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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430949/capturing-non-local-interactions-by-long-short-term-memory-bidirectional-recurrent-neural-networks-for-improving-prediction-of-protein-secondary-structure-backbone-angles-contact-numbers-and-solvent-accessibility
#1
Rhys Heffernan, Yuedong Yang, Kuldip Paliwal, Yaoqi Zhou
Motivation: The accuracy of predicting protein local and global structural properties such as secondary structure and solvent accessible surface area has been stagnant for many years because of the challenge of accounting for non-local interactions between amino acid residues that are close in three-dimensional structural space but far from each other in their sequence positions. All existing machine-learning techniques relied on a sliding window of 10-20 amino acid residues to capture some "short to intermediate" non-local interactions...
April 18, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430533/new-directions-in-the-rational-design-of-electrical-and-magnetic-seizure-therapies-individualized-low-amplitude-seizure-therapy-ilast-and-magnetic-seizure-therapy-mst
#2
Thomas Radman, Sarah H Lisanby
Electroconvulsive therapy remains a key treatment option for severe cases of depression, but undesirable side-effects continue to limit its use. Innovations in the design of novel seizure therapies seek to improve its risk benefit ratio through enhanced control of the focality of stimulation. The design of seizure therapies with increased spatial precision is motivated by avoiding stimulation of deep brain structures implicated in memory retention, including the hippocampus. The development of two innovations in seizure therapy-individualized low-amplitude seizure therapy (iLAST) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST), are detailed...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430268/controlling-the-self-folding-of-a-polymer-sheet-using-a-local-heater-the-effect-of-the-polymer-heater-interface
#3
Jianxun Cui, Shanshan Yao, Qijin Huang, John G M Adams, Yong Zhu
Self-folding of a pre-strained shape memory polymer (SMP) sheet was demonstrated using local joule heating. Folding is caused by shrinkage variation across the thickness of the SMP sheet. The folding direction can be controlled by the interfacial interaction between the heater and the SMP sheet. When the heater is placed on the SMP sheet with no constraint (weak interface), the SMP sheet folds toward the heater. Temperature gradient across the SMP thickness gives rise to the shrinkage variation. By contrast, when the heater is fixed to the SMP sheet (strong interface), the SMP sheet can fold away from the heater...
April 21, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430044/syntactic-complexity-and-frequency-in-the-neurocognitive-language-system
#4
Yun-Hsuan Yang, William D Marslen-Wilson, Mirjana Bozic
Prominent neurobiological models of language follow the widely accepted assumption that language comprehension requires two principal mechanisms: a lexicon storing the sound-to-meaning mapping of words, primarily involving bilateral temporal regions, and a combinatorial processor for syntactically structured items, such as phrases and sentences, localized in a left-lateralized network linking left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior temporal areas. However, recent research showing that the processing of simple phrasal sequences may engage only bilateral temporal areas, together with the claims of distributional approaches to grammar, raises the question of whether frequent phrases are stored alongside individual words in temporal areas...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429796/spatial-control-of-functional-response-in-4d-printed-active-metallic-structures
#5
Ji Ma, Brian Franco, Gustavo Tapia, Kubra Karayagiz, Luke Johnson, Jun Liu, Raymundo Arroyave, Ibrahim Karaman, Alaa Elwany
We demonstrate a method to achieve local control of 3-dimensional thermal history in a metallic alloy, which resulted in designed spatial variations in its functional response. A nickel-titanium shape memory alloy part was created with multiple shape-recovery stages activated at different temperatures using the selective laser melting technique. The multi-stage transformation originates from differences in thermal history, and thus the precipitate structure, at various locations created from controlled variations in the hatch distance within the same part...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429588/electric-field-adjustable-time-dependent-magnetoelectric-response-in-martensitic-ferh-alloy
#6
Ignasi Fina, Alberto Quintana, Jessica Padilla-Pantoja, Xavier Marti, Ferran Macià, Florencio Sanchez, Michael Foerster, Lucia Aballe, Josep Fontcuberta, Jordi Sort
Steady or dynamic magnetoelectric response, selectable and adjustable by only varying the amplitude of an applied electric field, is found in a multiferroic FeRh/PMNPT device. In-operando time-dependent structural, ferroelectric and magnetoelectric characterizations provide evidence that, as in magnetic shape-memory martensitic alloys, the observed distinctive magnetoelectric responses are related to the time-dependent relative abundance of antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic phases in FeRh, unbalanced by voltage-controlled strain...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429381/the-structural-connectome-of-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Marsh Königs, L W Ernest van Heurn, Roel Bakx, R Jeroen Vermeulen, J Carel Goslings, Bwee Tien Poll-The, Marleen van der Wees, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Jaap Oosterlaan, Petra J W Pouwels
This study aimed to investigate the impact of mild to severe pediatric TBI on the structural connectome. Children aged 8-14 years with trauma control (TC) injury (n = 27) were compared to children with mild TBI and risk factors for complicated TBI (mild(RF+) , n = 20) or moderate/severe TBI (n = 16) at 2.8 years post-injury. Probabilistic tractography on diffusion tensor imaging data was used in combination with graph theory to study structural connectivity. Functional outcome was measured using neurocognitive tests and parent and teacher questionnaires for behavioral functioning...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428787/a-possible-role-for-idiotype-anti-idiotype-b-t-cell-interactions-in-maintaining-immune-memory
#8
Victor I Seledtsov, Galina V Seledtsova
Variable regions of both B-cell receptors (BCRs) and T-cell receptors (TCRs) are completely formed in the postnatal period, and, consequently, no innate immune tolerance against these structures exists in adulthood. Indeed, antibodies (Abs) specific to TCRs have been found in both animals and humans. These facts clearly indicate the existence of B cells able to directly interact with T cells through binding of BCRs to TCRs without implicating major histocompatibility complex molecules. A novel paradigm is proposed in that the immune memory is based on idiotype/anti-idiotype interactions occurring between BCRs and TCRs following clearance of the antigen that elicited immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427203/regional-structural-impairments-outside-lesions-are-associated-with-verbal-short-term-memory-deficits-in-chronic-subcortical-stroke
#9
Qingqing Diao, Jingchun Liu, Caihong Wang, Jingliang Cheng, Tong Han, Xuejun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to explore the neural mechanisms of verbal short-term memory (VSTM) impairment in subcortical stroke by evaluating the contributions of lesion and remote grey matter volume (GMV) reduction. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between lesions and VSTM. In stroke patients with left lesions, GMV reductions in the right middle frontal gyrus and in the left inferior frontal gyrus were positively correlated with VSTM impairment...
March 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426055/droplet-manipulation-on-a-structured-shape-memory-polymer-surface
#10
Jun Kyu Park, Seok Kim
While methods for dynamic tuning of surface wettability to manipulate water droplets have been widely explored for many applications including digital microfluidics, those based on dynamically changeable surface morphology have remained challenging to achieve. In this work, we present a structured shape memory polymer (SMP) surface which shows dynamically tunable surface wettability through changeable surface morphology in order to manipulate water droplets. The structured SMP surface involves a SMP pillar array consisting of nanotextured small and large pillars which can change its morphology between permanent and temporary shapes upon thermomechanical loading...
April 20, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425185/the-influence-of-hippocampal-atrophy-on-the-cognitive-phenotype-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#11
Greg J Elder, Karen Mactier, Sean J Colloby, Rosie Watson, Andrew M Blamire, John T O'Brien, John-Paul Taylor
OBJECTIVE: The level of hippocampal atrophy in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is typically less than that observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is not known how the cognitive phenotype of DLB is influenced by hippocampal atrophy or the atrophy of adjacent medial temporal lobe structures. METHODS: Dementia with Lewy bodies (n = 65), AD (n = 76) and control (n = 63) participants underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive Cambridge Cognitive Examination and Mini-Mental State Examination (CAMCOG and MMSE) assessments...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424614/relationship-between-cognitive-and-sleep-wake-variables-in-asymptomatic-offspring-of-patients-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Carolina Abulafia, Bárbara Duarte-Abritta, Mirta F Villarreal, María S Ladrón-de-Guevara, Celeste García, Geraldine Sequeyra, Gustavo Sevlever, Leticia Fiorentini, Karl-Jürgen Bär, Deborah R Gustafson, Daniel E Vigo, Salvador M Guinjoan
Early neuropathological changes characteristic of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) involve brain stem and limbic structures that regulate neurovegetative functions, including sleep-wake rhythm. Indeed, sleep pattern is an emerging biomarker and a potential pathophysiological mechanism in LOAD. We hypothesized that cognitively asymptomatic, middle-aged offspring of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) would display a series of circadian rhythm abnormalities prior to the onset of objective cognitive alterations. We tested 31 children of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) and 19 healthy individuals without family history of Alzheimer's disease (control subjects, CS) with basic tests of cognitive function, as well as actigraphy measures of sleep-wake rhythm, cardiac autonomic function, and bodily temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424597/working-memory-after-traumatic-brain-injury-the-neural-basis-of-improved-performance-with-methylphenidate
#13
Anne E Manktelow, David K Menon, Barbara J Sahakian, Emmanuel A Stamatakis
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in cognitive impairments for patients. The aim of this proof of concept study was to establish the nature of abnormalities, in terms of activity and connectivity, in the working memory network of TBI patients and how these relate to compromised behavioral outcomes. Further, this study examined the neural correlates of working memory improvement following the administration of methylphenidate. We report behavioral, functional and structural MRI data from a group of 15 Healthy Controls (HC) and a group of 15 TBI patients, acquired during the execution of the N-back task...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424397/-spatial-cognition-and-episodic-memory-formation-in-the-limbic-cortex
#14
Yasushi Kobayashi
The limbic lobe defined by Broca is a cortical region with highly diverse structure and functions, and comprises the paleo-, archi-, and neocortices as well as their transitional zones. In the limbic lobe, Brodmann designated areas 27, 28, 34, 35, and 36 adjacent to the hippocampus, and areas 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33 around the corpus callosum. In the current literature, areas 27 and 28 correspond to the presubiculum and entorhinal cortex, respectively. Area 34 represents the cortico-medial part of the amygdaloid complex...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421568/prions-prionoid-complexes-and-amyloids-the-bad-the-good-and-something-in-between
#15
Iva Hafner Bratkovič
Prions are infectious agents causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in humans and animals. These protein-based particles template conformational changes in a host-encoded prion protein to an insoluble self-like conformation. Prions are also present in yeast, where they support protein-based epigenetic inheritance. There is emerging evidence that prion-like (prionoid) particles can support a variety of pathological and beneficial functions. The recent data on the prionoid spread of other pathological amyloids are discussed in light of differences between prions and prion-like aggregates...
April 19, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420646/associations-between-left-ventricular-dysfunction-and-brain-structure-and-function-findings-from-the-sabre-southall-and-brent-revisited-study
#16
Chloe M Park, Emily D Williams, Nish Chaturvedi, Therese Tillin, Robert J Stewart, Marcus Richards, Dean Shibata, Jamil Mayet, Alun D Hughes
BACKGROUND: Subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction has been inconsistently associated with early cognitive impairment, and mechanistic pathways have been poorly considered. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between LV dysfunction and structural/functional measures of the brain and explored the role of potential mechanisms. METHOD AND RESULTS: A total of 1338 individuals (69±6 years) from the Southall and Brent Revisited study underwent echocardiography for systolic (tissue Doppler imaging peak systolic wave) and diastolic (left atrial diameter) assessment...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419918/internal-shifting-impairments-in-response-to-emotional-information-in-dysphoric-adolescents
#17
Laura Wante, Sven C Mueller, Ineke Demeyer, Tiffany Naets, Caroline Braet
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested that internal cognitive control impairments may play an important role in the development of depression. Despite a growing body of research in adults, the ability to shift internal attention between mental representations in working memory has received little attention in younger populations. This study investigated internal shifting capacity between emotional and non-emotional information in dysphoric and non-dysphoric adolescents...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418327/auditory-and-cognitive-factors-associated-with-speech-in-noise-complaints-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Eric C Hoover, Pamela E Souza, Frederick J Gallun
BACKGROUND: Auditory complaints following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) are common, but few studies have addressed the role of auditory temporal processing in speech recognition complaints. PURPOSE: In this study, deficits understanding speech in a background of speech noise following MTBI were evaluated with the goal of comparing the relative contributions of auditory and nonauditory factors. RESEARCH DESIGN: A matched-groups design was used in which a group of listeners with a history of MTBI were compared to a group matched in age and pure-tone thresholds, as well as a control group of young listeners with normal hearing (YNH)...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418057/geometry-dependent-compressive-responses-in-nanoimprinted-submicron-structured-shape-memory-polyurethane
#19
Wei Li Lee, Hong Yee Low, Christine Ortiz
High resolution surface textures, when rationally designed, provide an attractive surface engineering approach to enhance surface functionalities. Designing smart surfaces by coupling surface texture with shape memory polymers has garnered attention in achieving tunable mechanical properties. We investigate the structure-mechanical property relationships for programmable, shape-memorizing submicron-scale pillar arrays subjected to flat-punch compression. The geometrically-dependent deformation of structured surfaces with two different aspect ratios (250 nm-pillars 1 : 1 and 550 nm-pillars 2...
April 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417597/ultrahigh-water-content-superelastic-and-shape-memory-nanofiber-assembled-hydrogels-exhibiting-pressure-responsive-conductivity
#20
Yang Si, Lihuan Wang, Xueqin Wang, Ning Tang, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding
High-water-content hydrogels that are both mechanically robust and conductive could have wide applications in fields ranging from bioengineering and electronic devices to medicine; however, creating such materials has proven to be extremely challenging. This study presents a scalable methodology to prepare superelastic, cellular-structured nanofibrous hydrogels (NFHs) by combining alginate and flexible SiO2 nanofibers. This approach causes naturally abundant and sustainable alginate to assemble into 3D elastic bulk NFHs with tunable water content and desirable shapes on a large scale...
April 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
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