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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161137/pragmatic-competence-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-impact-of-theory-of-mind-verbal-working-memory-adhd-symptoms-and-structural-language
#1
Inmaculada Baixauli-Fortea, Ana Miranda Casas, Carmen Berenguer-Forner, Carla Colomer-Diago, Belén Roselló-Miranda
The primary aim of this study is to increase the existing knowledge about the pragmatic skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Specifically, the study has two objectives. The first is to provide a profile of characteristics based on The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC-2) pragmatics scales (inappropriate initiation, stereotyped language, use of context, nonverbal communication, and general pragmatics) and narrative task indicators. To this end, children with ASD will be compared to children with typical development (TD), controlling the effects of sex and structural language (speech, syntax, semantics, coherence)...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160691/bioinspired-tribotronic-resistive-switching-memory-for-self-powered-memorizing-mechanical-stimuli
#2
Yihui Sun, Xin Zheng, Xiaoqin Yan, Qingliang Liao, Shuo Liu, Guangjie Zhang, Yong Li, Yue Zhang
Haptic memory, from the interaction of skin and brain, can not only perceive external stimuli but also memorize it after removing the external stimuli. For the mimicry of human sensory memory, a self-powered artificial tactile memorizing system were developed by coupling bionic electronic skin and nonvolatile RRAM. The tribotronic nanogenerator is utilized as electronic skin to transform the touching signal into electric pulse, which will be programmed into the artificial brain: RRAM. Owing to the advanced structural designs and accurately parameter matching, including the output voltages and the resistances in different resistive states, the artificial brain can be operated at self-powered mode to memorize the touch stimuli with the responsivity up to 2000%...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160088/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-to-limbic-associative-and-motor-networks
#3
Sheeba Arnold Anteraper, Xavier Guell, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Christina Triantafyllou, Aaron Mattfeld, John D Gabrieli, Maiya Geddes
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a small structure situated deep in the mid-brain that exhibits wide-ranging functionality. In addition to its role in motor control, the STN is considered a hub for synchronizing aspects of emotion and cognition including attention, inhibitory control, motivation, and working memory. Evidence from neuroanatomical tracer studies suggests that the medial, ventromedial, and dorsolateral parts of the STN correspond to limbic, associative, and motor subdivisions respectively. While the extent of STN functional anatomical overlap remains unclear, BOLD imaging of the STN may provide complementary information about the diverse functions of this structure...
November 21, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159960/mapping-the-structural-and-functional-network-architecture-of-the-medial-temporal-lobe-using-7t-mri
#4
Preya Shah, Danielle S Bassett, Laura E M Wisse, John A Detre, Joel M Stein, Paul A Yushkevich, Russell T Shinohara, John B Pluta, Elijah Valenciano, Molly Daffner, David A Wolk, Mark A Elliott, Brian Litt, Kathryn A Davis, Sandhitsu R Das
Medial temporal lobe (MTL) subregions play integral roles in memory function and are differentially affected in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. The ability to structurally and functionally characterize these subregions may be important to understanding MTL physiology and diagnosing diseases involving the MTL. In this study, we characterized network architecture of the MTL in healthy subjects (n = 31) using both resting state functional MRI and MTL-focused T2-weighted structural MRI at 7 tesla...
November 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159849/spoken-sentence-production-in-college-students-with-dyslexia-working-memory-and-vocabulary-effects
#5
Rebecca Wiseheart, Lori J P Altmann
BACKGROUND: Individuals with dyslexia demonstrate syntactic difficulties on tasks of language comprehension, yet little is known about spoken language production in this population. AIMS: To investigate whether spoken sentence production in college students with dyslexia is less proficient than in typical readers, and to determine whether group differences can be attributable to cognitive differences between groups. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Fifty-one college students with and without dyslexia were asked to produce sentences from stimuli comprising a verb and two nouns...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159057/gray-matter-atrophy-patterns-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-10-year-source-based-morphometry-study
#6
Niels Bergsland, Dana Horakova, Michael G Dwyer, Tomas Uher, Manuela Vaneckova, Michaela Tyblova, Zdenek Seidl, Jan Krasensky, Eva Havrdova, Robert Zivadinov
Objectives: To investigate spatial patterns of gray matter (GM) atrophy and their association with disability progression in patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) in a longitudinal setting. Methods: Brain MRI and clinical neurological assessments were obtained in 152 MS patients at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up. Patients were classified into those with confirmed disability progression (CDP) (n = 85) and those without CDP (n = 67) at the end of the study...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159048/resting-state-connectivity-and-executive-functions-after-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#7
Salome Kornfeld, Rui Yuan, Bharat B Biswal, Sebastian Grunt, Sandeep Kamal, Juan Antonio Delgado Rodríguez, Mária Regényi, Roland Wiest, Christian Weisstanner, Claus Kiefer, Maja Steinlin, Regula Everts
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the relationship between core executive functions and frontoparietal network connections at rest between children who had suffered an arterial ischemic stroke and typically developing peers. Methods: Children diagnosed with arterial ischemic stroke more than two years previously and typically developing controls were included. Executive function (EF) measures comprised inhibition (Go-NoGo task), fluency (category fluency task), processing speed (processing speed tasks), divided attention, working memory (letter-number sequencing), conceptual reasoning (matrices) and EF in everyday life (questionnaire)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157472/nuclear-magnetic-resonance-characterization-of-traditional-homeopathically-manufactured-copper-cuprum-metallicum-and-plant-gelsemium-sempervirens-medicines-and-controls
#8
Michel Van Wassenhoven, Martine Goyens, Marc Henry, Etienne Capieaux, Philippe Devos
BACKGROUND: NMR proton relaxation is sensitive to the dynamics of the water molecule H2O, through the interaction of the spin of the proton ((1)H) with external magnetic and electromagnetic fields. METHODS: We measured dilution and potentization processes through measurements of (1)H spin-lattice T1 and spin-spin T2 relaxation times. In order to interpret the recorded fluctuations in T1- or T2-values, experimental data were linearized by investigating how the area under a fluctuating time = f(dilution) curve (dilution integral or DI) changes with dilution...
November 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157358/rng105-caprin1-an-rna-granule-protein-for-dendritic-mrna-localization-is-essential-for-long-term-memory-formation
#9
Kei Nakayama, Rie Ohashi, Yo Shinoda, Maya Yamazaki, Manabu Abe, Akihiro Fujikawa, Shuji Shigenobu, Akira Futatsugi, Masaharu Noda, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba, Teiichi Furuichi, Kenji Sakimura, Nobuyuki Shiina
Local regulation of synaptic efficacy is thought to be important for proper networking of neurons and memory formation. Dysregulation of global translation influences long-term memory in mice, but the relevance of the regulation specific for local translation by RNA granules remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate roles of RNG105/caprin1 in long-term memory formation. RNG105 deletion in mice impaired synaptic strength and structural plasticity in hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, RNG105-deficient mice displayed unprecedentedly severe defects in long-term memory formation in spatial and contextual learning tasks...
November 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157200/swellix-a-computational-tool-to-explore-rna-conformational-space
#10
Nathan Sloat, Jui-Wen Liu, Susan J Schroeder
BACKGROUND: The sequence of nucleotides in an RNA determines the possible base pairs for an RNA fold and thus also determines the overall shape and function of an RNA. The Swellix program presented here combines a helix abstraction with a combinatorial approach to the RNA folding problem in order to compute all possible non-pseudoknotted RNA structures for RNA sequences. The Swellix program builds on the Crumple program and can include experimental constraints on global RNA structures such as the minimum number and lengths of helices from crystallography, cryoelectron microscopy, or in vivo crosslinking and chemical probing methods...
November 21, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156636/structural-electrical-magnetic-and-resistive-switching-properties-of-the-multiferroic-ferroelectric-bilayer-thin-films
#11
Ming-Cheng Kao, Hone-Zern Chen, San-Lin Young, Kai-Huang Chen, Jung-Lung Chiang, Jen-Bin Shi
Bi0.8Pr0.2Fe0.95Mn0.05O₃/Bi3.96Gd0.04Ti2.95W0.05O12 (BPFMO/BGTWO) bilayer thin films with Multiferroic/Ferroelectric (MF/FE) structures were deposited onto Pt(111)/Ti/SiO₂/Si(100) substrates by using the sol-gel method with rapid thermal annealing. The BPFMO/BGTWO thin films exhibited well-saturated ferromagnetic and ferroelectric hysteresis loops because of the electro-magnetic coupling induced by the MF/FE structure. The remnant magnetization (2Mr) and remnant polarization (2Pr) were 4.6 emu/cm³ and 62 μC/cm², respectively...
November 20, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156410/how-do-we-learn-to-kill-in-volleyball-the-role-of-working-memory-capacity-and-expertise-in-volleyball-motor-learning
#12
Elisa Bisagno, Sergio Morra
This study examines young volleyball players' learning of increasingly complex attack gestures. The main purpose of the study was to examine the predictive role of a cognitive variable, working memory capacity (or "M capacity"), in the acquisition and development of motor skills in a structured sport. Pascual-Leone's theory of constructive operators (TCO) was used as a framework; it defines working memory capacity as the maximum number of schemes that can be simultaneously activated by attentional resources...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154858/visuospatial-function-predicts-one-week-motor-skill-retention-in-cognitively-intact-older-adults
#13
Jennapher Lingo VanGilder, Caitlin R Hengge, Kevin Duff, Sydney Y Schaefer
Motor learning declines with aging, such that older adults retain less motor skill after practice compared to younger adults. However, it remains unclear if these motor learning declines are related to normal cognitive changes associated with aging. The purpose of this study was to examine which cognitive domains would best predict the amount of retention on a motor task one week after training in cognitively intact older adults. Twenty-one adults ages 65-84 years old were assessed with Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, which assesses five cognitive domains (immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, and attention)...
November 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154283/longitudinal-neuroimaging-analysis-in%C3%A2-mild-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-patients-treated-with-plasma-exchange-with%C3%A2-5-human-albumin
#14
Gemma Cuberas-Borrós, Isabel Roca, Mercè Boada, Lluís Tárraga, Isabel Hernández, Mar Buendia, Lourdes Rubio, Gustavo Torres, Ángel Bittini, Juan A Guzmán-de-Villoria, Francesc Pujadas, Mireia Torres, Laura Núñez, Joan Castell, Antonio Páez
BACKGROUND: Recently, modifications of Aβ1-42 levels in CSF and plasma associated with improvement in memory and language functions have been observed in patients with mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) treated with plasma exchange (PE) with albumin replacement. OBJECTIVE: To detect structural and functional brain changes in PE-treated AD patients as part of a Phase II clinical trial. METHODS: Patients received between 3 and 18 PE with albumin (Albutein® 5%, Grifols) or sham-PE (controls) for 21 weeks (divided in one intensive and two maintenance periods) followed by 6-month follow-up...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154276/sparcl1-accelerates-symptom-onset-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-influences-brain-structure-and-function-during-aging
#15
Sahba Seddighi, Vijay R Varma, Yang An, Sudhir Varma, Lori L Beason-Held, Toshiko Tanaka, Melissa H Kitner-Triolo, Michael A Kraut, Christos Davatzikos, Madhav Thambisetty
We recently reported that alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M) is a biomarker of neuronal injury in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and identified a network of nine genes co-expressed with A2M in the brain. This network includes the gene encoding SPARCL1, a protein implicated in synaptic maintenance. Here, we examine whether SPARCL1 is associated with longitudinal changes in brain structure and function in older individuals at risk for AD in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Using data from the Gene-Tissue Expression Project, we first identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs9998212 and rs7695558, associated with lower brain SPARCL1 gene expression...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153770/rats-exposed-to-2-45ghz-of-non-ionizing-radiation-exhibit-behavioral-changes-with-increased-brain-expression-of-apoptotic-caspase-3
#16
Rini Varghese, Anuradha Majumdar, Girish Kumar, Amit Shukla
In recent years there has been a tremendous increase in use of Wi-Fi devices along with mobile phones, globally. Wi-Fi devices make use of 2.4GHz frequency. The present study evaluated the impact of 2.45GHz radiation exposure for 4h/day for 45days on behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in female Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests of anxiety, learning and memory were started from day 38. Oxidative stress parameters were estimated in brain homogenates after sacrificing the rats on day 45. In morris water maze, elevated plus maze and light dark box test, the 2...
November 14, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152165/specificity-of-executive-function-and-theory-of-mind-performance-in-relation-to-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-symptoms-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Steve Lukito, Catherine R G Jones, Andrew Pickles, Gillian Baird, Francesca Happé, Tony Charman, Emily Simonoff
Background: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently demonstrate symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous findings in children with ASD have suggested that these symptoms are associated with an impairment in executive function (EF) abilities. However, studies rarely considered this association within a single framework that controls for other related factors such as Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities and ASD symptoms. Methods: We used structural equation modeling to explore the relations among EF, ToM, and symptoms of ASD and ADHD, using data from a population-based sample of 100 adolescents with ASD and full-scale IQ ≥ 50 (the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP) cohort)...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150979/anterior-thalamic-nuclei-lesions-have-a-greater-impact-than-mammillothalamic-tract-lesions-on-the-extended-hippocampal-system
#18
Brook A L Perry, Stephanie A Mercer, Sophie C Barnett, Jungah Lee, John C Dalrymple-Alford
The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), mammillary bodies and their interconnecting fiber tract, the mammillothalamic tract (MTT), are important components of an extended hippocampal circuit for episodic memory. In humans, damage to the MTT or ATN in many disorders is associated with severe anterograde amnesia and it is assumed that their influence on memory is functionally equivalent. The relative influence of these two structures on memory has not, however, been assessed explicitly. Here, a direct comparison found that only ATN lesions impaired spatial reference memory in rats...
November 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148257/multiscale-memory-and-bioelectric-error-correction-in-the-cytoplasm-cytoskeleton-membrane-system
#19
REVIEW
Chris Fields, Michael Levin
A fundamental aspect of life is the modification of anatomy, physiology, and behavior in the face of changing conditions. This is especially illustrated by the adaptive regulation of growth and form that underlies the ability of most organisms-from single cells to complex large metazoa-to develop, remodel, and regenerate to specific anatomical patterns. What is the relationship of the genome and other cellular components to the robust computations that underlie this remarkable pattern homeostasis? Here we examine the role of constraints defined at the cellular level, especially endogenous bioelectricity, in generating and propagating biological information...
November 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146895/atomic-level-molybdenum-oxide-nanorings-with-full-spectrum-absorption-and-photoresponsive-properties
#20
Yong Yang, Yang Yang, Shuangming Chen, Qichen Lu, Li Song, Yen Wei, Xun Wang
Superthin nanostructures, particularly with atomic-level thicknesses, typically display unique optical properties because of their exceptional light-matter interactions. Here, we report a facile strategy for the synthesis of sulfur-doped molybdenum oxide nanorings with an atomic-level size (thickness of 0.5 nm) and a tunable ring-in-ring architecture. These atomic-level nanorings displayed strong photo-absorption in both the visible and infrared-light ranges and acted as a photothermal agent. Under irradiation with an 808 nm laser with an intensity of 1 W/cm(2), a composite of the nanorings embedded in polydimethylsiloxane showed an ultrafast photothermal effect, delivering a local temperature of up to 400 °C within 20 s, which to the best of our knowledge is the highest temperature by light irradiation reported to date...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
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