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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342999/hippocampal-ca3-dentate-gyrus-volume-uniquely-linked-to-improvement-in-associative-memory-from-childhood-to-adulthood
#1
Ana M Daugherty, Robert Flinn, Noa Ofen
Associative memory develops into adulthood and critically depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a complex structure composed of subfields that are functionally-distinct, and anterior-posterior divisions along the length of the hippocampal horizontal axis that may also differ by cognitive correlates. Although each of these aspects has been considered independently, here we evaluate their relative contributions as correlates of age-related improvement in memory. Volumes of hippocampal subfields (subiculum, CA1-2, CA3-dentate gyrus) and anterior-posterior divisions (hippocampal head, body, tail) were manually segmented from high-resolution proton density-weighted images in a sample of healthy participants (age 8-25 years)...
March 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342697/recent-publications-from-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-reviewing-progress-toward-improved-ad-clinical-trials
#2
REVIEW
Michael W Weiner, Dallas P Veitch, Paul S Aisen, Laurel A Beckett, Nigel J Cairns, Robert C Green, Danielle Harvey, Clifford R Jack, William Jagust, John C Morris, Ronald C Petersen, Andrew J Saykin, Leslie M Shaw, Arthur W Toga, John Q Trojanowski
INTRODUCTION: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has continued development and standardization of methodologies for biomarkers and has provided an increased depth and breadth of data available to qualified researchers. This review summarizes the 450+ publications using ADNI data during 2014 and 2015. METHODS: We used standard searches to find publications using ADNI data. RESULTS: (1) Structural and functional changes, including subtle changes to hippocampal shape and texture, atrophy in areas outside of hippocampus, and disruption to functional networks, are detectable in presymptomatic subjects before hippocampal atrophy; (2) In subjects with abnormal β-amyloid deposition (Aβ+), biomarkers become abnormal in the order predicted by the amyloid cascade hypothesis; (3) Cognitive decline is more closely linked to tau than Aβ deposition; (4) Cerebrovascular risk factors may interact with Aβ to increase white-matter (WM) abnormalities which may accelerate Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression in conjunction with tau abnormalities; (5) Different patterns of atrophy are associated with impairment of memory and executive function and may underlie psychiatric symptoms; (6) Structural, functional, and metabolic network connectivities are disrupted as AD progresses...
March 22, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342422/synergistic-desalination-of-potash-brine-impacted-groundwater-using-a-dual-adsorbent
#3
Nick P Gibb, James J Dynes, Wonjae Chang
The impact of saline mining effluent has been a significant environmental concern. Natural and modified clay-mineral adsorbents have been receiving increasing attention for salinity reduction of brine-impacted water, especially for natural resource extraction sites and surrounding environments. In this study, a dual-adsorbent treatment based on the sequential application of calcined layered double hydroxide (CLDH) and acid-treated zeolite was developed, evaluated and characterized for the desalination of potash brine-impacted groundwater...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339635/the-impact-of-zonisamide-on-the-development-and-course-of-alcohol-dependence-in-rabbits-a-pharmaco-eeg-study
#4
Agata Krupa-Burtnik, Ewa Zwierzynska, Anna Kordala, Boguslawa Pietrzak
Aims: Zonisamide is a new anti-epileptic drug whose mechanism of action is associated with neurotransmission systems also involved in the pathogenesis of addiction. Recently, the role of memory processes and the hippocampus (Hp) is underlined in dependence. In our previous study, we determined that zonisamide decreases changes in hippocampal bioelectric activity induced by a single dose of ethanol. Methods: This study uses a pharmaco-EEG method to examine the impact of zonisamide on the development and course of alcohol dependence in rabbits...
February 17, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338779/telomere-length-and-ccl11-levels-are-associated-with-gray-matter-volume-and-episodic-memory-performance-in-schizophrenia-evidence-of-pathological-accelerated-aging
#5
Leticia Sanguinetti Czepielewski, Raffael Massuda, Bruna Panizzutti, Lucas Kich Grun, Florencia María Barbé-Tuana, Antonio Lucio Teixeira, Deanna M Barch, Clarissa S Gama
Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with increased somatic morbidity and mortality, in addition to cognitive impairments similar to those seen in normal aging, which may suggest that pathological accelerated aging occurs in SZ. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the relationships of age, telomere length (TL), and CCL11 (aging and inflammatory biomarkers, respectively), gray matter (GM) volume and episodic memory performance in individuals with SZ compared to healthy controls (HC). One hundred twelve participants (48 SZ and 64 HC) underwent clinical and memory assessments, structural MRI, and had their peripheral blood drawn for biomarkers analysis...
February 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337979/monolayer-optical-memory-cells-based-on-artificial-trap-mediated-charge-storage-and-release
#6
Juwon Lee, Sangyeon Pak, Young-Woo Lee, Yuljae Cho, John Hong, Paul Giraud, Hyeon Suk Shin, Stephen M Morris, Jung Inn Sohn, SeungNam Cha, Jong Min Kim
Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are considered to be promising candidates for flexible and transparent optoelectronics applications due to their direct bandgap and strong light-matter interactions. Although several monolayer-based photodetectors have been demonstrated, single-layered optical memory devices suitable for high-quality image sensing have received little attention. Here we report a concept for monolayer MoS2 optoelectronic memory devices using artificially-structured charge trap layers through the functionalization of the monolayer/dielectric interfaces, leading to localized electronic states that serve as a basis for electrically-induced charge trapping and optically-mediated charge release...
March 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337747/structure-dependent-effects-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-on-long-term-memory-in-lymnaea-stagnalis
#7
Lenzie Ford, Michael Crossley, Devkee M Vadukul, György Kemenes, Louise C Serpell
Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are implicated in the causation of memory loss, neuronal impairment, and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Our recent work revealed that Aβ 1-42 and Aβ 25-35 inhibit long-term memory (LTM) recall in Lymnaea stagnalis (pond snail) in the absence of cell death. Here, we report the characterization of the active species prepared under different conditions, describe which Aβ species is present in brain tissue during the behavioral recall time point and relate the sequence and structure of the oligomeric species to the resulting neuronal properties and effect on LTM...
March 24, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337497/dimerization-and-conformation-related-free-energy-landscapes-of-dye-tagged-amyloid-%C3%AE-12-28-linked-to-fret-experiments
#8
Alexander Kulesza, Steven Daly, Philippe Dugourd
We have investigated the free energy landscape of Aβ-peptide dimer models in connection to gas-phase FRET experiments. We use a FRET-related distance coordinate and one conformation-related coordinate per monomer for accelerated structural exploration with well-tempered metadynamics in solvent and in vacuo. The free energy profiles indicate that FRET under equilibrium conditions should be significantly affected by the de-solvation upon the transfer of ions to the gas-phase. In contrast, a change in the protonation state is found to be less impacting once de-solvated...
March 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336494/minocycline-reduces-inflammatory-parameters-in-the-brain-structures-and-serum-and-reverses-memory-impairment-caused-by-the-administration-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-in-mice
#9
Michelle Lima Garcez, Francielle Mina, Tatiani Bellettini-Santos, Franciellen Gonçalves Carneiro, Aline Pereira da Luz, Gustavo Luis Schiavo, Matheus Scopel Andrighetti, Maylton Grégori Scheid, Renan Pereira Bolfe, Josiane Budni
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common type of age-related dementia. Cognitive decline, beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflammation are the main pathophysiological characteristics of AD. Minocycline is a tetracycline derivative with anti-inflammatory properties that has a neuroprotective effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of minocycline on memory, neurotrophins and neuroinflammation in an animal model of AD induced by the administration of Aβ (1-42) oligomer...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336265/brain-structural-markers-and-caregiving-characteristics-as-interacting-correlates-of-caregiving-strain
#10
Stephen F Smagula, Scott Beach, Andrea L Rosso, Anne B Newman, Richard Schulz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between brain structural markers and caregiving strain among older informal caregivers. DESIGN: A secondary data analysis combining data from the Caregiver Health Effects Study (1993-1994) and the Cardiovascular Health Study MRI examination (1992-1994). SETTING: Four United States communities. PARTICIPANTS: Co-residing spousal caregivers (N = 237; mean age: 76.2 years, SD: 2...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335585/anisotropic-magnetoresistance-of-nano-conductive-filament-in-co-hfo2-pt-resistive-switching-memory
#11
Leilei Li, Yang Liu, Jiao Teng, Shibing Long, Qixun Guo, Meiyun Zhang, Yu Wu, Guanghua Yu, Qi Liu, Hangbing Lv, Ming Liu
Conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) has been extensively studied as a next-generation non-volatile memory. The conductive filament (CF) shows rich physical effects such as conductance quantization and magnetic effect. But so far, the study of filaments is not very sufficient. In this work, Co/HfO2/Pt CBRAM device with magnetic CF was designed and fabricated. By electrical manipulation with a partial-RESET method, we controlled the size of ferromagnetic metal filament. The resistance-temperature characteristics of the ON-state after various partial-RESET behaviors have been studied...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334926/can-memory-assessment-services-mas-in-england-be-categorized-a-national-survey
#12
T Chrysanthaki, B Fernandes, S Smith, N Black
Background: The effectiveness and efficiency of memory assessment services (MASs) is unknown. Our aim was to determine if a typology can be constructed, based on shared structural and process characteristics, as a basis for a non-randomized evaluation of their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Methods: Survey of random sample of 73 MASs in 2015; comparison of characteristics and investigation of inter-correlation. Results: It was not possible to group characteristics to form the basis of a typology of MASs...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334378/patterns-of-false-memory-in-patients-with-huntington-s-disease
#13
I-Wen Chen, Chiung-Mei Chen, Yih-Ru Wu, Mau-Sun Hua
Objective: Increased false memory recognition in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) has been widely reported; however, the underlying memory constructive processes remain unclear. The present study explored gist memory, item-specific memory, and monitoring ability in patients with HD. Method: Twenty-five patients (including 13 patients with mild HD and 12 patients with moderate-to-severe HD) and 30 healthy comparison participants (HC) were recruited. We used the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm to investigate participants' false recognition patterns, along with neuropsychological tests to assess general cognitive function...
March 17, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333494/taxonomic-and-thematic-semantic-systems
#14
Daniel Mirman, Jon-Frederick Landrigan, Allison E Britt
Object concepts are critical for nearly all aspects of human cognition, from perception tasks like object recognition, to understanding and producing language, to making meaningful actions. Concepts can have 2 very different kinds of relations: similarity relations based on shared features (e.g., dog-bear), which are called "taxonomic" relations, and contiguity relations based on co-occurrence in events or scenarios (e.g., dog-leash), which are called "thematic" relations. Here, we report a systematic review of experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience evidence of this distinction in the structure of semantic memory...
March 23, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333492/perceptual-and-memory-inhibition-deficits-in-clinically-healthy-older-adults-are-associated-with-region-specific-doubly-dissociable-patterns-of-cortical-thinning
#15
Teal S Eich, Qolamreza R Razlighi, Yaakov Stern
Converging evidence suggests that the cognitive control processes that enable the inhibition of irrelevant information on a perceptual versus a memorial basis are qualitatively different and are underlain by unique neural systems that may be affected differentially in aging. In the current study, we investigated whether individual differences in performance on these 2 types of inhibitory processes were attributable to region-specific patterns of cortical thinning. Clinically healthy older adults completed a pair of behavioral memory and perceptual inhibition tasks and then underwent structural brain imaging...
March 23, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332323/ramp-reversal-memory-and-phase-boundary-scarring-in-transition-metal-oxides
#16
Naor Vardi, Elihu Anouchi, Tony Yamin, Srimanta Middey, Michael Kareev, Jak Chakhalian, Yonatan Dubi, Amos Sharoni
Transition metal oxides are complex electronic systems that exhibit a multitude of collective phenomena. Two archetypal examples are VO2 and NdNiO3 , which undergo a metal-insulator phase transition (MIT), the origin of which is still under debate. Here this study reports the discovery of a memory effect in both systems, manifested through an increase of resistance at a specific temperature, which is set by reversing the temperature ramp from heating to cooling during the MIT. The characteristics of this ramp-reversal memory effect do not coincide with any previously reported history or memory effects in manganites, electron-glass or magnetic systems...
March 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331639/emerging-synaptic-molecules-as-candidates-in-the-etiology-of-neurological-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Viviana I Torres, Daniela Vallejo, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Synapses are complex structures that allow communication between neurons in the central nervous system. Studies conducted in vertebrate and invertebrate models have contributed to the knowledge of the function of synaptic proteins. The functional synapse requires numerous protein complexes with specialized functions that are regulated in space and time to allow synaptic plasticity. However, their interplay during neuronal development, learning, and memory is poorly understood. Accumulating evidence links synapse proteins to neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative diseases...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330987/architecture-and-mechanism-of-the-central-gear-in-an-ancient-molecular-timer
#18
REVIEW
Martin Egli
Molecular clocks are the product of natural selection in organisms from bacteria to human and their appearance early in evolution such as in the prokaryotic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus suggests that these timers served a crucial role in genetic fitness. Thus, a clock allows cyanobacteria relying on photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation to temporally space the two processes and avoid exposure of nitrogenase carrying out fixation to high levels of oxygen produced during photosynthesis. Fascinating properties of molecular clocks are the long time constant, their precision and temperature compensation...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330743/temporal-dynamics-of-immediate-early-gene-expression-during-cellular-consolidation-of-spatial-memory
#19
Daniel N Barry, Sean Commins
The consolidation of newly acquired memories on a cellular level is thought to take place in the first few hours following learning. This process is dependent on de novo protein synthesis during this time, which ultimately leads to long-term structural and functional neuronal changes and the stabilisation of a memory trace. Immediate early genes (IEGs) are rapidly expressed in neurons following learning, and previous research has suggested more than one wave of IEG expression facilitates consolidation in the hours following learning...
March 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329782/theories-of-memory-and-aging-a-look-at-the-past-and-a-glimpse-of-the-future
#20
Denise C Park, Sara B Festini
The present article reviews theories of memory and aging over the past 50 years. Particularly notable is a progression from early single-mechanism perspectives to complex multifactorial models proposed to account for commonly observed age deficits in memory function. The seminal mechanistic theories of processing speed, limited resources, and inhibitory deficits are discussed and viewed as especially important theories for understanding age-related memory decline. Additionally, advances in multivariate techniques including structural equation modeling provided new tools that led to the development of more complex multifactorial theories than existed earlier...
June 2, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
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