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Memory structure

Nicolas Rouleau, Lukasz M Karbowski, Michael A Persinger
Synthetic experimental substrates are indispensable tools which can allow researchers to model biological processes non-invasively in three-dimensional space. In this study, we investigated the capacities of an electroconductive material whose properties converge upon those of the brain. An electrically conductive material composed of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, ions, water, and trace amounts of other organic compounds and minerals was classically conditioned as inferred by electrophysiological measurements...
2016: PloS One
Soya Shinkai, Tadasu Nozaki, Kazuhiro Maeshima, Yuichi Togashi
The mammalian genome is organized into submegabase-sized chromatin domains (CDs) including topologically associating domains, which have been identified using chromosome conformation capture-based methods. Single-nucleosome imaging in living mammalian cells has revealed subdiffusively dynamic nucleosome movement. It is unclear how single nucleosomes within CDs fluctuate and how the CD structure reflects the nucleosome movement. Here, we present a polymer model wherein CDs are characterized by fractal dimensions and the nucleosome fibers fluctuate in a viscoelastic medium with memory...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Laura Rivino, Mei Qiu Lim
Dengue (DENV) and Zika viruses (ZIKV) are rapidly emerging mosquito-borne flaviviruses which represent a public health concern. Understanding host protective immunity to these viruses is critical for the design of optimal vaccines. Over a decade of research has highlighted a significant contribution of the T cell response to both protection and/or disease enhancement during dengue infection, the latter being mainly associated with sub-optimal cross-reactive T cell responses during secondary infections. Phase IIb/III clinical trials of the first licensed tetravalent dengue vaccine highlight increased vaccine efficacy in dengue-immune as opposed to dengue-naïve vaccinees, suggesting a possible immunoprotective role of pre-existing DENV-specific T cells that are boosted upon vaccination...
October 20, 2016: Immunology
Sven Dirkmann, Mirko Hansen, Martin Ziegler, Hermann Kohlstedt, Thomas Mussenbrock
In this work we report on the role of ion transport for the dynamic behavior of a double barrier quantum mechanical Al/Al2O3/NbxOy/Au memristive device based on numerical simulations in conjunction with experimental measurements. The device consists of an ultra-thin NbxOy solid state electrolyte between an Al2O3 tunnel barrier and a semiconductor metal interface at an Au electrode. It is shown that the device provides a number of interesting features such as an intrinsic current compliance, a relatively long retention time, and no need for an initialization step...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
S Shi, J F Wan, X W Zuo, N L Chen, J H Zhang, Y H Rong
The martensite/parent coherent interface of Mn-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) is a significant part in the research of their martensitic transformation, reversible shape memory effect and magnetic shape memory effect. In the present work, a chemical-structural model was proposed to calculate the martensite/parent coherent interfacial energy of Mn-X (X = Cu, Fe) alloys. In this model, the coherent heterophase interfacial energy consists of chemical and structural parts. Resulting from the formation process of the heterophase interface, the chemical interfacial energy is expressed as the incremental value of bond energy, while the structural part is obtained by calculating the interfacial strain energy...
October 20, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Jeroen Aerts, Annelies Laeremans, Laurens Minerva, Kurt Boonen, Budamgunta Harshavardhan, Rudi D'hooge, Dirk Valkenborg, Geert Baggerman, Lutgarde Arckens
The Morris water maze (MWM) spatial learning task has been demonstrated to involve a cognitive switch of action control to serve the transition from an early towards a late learning phase. However, the molecular mechanisms governing this switch are largely unknown. We employed MALDI MS imaging (MSI) to screen for changes in expression of small proteins in brain structures implicated in the different learning phases. We compared mice trained for 3days and 30days in the MWM, reflecting an early and a late learning phase in relation to the acquisition of a spatial learning task...
October 17, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
María Díez-Cirarda, Natalia Ojeda, Javier Peña, Alberto Cabrera-Zubizarreta, Olaia Lucas-Jiménez, Juan Carlos Gómez-Esteban, Maria Ángeles Gómez-Beldarrain, Naroa Ibarretxe-Bilbao
Cognitive rehabilitation programs have demonstrated efficacy in improving cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about cerebral changes associated with an integrative cognitive rehabilitation in PD. To assess structural and functional cerebral changes in PD patients, after attending a three-month integrative cognitive rehabilitation program (REHACOP). Forty-four PD patients were randomly divided into REHACOP group (cognitive rehabilitation) and a control group (occupational therapy)...
October 18, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Su Yeon Lee-Tauler, Seung Hee Lee-Kwan, Haera Han, Hochang B Lee, Joseph J Gallo, Jin Hui Joo
OBJECTIVE: Korean American Elderly (KAE) have high rates of depression but underuse mental health services. The purpose of this study was to assess the meaning of depression and help seeking among KAE residing in the United States who have clinically significant depressive symptoms. METHODS: As a follow up to the Memory and Aging Study of Koreans (MASK; n=1,118), a descriptive epidemiological study which showed that only one in four of KAE with clinically significant depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9≥10) used mental health services, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms regarding the meaning of depression and beliefs about help seeking...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Changtae Hahn, Chang-Uk Lee, Wang Yeon Won, Soo-Hyun Joo, Hyun Kook Lim
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate thalamic shape alterations and their relationships with various episodic memory impairments in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS: We compared volumes and morphological alterations of the thalamus between aMCI subjects and healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between thalamic deformations and various memory impairments in aMCI subjects using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Marina Ávila-Villanueva, Ana Rebollo-Vázquez, José M Ruiz-Sánchez de León, Meritxell Valentí, Miguel Medina, Miguel A Fernández-Blázquez
Introduction: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) in the elderly have been suggested as an early sign of dementia. This study aims at investigating whether specific cognitive complaints are more useful than others to discriminate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) by examining the dimensional structure of the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ). Materials and Methods: A sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals was recruited (766 controls and 78 MCI). The EMQ was administered to measure self-perception of cognitive complaints...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Oscar Prospéro-García, Octavio Amancio-Belmont, Alline L Becerril Meléndez, Alejandra E Ruiz-Contreras, Mónica Méndez-Díaz
Sleep is regulated by several brain structures, neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are a group of lipids with modulatory activity in the brain and bind mainly to cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R, thereby modulating several brain functions, (memory, mood, food intake, pain perception). Oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide belong to the N-acylethanolamides (NAEs) family, another type of active endogenous lipids. They bind to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α but not to CB1R, thereby modulating food satiety, inflammation and pain...
October 15, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Daniel Hausmann, Cristina Zulian, Edouard Battegay, Lukas Zimmerli
BACKGROUND: Decision-making processes in a medical setting are complex, dynamic and under time pressure, often with serious consequences for a patient's condition. OBJECTIVE: The principal aim of the present study was to trace and map the individual diagnostic process of real medical cases using a Decision Process Matrix [DPM]). METHODS: The naturalistic decision-making process of 11 residents and a total of 55 medical cases were recorded in an emergency department, and a DPM was drawn up according to a semi-structured technique following four steps: 1) observing and recording relevant information throughout the entire diagnostic process, 2) assessing options in terms of suspected diagnoses, 3) drawing up an initial version of the DPM, and 4) verifying the DPM, while adding the confidence ratings...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Eric Wong, Jasmine J Leslie, Judith A Soon, Wendy V Norman
BACKGROUND: The Virtual Interprofessional Patients-Computer-Assisted Reproductive Health Education for Students (VIP-CARES) Project took place during the summers of 2010-2012 for eight weeks each year at the University of British Columbia (UBC). Undergraduate health care students worked collaboratively to develop virtual patient case-based learning modules on the topic of family planning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in perception towards interprofessional collaboration (IPC) among the participants, before and after the project...
October 19, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Viktoria Krotova, Tatyana Khomazyuk
OBJECTIVE: One of the first disorders of affection subcortical brain structures in arterial hypertension (AH) is a decrease in mental processes, intellectual rigidity. To investigate the cognitive disorders (CD) in AH patients 1-2 stages of working age and the effectiveness of nootropic agent (phenibutum) and anticholinergic drug (ipidacrinum) in combined antihypertensive therapy. DESIGN AND METHOD: Observed 60 patients with controlled AH 1-2 stages and CD. The median age-55,3 ± 9,1 years and duration of AH-10,2 ± 5,8 years...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yuda Turana
Observational studies have conveyed the connection between hypertension and cognitive impairment. Several forms of dementia are more frequent in hypertensive subjects or those with previous history of hypertension compared to subjects with normal blood pressure.In many studies, hypertension occuring in mid-life is a risk factor of dementia occuring in later age. Long-standing hypertension will induce structural damages in the brain. It is also widely known that hypertension attributes to small vessel diseases causing lacunar infarcts and white matter lesions associated with cognitive decline...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Usha Goswami, Lisa Barnes, Natasha Mead, Alan James Power, Victoria Leong
Children with developmental dyslexia are characterized by phonological difficulties across languages. Classically, this 'phonological deficit' in dyslexia has been investigated with tasks using single-syllable words. Recently, however, several studies have demonstrated difficulties in prosodic awareness in dyslexia. Potential prosodic effects in short-term memory have not yet been investigated. Here we create a new instrument based on three-syllable words that vary in stress patterns, to investigate whether prosodic similarity (the same prosodic pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables) exerts systematic effects on short-term memory...
October 17, 2016: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Mariana Angoa-Pérez, John H Anneken, Donald M Kuhn
The present review briefly explores the neurotoxic properties of methcathinone, mephedrone, methylone, and methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), four synthetic cathinones most commonly found in "bath salts." Cathinones are β-keto analogs of the commonly abused amphetamines and display pharmacological effects resembling cocaine and amphetamines, but despite their commonalities in chemical structures, synthetic cathinones possess distinct neuropharmacological profiles and produce unique effects. Among the similarities of synthetic cathinones with their non-keto analogs are their targeting of monoamine systems, the release of neurotransmitters, and their stimulant properties...
October 18, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Manavi Tyagi, Theodora Fteropoulli, Catherine S Hurt, Shashivadan P Hirani, Lorna Rixon, Anna Davies, Nathalie Picaut, Fiona Kennedy, John Deanfield, Shay Cullen, Stanton P Newman
OBJECTIVE: We carried out a cross-sectional study to assess cognitive function in a sample of adult CHD patients, within the Functioning in Adult Congenital Heart Disease study London. The association between cognitive functioning and disease complexity was examined. METHODS: A total of 310 patients participated in this study. Patients were classified into four structural complexity groups - tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, single ventricle, and simple conditions...
October 18, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Peng Zhang, Benhua Xu, Cunxu Gao, Guilin Chen, Meizhen Gao
Uniform Co9Se8 quantum dots (CSQDs) were successfully synthesized through a facile solvothermal method. The obtained CSQDs with average size of 3.2 ± 0.1 nm and thickness of 1.8 ± 0.2 nm were demonstrated good stability and strong fluorescence under UV light after being easily dispersed in both of N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and deionized water. We demonstrated the flexible resistive switching memory device based on the hybridization of CSQDs and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (CSQDs-PVP). The device with the Al/CSQDs-PVP/Pt/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) structure represented excellent switching parameters such as high ON/OFF current ratio, low operating voltages, good stability and flexibility...
October 18, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Natalia A Stefanova, Natalia A Muraleva, Kseniya Yi Maksimova, Ekaterina A Rudnitskaya, Elena Kiseleva, Darya V Telegina, Nataliya G Kolosova
Mitochondrial aberrations are observed in human Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in medical conditions that increase the risk of this disorder, suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to pathophysiology of AD. Here, using OXYS rats that simulate key characteristics of sporadic AD, we set out to determine the role of mitochondria in the pathophysiology of this disorder. OXYS rats were treated with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 from age 12 to 18 months, that is, during active progression of AD-like pathology in these animals...
October 6, 2016: Aging
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