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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684474/environmental-enrichment-cognitive-neuroprotection-in-an-experimental-model-of-cerebral-ischemia-biochemical-and-molecular-aspects
#1
Lara Vezula Gonçalves, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Tamara Andrea Alarcon Ferreira, Juliana Barbosa Coitinho, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires, Cristina Martins-Silva
Stroke is considered a major cause of global morbidity. Currently, there are no effective treatments for post-stroke cognitive impairment. Enriched environment (EE) has been brought forward as a preconditioning method to induce cerebral tolerance in an ischemic event. However, the subjacent mechanisms involved in this tolerance are not yet clear. Herein we aimed to identify the mechanisms of neuroprotection triggered by EE preconditioning in a murine model of ischemic stroke. In order to do so, C57Bl/6 mice were kept for five weeks either in EE or in standard environment (SC) prior to ischemic injury through bilateral carotid occlusion (BCCAo) or sham surgery...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684448/absence-of-fear-renewal-and-functional-connections-between-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-in-infant-mice
#2
Liyu Li, Xiaoli Gao, Qiang Zhou
Impairment in fear extinction is widely viewed as a major contributor to, or even an underlying mechanism of, the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders and PTSD. Children with traumatic experience have a higher risk for developing anxiety disorders and PTSD in the adult. Little is known about the nature of fear memory extinction and its underlying mechanism during this period. Here we showed that while renewal of fear memory is context-specific in adult mice, it is absent in infant mice (P17). Using local injection of GABAa receptor antagonist picrotoxin, we found that there is no functional connectivity between infralimbic prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in P17 mice, while prefrontal cortex projection to amygdala is functioning...
April 20, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684336/pka-creb-bdnf-signaling-pathway-mediates-propofol-induced-long-term-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-hippocampus-of-rats
#3
Yu Zhong, Jing Chen, Li Li, Yi Qin, Yi Wei, Shining Pan, Yage Jiang, Jialin Chen, Yubo Xie
Studies have found that propofol can induce widespread neuroapoptosis in developing brains, which leads to cause long-term learning and memory abnormalities. However, the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying propofol-induced neuroapoptosis remain elusive. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway in propofol-induced long-term learning and memory impairment during brain development. Seven-day-old rats were randomly assigned to control, intralipid and three treatment groups (n = 5)...
April 20, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683670/structural-memory-effect-of-mg-al-and-zn-al-layered-double-hydroxides-in-the-presence-of-different-natural-humic-acids-process-and-mechanism
#4
Zhisheng Gao, Keiko Sasaki, Xinhong Qiu
The structural memory effect of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) is one of the important reasons for their extensive use in environmental remediation. In this study, humic acid (HA) was extracted from black soil and sediments and characterized to determine their structures. The regeneration mechanisms of calcinated LDHs (CLDHs) including different divalent metals (Mg-CLDH and Zn-CLDH) in deionized water and different HA solutions were carefully elucidated, and the reasons for the behavior differences in the two materials were explained...
April 23, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683504/where-to-attend-next-guiding-refreshing-of-visual-spatial-and-verbal-representations-in-working-memory
#5
Alessandra S Souza, Evie Vergauwe, Klaus Oberauer
One of the functions that attention may serve in working memory (WM) is boosting information accessibility, a mechanism known as attentional refreshing. Refreshing is assumed to be a domain-general process operating on visual, spatial, and verbal representations alike. So far, few studies have directly manipulated refreshing of individual WM representations to measure the WM benefits of refreshing. Recently, a guided-refreshing method was developed, which consists of presenting cues during the retention interval of a WM task to instruct people to refresh (i...
April 23, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683491/pruning-representations-in-a-distributed-model-of-working-memory-a-mechanism-for-refreshing-and-removal
#6
Peter Shepherdson, Klaus Oberauer
Substantial behavioral evidence suggests that attention plays an important role in working memory. Frequently, attention is characterized as enhancing representations by increasing their strength or activation level. Despite the intuitive appeal of this idea, using attention to strengthen representations in computational models can lead to unexpected outcomes. Representational strengthening frequently leads to worse, rather than better, performance, contradicting behavioral results. Here, we propose an alternative to a pure strengthening account, in which attention is used to selectively strengthen useful and weaken less useful components of distributed memory representations, thereby pruning the representations...
April 23, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683486/comparing-different-instructed-refreshing-schedules-evidence-for-cumulative-forward-order-refreshing-of-verbal-lists
#7
Evie Vergauwe
Refreshing is one of the mechanisms proposed to maintain information in human working memory. The mechanism is assumed to operate serially, boosting the items of a memory list one after the other. In the current study, we test the most straightforward implementation of serial refreshing, by which refreshing spontaneously reproduces the order of presentation, starting with the first memory item and cycling through the list in a forward fashion, to support short-term memory of a list. Therefore, we examined verbal serial recall performance under different instructed-refreshing schedules that varied in their similarity to cumulative, forward-order refreshing...
April 23, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683458/isolation-of-human-endothelial-cells-from-normal-colon-and-colorectal-carcinoma-an-improved-protocol
#8
Elisabeth Naschberger, Daniela Regensburger, Clara Tenkerian, Melanie Langheinrich, Felix B Engel, Carol Geppert, Arndt Hartmann, Robert Grützmann, Vera S Schellerer, Michael Stürzl
Primary cells isolated from human carcinomas are valuable tools to identify pathogenic mechanisms contributing to disease development and progression. In particular, endothelial cells (EC) constituting the inner surface of vessels, directly participate in oxygen delivery, nutrient supply, and removal of waste products to and from tumors, and are thereby prominently involved in the constitution of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Tumor endothelial cells (TECs) can be used as cellular biosensors of the intratumoral microenvironment established by communication between tumor and stromal cells...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683114/trajectories-of-cognitive-function-and-associated-phenotypic-and-genotypic-factors-in-breast-cancer
#9
Catherine M Bender, John D Merriman, Susan M Sereika, Amanda L Gentry, Frances E Casillo, Theresa A Koleck, Margaret Q Rosenzweig, Adam M Brufsky, Priscilla McAuliffe, Yehui Zhu, Yvette P Conley
OBJECTIVES: This study identified women with unique trajectories of executive function, concentration, and visual working memory before and during adjuvant therapy for breast cancer, and examined phenotypic and genotypic predictors associated with subgroups. SAMPLE & SETTING: 399 postmenopausal women, of whom 288 were women with early-stage breast cancer and 111 were women without breast cancer, matched on age and years of education to the women with breast cancer, and all at an urban cancer center...
May 1, 2018: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682834/the-nature-of-delayed-dream-incorporation-dream-lag-effect-personally-significant-events-persist-but-not-major-daily-activities-or-concerns
#10
Jean-Baptiste Eichenlaub, Elaine van Rijn, Mairéad Phelan, Larnia Ryder, M Gareth Gaskell, Penelope A Lewis, Matthew P Walker, Mark Blagrove
Incorporation of details from waking life events into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreams has been found to be highest on the 2 nights after, and then 5-7 nights after, the event. These are termed, respectively, the day-residue and dream-lag effects. This study is the first to categorize types of waking life experiences and compare their incorporation into dreams across multiple successive nights. Thirty-eight participants completed a daily diary each evening and a dream diary each morning for 14 days. In the daily diary, three categories of experiences were reported: major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs) and major concerns (MCs)...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681956/congenital-cystic-adenomatoid-malformation-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-procedure-8-year-experience-of-one-medical-centre
#11
Bogumiła Strumiłło, Andrzej Jóźwiak, Anna Pałka, Krzysztof Szaflik, Anna Piaseczna-Piotrowska
Introduction: Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) is a rare anomaly. The mechanisms and the time at which the abnormality develops are still unclear. The malformation is characterized by the presence of single large or multiple but smaller cysts. Aim: To present the experience of our medical centre, the Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital - Research Institute. Material and methods: We analysed the medical records of 32 neonates hospitalized in 2008-2017 at the Department of Paediatric Surgery and Urology ICZMP due to pre- or postnatally diagnosed congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation...
March 2018: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681847/cholinergic-hypofunction-in-presbycusis-related-tinnitus-with-cognitive-function-impairment-emerging-hypotheses
#12
Qingwei Ruan, Zhuowei Yu, Weibin Zhang, Jian Ruan, Chunhui Liu, Ruxin Zhang
Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss) is a potential risk factor for tinnitus and cognitive deterioration, which result in poor life quality. Presbycusis-related tinnitus with cognitive impairment is a common phenotype in the elderly population. In these individuals, the central auditory system shows similar pathophysiological alterations as those observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including cholinergic hypofunction, epileptiform-like network synchronization, chronic inflammation, and reduced GABAergic inhibition and neural plasticity...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681766/proinflammatory-factors-mediate-paclitaxel-induced-impairment-of-learning-and-memory
#13
Zhao Li, Shuang Zhao, Hai-Lin Zhang, Peng Liu, Fei-Fei Liu, Yue-Xian Guo, Xiu-Li Wang
The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel is widely used for cancer treatment. Paclitaxel treatment impairs learning and memory function, a side effect that reduces the quality of life of cancer survivors. However, the neural mechanisms underlying paclitaxel-induced impairment of learning and memory remain unclear. Paclitaxel treatment leads to proinflammatory factor release and neuronal apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that paclitaxel impairs learning and memory function through proinflammatory factor-induced neuronal apoptosis...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681474/ejaculation-induced-by-the-activation-of-crz-neurons-is-rewarding-to-drosophila-males
#14
Shir Zer-Krispil, Hila Zak, Lisha Shao, Shir Ben-Shaanan, Lea Tordjman, Assa Bentzur, Anat Shmueli, Galit Shohat-Ophir
The reward system is a collection of circuits that reinforce behaviors necessary for survival [1, 2]. Given the importance of reproduction for survival, actions that promote successful mating induce pleasurable feeling and are positively reinforced [3, 4]. This principle is conserved in Drosophila, where successful copulation is naturally rewarding to male flies, induces long-term appetitive memories [5], increases brain levels of neuropeptide F (NPF, the fly homolog of neuropeptide Y), and prevents ethanol, known otherwise as rewarding to flies [6, 7], from being rewarding [5]...
April 17, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680498/sleep-eeg-spectral-power-is-correlated-with-subjective-objective-discrepancy-of-sleep-onset-latency-in-major-depressive-disorder
#15
Seung-Gul Kang, Sara Mariani, Stephanie A Marvin, Kwang-Pil Ko, Susan Redline, John W Winkelman
We aimed to identify the sleep electroencephalography (EEG) spectral power correlates of the subjective-objective discrepancy (SOD) of sleep onset latency (SOL) in major depressive disorder (MDD), primary insomnia (PI), and normal sleeping control (NSC) groups. We examined relative power values in standard frequency bands of the EEG spectra during the first Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep period as correlates of SOD of SOL between sleep diary and polysomnography in MDD (n = 36), PI (n = 19), and NSC (n = 23) groups...
April 19, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679544/1-f-neural-noise-and-electrophysiological-indices-of-contextual-prediction-in-aging
#16
S Dave, T A Brothers, T Y Swaab
Prediction of upcoming words during reading has been suggested to enhance the efficiency of discourse processing. Emerging models have postulated that predictive mechanisms require synchronous firing of neural networks, but to date, this relationship has been investigated primarily through oscillatory activity in narrow frequency bands. A recently-developed measure proposed to reflect broadband neural activity - and thereby synchronous neuronal firing - is 1/f neural noise extracted from EEG spectral power...
April 18, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679289/cross-state-dependency-of-learning-between-tramadol-and-mk-801-in-the-mouse-dorsal-hippocampus-involvement-of-nitric-oxide-no-signaling-pathway
#17
Majid Jafari-Sabet, Shiva Amiri, Ramin Ataee
RATIONALE: Tramadol, an atypical μ-opioid receptor agonist, as a psychoactive drug, is frequently abused by human beings. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of drug-associated learning and memory formation may help prevent drug addiction and relapse. Previous study revealed that dorsal hippocampus (CA1) plays a crucial role in the retrieval of tramadol-associated memory and that its role depends on the expression of CA1 N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (Jafari-Sabet et al...
April 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678590/comparlow-arsenic-concentrations-impair-memory-in-rat-offpring-exposed-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-role-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-glutamate-and-oxidative-stress
#18
Nina María Mónaco, Mariana Bartos, Sergio Dominguez, Cristina Gallegos, Cristina Bras, María Del Carmen Esandi, Cecilia Bouzat, Leda Giannuzzi, Alejandra Minetti, Fernanda Gumilar
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is an important natural pollutant. Millions of individuals worldwide drink water with high levels of iAs. Arsenic exposure has been associated to cognitive deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In the present work we investigated in female adult offspring the effect of the exposure to low arsenite sodium levels through drinking water during pregnancy and lactation on short- and long-term memory. We also considered a possible underlying neurotoxic mechanism. Pregnant rats were exposed during pregnancy and lactation to environmentally relevant iAs concentrations (0...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678562/effects-of-postnatal-handling-on-adult-behavior-and-brain-mrna-expression-of-serotonin-receptor-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-gaba-a-receptor-subunit
#19
Haiyan Li, Chihiro Ishikawa, Takashi Shiga
Development of brain and behavior is influenced by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Postnatal handling, a manipulation that briefly separates mouse offspring from their mother during the postnatal period, has been reported to yield beneficial effects on the behavior of adult offspring. However, brain mechanisms underlying the effects on the behavior have not been well understood. Here we first examined effects of postnatal handling on the behavior of adult male BALB/c mice. Offspring were separated for 15 min every day between postnatal day 1 (P1) and P14 and then various behaviors were tested in the adulthood...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677722/forming-free-one-selector-one-resistor-characteristics-of-oxygen-rich-ito-based-transparent-resistive-switching-memory-via-defect-engineering-using-the-reactive-sputtering-process
#20
Min Ju Yun, Kyeong Heon Kim, Sungho Kim, Hee-Dong Kim
In recent research of resistive random access memory (RRAM), solving the degradation phenomenon induced by both a high forming voltage to form the conducting filaments (CFs) and a high reset current is one of the main issues encountered. In this study, to overcome these problems, we propose forming-free bipolar resistive switching (BRS) behaviors by employing an ITO film with abundant oxygen vacancies, instead of conventional CF based RRAM requiring a forming process, and systematically investigate the feasibility of forming free BRS behaviors and a possible switching mechanism...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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