structure-function-and-memory-encoding-in-normal-aging
#9
Shawn M Marks, Samuel N Lockhart, Suzanne L Baker, William J Jagust
Normal aging is associated with decline in episodic memory, and also with aggregation of the β-amyloid (Aβ) and tau proteins and atrophy of medial temporal lobe structures crucial to memory formation. While some evidence suggests that Aβ is associated with aberrant neural activity, the relationships between these two aggregated proteins, neural function, and brain structure are poorly understood. Using in vivo human Aβ and tau imaging, we demonstrate that increased Aβ and tau are both associated with aberrant functional magnetic resonance imaging activity in the medial temporal lobes during memory encoding in cognitively normal older adults...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213398/foxo-integration-of-insulin-signaling-with-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism
#10
Sojin Lee, Henry H Dong
The forkhead box O family consists of FoxO1, FoxO3, FoxO4 and FoxO6 proteins in mammals. Expressed ubiquitously in the body, the four FoxO isoforms share in common the amino DNA binding domain, known as "forkhead box" domain. They mediate the inhibitory action of insulin or insulin-like growth factor on key functions involved in cell metabolism, growth, differentiation, oxidative stress, senescence, autophagy and aging. Genetic mutations in FoxO genes or abnormal expression of FoxO proteins are associated with metabolic disease, cancer or altered lifespan in humans and animals...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213109/screening-of-plants-used-in-the-european-traditional-medicine-to-treat-memory-disorders-for-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-activity-and-anti-amyloidogenic-activity
#11
Eva S Lobbens, Karina J Vissing, Lene Jorgensen, Marco van de Weert, Anna K Jäger
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plants used in the traditional medicine of Europe to treat memory dysfunction and/or to enhance memory were investigated for activity against the underlying mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate 35 ethanolic extracts of plants, selected using an ethnopharmacological approach, for anti-amyloidogenic activity as well as an ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-amyloidogenic activity of the extracts against amyloid beta was investigated by Thioflavin T fibrillation assays and the ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase was evaluated monitoring the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine RESULTS: Under the experimental conditions investigated, extracts of two plants, Carum carvi and Olea sylvestris, inhibited amyloid beta fibrillation considerably, eight plant extracts inhibited amyloid beta fibrillation to some extent, 16 plant extracts had no effect on amyloid beta fibrillation and nine extracts accelerated fibrillation of amyloid beta...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212724/mechanistic-insight-into-neurotoxicity-induced-by-developmental-insults
#12
REVIEW
Christoffer Tamm, Sandra Ceccatelli
Epidemiological and/or experimental studies have shown that unfavorable prenatal environmental factors, such as stress or exposure to certain neurotoxic environmental contaminants, may have adverse consequences for neurodevelopment. Alterations in neurogenesis can have harmful effects not only for the developing nervous system, but also for the adult brain where neurogenesis is believed to play a role in learning, memory, and even in depression. Many recent advances in the understanding of the complex process of nervous system development can be integrated into the field of neurotoxicology...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212704/neurochemical-differences-in-learning-and-memory-paradigms-among-rats-supplemented-with-anthocyanin-rich-blueberry-diets-and-exposed-to-acute-doses-of-56-fe-particles
#13
Shibu M Poulose, Bernard M Rabin, Donna F Bielinski, Megan E Kelly, Marshall G Miller, Nopporn Thanthaeng, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
The protective effects of anthocyanin-rich blueberries (BB) on brain health are well documented and are particularly important under conditions of high oxidative stress, which can lead to "accelerated aging." One such scenario is exposure to space radiation, consisting of high-energy and -charge particles (HZE), which are known to cause cognitive dysfunction and deleterious neurochemical alterations. We recently tested the behavioral and neurochemical effects of acute exposure to HZE particles such as (56)Fe, within 24-48h after exposure, and found that radiation primarily affects memory and not learning...
February 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212525/ablation-of-ferroptosis-regulator-glutathione-peroxidase-4-in-forebrain-neurons-promotes-cognitive-impairment-and-neurodegeneration
#14
William Sealy Hambright, Rene Solano Fonseca, Liuji Chen, Ren Na, Qitao Ran
Synaptic loss and neuron death are the underlying cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the modalities of cell death in those diseases remain unclear. Ferroptosis, a newly identified oxidative cell death mechanism triggered by massive lipid peroxidation, is implicated in the degeneration of neurons populations such as spinal motor neurons and midbrain neurons. Here, we investigated whether neurons in forebrain regions (cerebral cortex and hippocampus) that are severely afflicted in AD patients might be vulnerable to ferroptosis...
February 1, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212177/neurocognitive-outcomes-for-acute-global-acquired-brain-injury-in-children
#15
Fenella J Kirkham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In children, acute global brain injury from traumatic brain injury (TBI) and nontraumatic coma has a substantial cost to the child, the family, and the society. There have historically been relatively few studies looking at long-term cognition and behavioural outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term follow-up studies, population-based studies, and meta-analyses are now available for TBI in children as well as adults and suggest that there is a significant cognitive cost, particularly for processing speed, working memory, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in severe TBI...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210980/molecular-mechanisms-of-ire1%C3%AE-ask1-pathway-reactions-to-unfolded-protein-response-in-drn-neurons-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-rats
#16
Fanzhen Kong, Fang Han, Yanhao Xu, Yuxiu Shi
The goal of this study was to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) pathogenesis and to provide experimental evidence for new drug targets for effective PTSD treatment. Expression changes of IRE1α, ASK1, and other downstream molecules of the IRE1α-ASK1 endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) signaling pathway were investigated. JNK, P38, CHOP, Bcl-2, and Bax were analyzed at both protein and mRNA levels of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) neurons of PTSD rats. The rat PTSD model was established via the single-prolonged stress (SPS) method...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210930/emotion-specific-nocebo-effects-an-fmri-study
#17
Anne Schienle, Carina Höfler, Sonja Übel, Albert Wabnegger
The neurobiological mechanisms of nocebos are still poorly understood. Thirty-eight women participated in a 'smell study' using functional magnetic resonance imaging. They were presented with an odorless stimulus (distilled water) together with the verbal suggestion that this fluid has an aversive odor which enhances disgust feelings. The nocebo was presented while the participants viewed disgusting, fear-inducing, and neutral images. Participants' affective and neuronal responses during nocebo administration were compared with those in a control condition without nocebo...
February 16, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210263/a-paradigm-shift-on-the-question-of-b-cells-in-transplantation-recent-insights-on-regulating-the-alloresponse
#18
REVIEW
Daniel J Firl, Gilles Benichou, James I Kim, Heidi Yeh
B lymphocytes contribute to acute and chronic allograft rejection through their production of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). In addition, B cells present allopeptides bound to self-MHC class II molecules and provide costimulation signals to T cells, which are essential to their activation and differentiation into memory T cells. On the other hand, both in laboratory rodents and patients, the concept of effector T cell regulation by B cells is gaining traction in the field of transplantation. Specifically, clinical trials using anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies to deplete B cells and reverse DSA had a deleterious effect on rates of acute cellular rejection; a peculiar finding that calls into question a central paradigm in transplantation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210219/mice-lacking-m1-and-m3-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-have-impaired-odor-discrimination-and-learning
#19
Wilson Chan, Sanmeet Singh, Taj Keshav, Ramita Dewan, Christian Eberly, Robert Maurer, Alexia Nunez-Parra, Ricardo C Araneda
The cholinergic system has extensive projections to the olfactory bulb (OB) where it produces a state-dependent regulation of sensory gating. Previous work has shown a prominent role of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs) in regulating the excitability of OB neurons, in particular the M1 receptor. Here, we examined the contribution of M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes to olfactory processing using mice with a genetic deletion of these receptors, the M1(-/-) and the M1/M3(-/-) knockout (KO) mice. Genetic ablation of the M1 and M3 mAChRs resulted in a significant deficit in odor discrimination of closely related molecules, including stereoisomers...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209735/the-epac-phospholipase-c%C3%AE%C2%B5-pathway-regulates-endocannabinoid-signaling-and-cocaine-induced-disinhibition-of-vta-dopamine-neurons
#20
Jiaqing Tong, Xiaojie Liu, Casey Vickstrom, Yan Li, Laikang Yu, Youming Lu, Alan V Smrcka, Qing-Song Liu
Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) is a direct effector for the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP. Epac activates the phospholipase Cε (PLCε) pathway. PLCβ has been linked to the synthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Here, we report that Epac facilitates endocannabinoid-mediated retrograde synaptic depression through activation of PLCε. Intracellular loading of a selective Epac agonist 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP into ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons enabled previously ineffective stimuli to induce depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) and long-term depression of IPSCs (I-LTD) in the VTA...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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