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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223680/dysregulation-of-c-x-c-motif-ligand-10-during-aging-and-association-with-cognitive-performance
#1
Steven Bradburn, Jamie McPhee, Liam Bagley, Michael Carroll, Mark Slevin, Nasser Al-Shanti, Yoann Barnouin, Jean-Yves Hogrel, Mati Pääsuke, Helena Gapeyeva, Andrea Maier, Sarianna Sipilä, Marco Narici, Andrew Robinson, David Mann, Antony Payton, Neil Pendleton, Gillian Butler-Browne, Chris Murgatroyd
Chronic low-grade inflammation during aging (inflammaging) is associated with cognitive decline and neurodegeneration; however, the mechanisms underlying inflammaging are unclear. We studied a population (n = 361) of healthy young and old adults from the MyoAge cohort. Peripheral levels of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) was found to be higher in older adults, compared with young, and negatively associated with working memory performance. This coincided with an age-related reduction in blood DNA methylation at specific CpGs within the CXCL10 gene promoter...
November 23, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223528/glp-1-receptor-agonists-downregulate-aberrant-gnt-iii-expression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-models-through-the-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#2
Ying Wang, Song Chen, Zheng Xu, Suting Chen, Wenbing Yao, Xiangdong Gao
Alterations of glycoprotein glycans contribute to a wide variety of diseases. Bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) levels increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of most Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and the mRNA levels of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III), a glycosyltransferase responsible for synthesizing a bisecting GlcNAc residue, were found highly expressed in the brains of AD patients. In our previous studies, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its mimetics showed neuroprotective effects...
December 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223444/association-of-vedolizumab-level-anti-drug-antibodies-and-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-occupancy-with-response-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#3
Bella Ungar, Uri Kopylov, Miri Yavzori, Ella Fudim, Orit Picard, Adi Lahat, Daniel Coscas, Matti Waterman, Ola Haj-Natour, Noam Orbach-Zingboim, Ren Mao, Minhu Chen, Yehuda Chowers, Rami Eliakim, Shomron Ben-Horin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are few data available on the real-life pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics features of vedolizumab, a monoclonal antibody against integrin α4β7. We performed a prospective study of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) treated with vedolizumab to determine serum drug concentrations, formation of anti-vedolizumab antibodies (AVAs), and integrin α4β7 saturation. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 106 patients with IBD (67 with Crohn's disease and 39 with ulcerative colitis) treated with vedolizumab from September 2014 through March 2017 at 2 tertiary medical centers in Israel...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222469/hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-are-necessary-for-discrimination-of-social-stimuli
#4
Tara Raam, Kathleen M McAvoy, Antoine Besnard, Alexa Veenema, Amar Sahay
Oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) signaling in neural circuits mediating discrimination of social stimuli and affiliation or avoidance behavior is thought to guide social recognition. Remarkably, the physiological functions of Oxtrs in the hippocampus are not known. Here we demonstrate using genetic and pharmacological approaches that Oxtrs in the anterior dentate gyrus (aDG) and anterior CA2/CA3 (aCA2/CA3) of mice are necessary for discrimination of social, but not non-social, stimuli. Further, Oxtrs in aCA2/CA3 neurons recruit a population-based coding mechanism to mediate social stimuli discrimination...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222408/brain-insulin-resistance-impairs-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-and-memory-by-increasing-glua1-palmitoylation-through-foxo3a
#5
Matteo Spinelli, Salvatore Fusco, Marco Mainardi, Federico Scala, Francesca Natale, Rosita Lapenta, Andrea Mattera, Marco Rinaudo, Domenica Donatella Li Puma, Cristian Ripoli, Alfonso Grassi, Marcello D'Ascenzo, Claudio Grassi
High-fat diet (HFD) and metabolic diseases cause detrimental effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory through molecular mechanisms still poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that HFD increases palmitic acid deposition in the hippocampus and induces hippocampal insulin resistance leading to FoxO3a-mediated overexpression of the palmitoyltransferase zDHHC3. The excess of palmitic acid along with higher zDHHC3 levels causes hyper-palmitoylation of AMPA glutamate receptor subunit GluA1, hindering its activity-dependent trafficking to the plasma membrane...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222129/visual-associative-learning-in-wood-ants
#6
A Sofia D Fernandes, C L Buckley, J E Niven
Wood ants are a model system for studying visual learning and navigation. They can forage for food and navigate to their nests effectively by forming memories of visual features in their surrounding environment. Previous studies of freely behaving ants have revealed many of the behavioural strategies and environmental features necessary for successful navigation. However, little is known about the exact visual properties of the environment that animals learn or the neural mechanisms that allow them to achieve this...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222089/core-binding-factor-%C3%AE-and-runx-transcription-factors-promote-adaptive-natural-killer-cell-responses
#7
Moritz Rapp, Colleen M Lau, Nicholas M Adams, Orr-El Weizman, Timothy E O'Sullivan, Clair D Geary, Joseph C Sun
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that have features of adaptive immunity such as clonal expansion and generation of long-lived memory. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) signaling through its downstream transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) is required for the generation of memory NK cells after expansion. We identify gene loci that are highly enriched for STAT4 binding using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing for STAT4 and the permissive histone mark H3K4me3 in activated NK cells...
December 8, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221855/toll-like-receptor-4-regulates-anxiety-like-behavior-and-darpp-32-phosphorylation
#8
T Femenia, Y Qian, T Arentsen, H Forssberg, R Diaz Heijtz
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in early innate immune responses to inflammatory agents and pathogens. In the brain, some members of the TLR family are expressed in glial cells and neurons. In particular, TLR4 has been involved in learning and memory processes, stress-induced adaptations, and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role of TLR4 in emotional behaviors and their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR4 in emotional and social behavior by using different behavioral approaches, and assessed potential molecular alterations in important brain areas involved in emotional responses...
December 5, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221580/mechanisms-of-allergen-immunotherapy-for-inhaled-allergens-and-predictive-biomarkers
#9
REVIEW
Mohamed H Shamji, Stephen R Durham
Allergen immunotherapy is effective in patients with IgE-dependent allergic rhinitis and asthma. When immunotherapy is given continuously for 3 years, there is persistent clinical benefit for several years after its discontinuation. This disease-modifying effect is both antigen-specific and antigen-driven. Clinical improvement is accompanied by decreases in numbers of effector cells in target organs, including mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Immunotherapy results in the production of blocking IgG/IgG4 antibodies that can inhibit IgE-dependent activation mediated through both high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI) on mast cells and basophils and low-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRII) on B cells...
December 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221428/interactions-between-stereotype-threat-subjective-aging-and-memory-in-older-adults
#10
Manon Marquet, Pierre Missotten, Benoit Dardenne, Stéphane Adam
This study examined whether the effects of stereotype threat on memory and subjective age were moderated by positive age stereotypes and self-perceptions of aging among older adults. Perceived threat as a mechanism underlying these effects was also explored. Results showed that stereotype threat (high vs. low threat) did not affect the dependent variables. Moreover, self-perceptions of aging did not moderate the effect of stereotype threat on the dependent variables. However, for people with more positive age stereotypes, older people under highthreat perceived more threat than people under low threat...
December 8, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221166/high-salt-induced-hypertension-leads-to-cognitive-defect
#11
Cui-Ping Guo, Zhen Wei, Fang Huang, Min Qin, Xing Li, Yu-Man Wang, Qun Wang, Jian-Zhi Wang, Rong Liu, Bin Zhang, Hong-Lian Li, Xiao-Chuan Wang
Although increasing evidences suggest a relationship between hypertension and brain function for years, it is still unclear whether hypertension constitutes a risk factor for cognitive decline and its underlying mechanism. In the present study, an experimental animal model of hypertension simply by feeding rats with high salt diet was employed. We found that long-term high salt intake caused a marked increase of systolic blood pressure linked to a declined regional cerebral blood flow. Fear conditioning and morris water maze behavioral test revealed that high salt diet induced hippocampal dependent spatial reference memory deficits, while a decreased synaptogenesis without neuronal loss in hippocampus was observed in high salt treated rats...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221048/quantum-memory-and-non-demolition-measurement-of-single-phonon-state-with-nitrogen-vacancy-centers-ensemble
#12
Rui-Xia Wang, Kang Cai, Zhang-Qi Yin, Gui-Lu Long
In a diamond, the mechanical vibration-induced strain can lead to interaction between the mechanical mode and the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. In this work, we propose to utilize the strain-induced coupling for the quantum non-demolition (QND) single phonon measurement and memory in a diamond. The single phonon in a diamond mechanical resonator can be perfectly absorbed and emitted by the NV centers ensemble (NVE) with adiabatically tuning the microwave driving. An optical laser drives the NVE to the excited states, which have much larger coupling strength to the mechanical mode...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220673/de-novo-variants-in-gria4-lead-to-intellectual-disability-with-or-without-seizures-and-gait-abnormalities
#13
Sonja Martin, Adam Chamberlin, Deepali N Shinde, Maja Hempel, Tim M Strom, Allison Schreiber, Jessika Johannsen, Lilian Bomme Ousager, Martin J Larsen, Lars Kjaersgaard Hansen, Ali Fatemi, Julie S Cohen, Johannes Lemke, Kristina P Sørensen, Katherine L Helbig, Davor Lessel, Rami Abou Jamra
Using trio whole-exome sequencing, we have identified de novo heterozygous pathogenic variants in GRIA4 in five unrelated individuals with intellectual disability and other symptoms. GRIA4 encodes an AMPA receptor subunit known as GluR4, which is found on excitatory glutamatergic synapses and is important for learning and memory. Four of the variants are located in the highly conserved SYTANLAAF motif in the transmembrane protein M3, and the fifth is in an extra-cellular domain. Molecular modeling of the altered protein showed that three of the variants in the SYTANLAAF motif orient toward the center of the pore region and most likely lead to disturbance of the gating mechanism...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220627/neuropsychological-functioning-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-insomnia-randomized-to-cbt-i-or-control-group
#14
Erin Cassidy-Eagle, Allison Siebern, Lisa Unti, Jill Glassman, Ruth O'Hara
OBJECTIVES: Improving the sleep of older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a first step in discovering whether interventions directed at modifying this risk factor also have the potential to alter the cognitive decline trajectory. METHODS: A six-session, adapted version of a cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) was administered to older adults (N = 28; 14 per group) with MCI across two residential facilities. Participants were randomly assigned to either the sleep intervention or an active control group and completed a neuropsychological battery at three time points (e...
October 24, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219505/direct-imaging-of-a-zero-field-target-skyrmion-and-its-polarity-switch-in-a-chiral-magnetic-nanodisk
#15
Fengshan Zheng, Hang Li, Shasha Wang, Dongsheng Song, Chiming Jin, Wenshen Wei, András Kovács, Jiadong Zang, Mingliang Tian, Yuheng Zhang, Haifeng Du, Rafal E Dunin-Borkowski
A target Skyrmion is a flux-closed spin texture that has twofold degeneracy and is promising as a binary state in next generation universal memories. Although its formation in nanopatterned chiral magnets has been predicted, its observation has remained challenging. Here, we use off-axis electron holography to record images of target Skyrmions in a 160-nm-diameter nanodisk of the chiral magnet FeGe. We compare experimental measurements with numerical simulations, demonstrate switching between two stable degenerate target Skyrmion ground states that have opposite polarities and rotation senses, and discuss the observed switching mechanism...
November 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219042/context-dependent-passive-avoidance-learning-in-the-terrestrial-slug-limax
#16
Yuko Fujisaki, Ryota Matsuo
The terrestrial slug Limax has been used as a model animal for studying the neural mechanisms underlying associative olfactory learning. The slug also innately exhibits negative phototactic behavior using its eyes. In the present study, we developed an experimental paradigm for quantification of slug's negative phototaxis behavior, and investigated whether the nature of the negative phototaxis can be modified by learning experience. The experimental set-up consists of light and dark compartments, between which the slug can move freely...
December 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218095/effect-of-repeated-neonatal-sevoflurane-exposure-on-the-learning-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity-at-juvenile-and-adult-age
#17
Xiaoli Liang, Yi Zhang, Chao Zhang, Chunchun Tang, Yi Wang, Juanjuan Ren, Xi Chen, Yu Zhang, Zhaoqiong Zhu
Currently sevoflurane is the volatile anesthetic most wildly used in pediatric surgery. Whether neonatal exposure to sevoflurane brings about a long-lasting adverse impact even at juvenile and adult age, attracts extensive concerns. However, to date the consensus has not been reached and how exposure to sevoflurane in early life affects long-term ability of learning and memory is not fully elucidated. To obtain further insight into this issue, 32 neonatal SD rats were assigned into control group (group C, n=16) and sevoflurane group (group SEV, n=16)...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218001/upregulation-of-cdh1-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-and-long-term-cognitive-impairments-in-developing-rats
#18
Xuan Li, Kai Wei, Rong Hu, Bo Zhang, Li Li, Li Wan, Chuanhan Zhang, Wenlong Yao
Neonatal exposure to isoflurane can result in neuroapoptosis and persistent cognitive impairments. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and its co-activator Cdh1 are E3 ubiquitin ligases that play important roles in the central nervous system, including in the regulation of neuronal survival, synaptic development, and mammalian learning and memory. However, whether APC/C-Cdh1 is involved in isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in developing rats remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217684/retrieval-demands-adaptively-change-striatal-old-new-signals-and-boost-subsequent-long-term-memory
#19
Nora A Herweg, Tobias Sommer, Nico Bunzeck
The striatum is a central part of the dopaminergic mesolimbic system and contributes both to the encoding and retrieval of long-term memories. In this regard, the co-occurrence of striatal novelty and retrieval success effects in independent studies underlines the structure's double duty and suggests dynamic contextual adaption. To test this hypothesis and further investigate the underlying mechanisms of encoding and retrieval dynamics, human subjects viewed pre-familiarized scene images intermixed with new scenes and classified them as indoor vs...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217629/map-like-navigation-from-distances-exceeding-routine-movements-in-the-three-striped-poison-frog-ameerega-trivittata
#20
Andrius Pašukonis, Matthias-Claudio Loretto, Walter Hödl
Most animals move in dense habitats where distant landmarks are limited, but how they find their way around remains poorly understood. Poison frogs inhabit the rainforest understory where they shuttle tadpoles from small territories to widespread pools. Recent studies revealed their excellent spatial memory and the ability to home back from several hundred meters. It remains unclear if this homing ability is restricted to the areas that had been previously explored or if it allows the frogs to navigate from areas outside their direct experience...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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