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Memory structure

Chih-Yuan Wang, Yi-Chan Chen, Ti-Hsuan Chien, Hao-Yu Chang, Yu-Hsien Chen, Chih-Ying Chien, Ting-Shuo Huang
Here we conducted a retrospective analysis of hospital-based trauma registry database for evaluating the impacts of comorbidities on the prognosis for traumatized patients using Index of Coexistent Comorbidity Disease (ICED) scores. We analyzed the data of patients with blunt trauma who visited emergency department between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2015 in Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung branch, a single level I trauma center in the Northern Taiwan. All consecutive patients with blunt trauma who admitted to the intensive care unit or ordinary ward after initial managements in the emergency department were included...
2018: PloS One
Honglin Jin, Chao Wan, Zhenwei Zou, Guifang Zhao, Lingling Zhang, Yuanyuan Geng, Tong Chen, Ai Huang, Fagang Jiang, Jue-Ping Feng, Jonathan F Lovell, Jing Chen, Gang Wu, Kunyu Yang
Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments (TMEs) create tremendous obstacles for an effective cancer therapy. Herein, we developed a melittin-RADA32 hybrid peptide hydrogel loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) for a potent chemoimmunotherapy against melanoma through the active regulation of TMEs. The formed melittin-RADA32-DOX (MRD) hydrogel has an interweaving nanofiber structure and exhibits excellent biocompatibility, controlled drug release properties both in vitro and in vivo, and an enhanced killing effect to melanoma cells...
March 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Ivan Tyukin, Alexander N Gorban, Carlos Calvo, Julia Makarova, Valeri A Makarov
Codifying memories is one of the fundamental problems of modern Neuroscience. The functional mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain largely unknown. Experimental evidence suggests that some of the memory functions are performed by stratified brain structures such as the hippocampus. In this particular case, single neurons in the CA1 region receive a highly multidimensional input from the CA3 area, which is a hub for information processing. We thus assess the implication of the abundance of neuronal signalling routes converging onto single cells on the information processing...
March 19, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Ben Chen, Xiaomei Zhong, Naikeng Mai, Qi Peng, Zhangying Wu, Cong Ouyang, Weiru Zhang, Wanyuan Liang, Yujie Wu, Sha Liu, Lijian Chen, Yuping Ning
Background: Late-life depression patients are at a high risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, and diminished olfactory identification is an indicator in early screening for Alzheimer's disease in the elderly. However, whether diminished olfactory identification is associated with risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in late-life depression patients remains unclear. Methods: One hundred and twenty-five late-life depression patients, 50 Alzheimer's disease patients, and 60 normal controls were continuously recruited...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Amanda C Martyn, Krisztian Toth, Robert Schmalzigaug, Nathan G Hedrick, Ramona M Rodriguiz, Ryohei Yasuda, William C Wetsel, Richard T Premont
The signaling scaffold protein GIT1 is expressed widely throughout the brain, but its function in vivo remains elusive. Mice lacking GIT1 have been proposed as a model for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, due to alterations in basal locomotor activity as well as paradoxical locomotor suppression by the psychostimulant amphetamine. Since we had previously shown that GIT1-knockout mice have normal locomotor activity, here we examined GIT1-deficient mice for ADHD-like behavior in more detail, and find neither hyperactivity nor amphetamine-induced locomotor suppression...
2018: PloS One
Xuchen Zhang, Qian Li, Lianzhang Wang, Zhong-Jian Liu, Yi Zhong
Active forgetting explains the intrinsic instability of a labile memory lasting for hours. However, how such memory maintains stability against unwanted disruption is not completely understood. Here, we report a learning-activated active protection mechanism that enables labile memory to resist disruptive sensory experiences in Drosophila. Aversive olfactory conditioning activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) transiently in the mushroom-body γ lobe, where labile-aversive memory is stored. This increased MAPK activity significantly prolongs labile memory retention and enhances its resistance to disruption induced by heat shock, electric shock, or odor reactivation...
March 7, 2018: Neuron
Max M Owens, Bryant Duda, Lawrence H Sweet, James MacKillop
Working memory (WM), the short-term abstraction and manipulation of information, is an essential neurocognitive process in daily functioning. Few studies have concurrently examined the functional and structural neural correlates of WM and the current study did so to characterize both overlapping and unique associations. Participants were a large sample of adults from the Human Connectome Project (N = 1064; 54% female) who completed an in-scanner visual N-back WM task. The results indicate a clear dissociation between BOLD activation during the WM task and brain structure in relation to performance...
March 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Jonathan Greenberg, Victoria L Romero, Seth Elkin-Frankston, Matthew A Bezdek, Eric H Schumacher, Sara W Lazar
Proactive interference occurs when previously relevant information interferes with retaining newer material. Overcoming proactive interference has been linked to the hippocampus and deemed critical for cognitive functioning. However, little is known about whether and how this ability can be improved or about the neural correlates of such improvement. Mindfulness training emphasizes focusing on the present moment and minimizing distraction from competing thoughts and memories. It improves working memory and increases hippocampal density...
March 17, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Abril Ortiz-Matamoros, Clorinda Arias
Wnt signaling plays an important role in the adult brain function and its dysregulation has been implicated in some neurodegenerative pathways. Despite the functional role of the Wnt signaling in adult neural circuits, there is currently no evidence regarding the relationships between exogenously Wnt signaling activation or inhibition and hippocampal structural changes in vivo. Thus, we analyzed the effect of the chronic infusion of Wnt agonists, Wnt7a and Wnt5a, and antagonist, Dkk-1, on different markers of plasticity such as neuronal MAP-2, Tau, synapse number and morphology, and behavioral changes...
March 13, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Michael H Connors, Katrin M Seeher, John Crawford, David Ames, Michael Woodward, Henry Brodaty
INTRODUCTION: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Alzheimer's disease. Previous research has attempted to identify subsyndromes-sets of symptoms related to one another-to clarify underlying mechanisms and treatment targets. We examined the stability of these subsyndromes over time. METHODS: We administered the Neuropsychiatric Inventory annually for 3 years to 447 patients with Alzheimer's disease recruited from memory clinics. We conducted principal component analyses at each time point and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses across time...
March 13, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Matthew S Panizzon, Richard L Hauger, Hong Xian, Kristen Jacobson, Michael J Lyons, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen
Animal and human research suggests that testosterone is associated with hippocampal structure and function. Studies examining the association between testosterone and either hippocampal structure or hippocampal-mediated cognitive processes have overwhelmingly focused on the effects of testosterone alone, without considering the interaction of other neuroendocrine factors. The aim of the present study was to examine the interactive effects of testosterone and cortisol in relation to hippocampal volume and episodic memory in a sample of late-middle aged men from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging...
March 9, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Harmanpreet Singh, Chateshwar Kumar, Narpinder Singh, Surinder Paul, Subheet Kumar Jain
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a vital structural component of neuronal tissue, which is critically required during pre- and post-natal brain development. Its liquid nature, fishy odor, poor bioavailability and oxidative stability are the major challenges in the development of a pharmaceutically elegant and stable formulation. In the present study, nanocapsules of DHA from microalgae oil were prepared using different combinations of wall materials (carbohydrates, polymers, gum and proteins). The encapsulation using spray drying was done to prepare a pharmaceutically stable DHA formulation...
March 16, 2018: Food & Function
Michael D Oberst, Catherine Auge, Chad Morris, Stacy Kentner, Kathy Mulgrew, Kelly McGlinchey, James Hair, Shino Hanabuchi, Qun Du, Melissa Damschroder, Hui Feng, Steven Eck, Nicholas Buss, Lolke de Haan, Andrew J Pierce, Haesun Park, Andrew Sylwester, Michael K Axthelm, Louis Picker, Nicholas P Morris, Andrew Weinberg, Scott A Hammond
Ligation of OX40 (CD134, TNFRSF4) on activated T cells by its natural ligand (OX40L, CD252, TNFSF4) enhances cellular survival, proliferation, and effector functions such as cytokine release and cellular cytotoxicity. We engineered a recombinant human OX40L IgG4P Fc fusion protein termed MEDI6383 that assembles into a hexameric structure and exerts potent agonist activity following engagement of OX40. MEDI6383 displayed solution phase agonist activity that was enhanced when the fusion protein was clustered by Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) on the surface of adjacent cells...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Olabisi R Sanusi, Omar Arnaout, Rudy J Rahme, Craig Horbinski, James P Chandler
OBJECTIVE: Chordomas are rare tumors of notochordal origin that are known to be locally aggressive and are often treated with surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. The accepted standard of treatment for chordomas of the mobile spine which includes en-bloc resection with wide margins cannot be easily applied to the chordomas of the skull base given their proximity to critical neurovascular structures. We describe our experience with the role of surgery and adjuvant radiation in the treatment of chordomas over 16 years...
March 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Gilda Fazzari, Merylin Zizza, Anna Di Vito, Raffaella Alò, Maria Mele, Rosalinda Bruno, Barni Tullio, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Canonaco Marcello
Recent indications are suggesting that high fat and sugar-enriched foods do not only evoke harmful physiological conditions, but they also endure evident structural alterations in cerebral regions controlling cognitive and feeding behaviors. Food consumption plus neuronal energy regulatory mechanisms seem to constitute a complex system assuring that food calories do not exceed body requirements. At the same time obesogenic-related properties of limbic feeding stations like the hypothalamus (HTH), hippocampus (HIP) and amygdala (AMY) tend to control eating habits through the interaction of distinct neuropeptides...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Charles V Vorhees, Jenna N Sprowles, Samantha L Regan, Michael T Williams
High throughput screens for developmental neurotoxicity (DN) will facilitate evaluation of chemicals and can be used to prioritize those designated for follow-up. DN is evaluated under different guidelines. Those for drugs generally include peri- and postnatal studies and juvenile toxicity studies. For pesticides and commercial chemicals, when triggered, include developmental neurotoxicity studies (DNT) and extended one-generation reproductive toxicity studies. Raffaele et al. (2010) reviewed 69 pesticide DNT studies and found two of the four behavioral tests underperformed...
March 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Lison Fanuel, Sophie Portrat, Barbara Tillmann, Gaën Plancher
Recent evidence suggests that working memory (WM) performance can be enhanced in the presence of an isochronous rhythm during the retention interval because it improves refreshing. Considering the cognitive load (CL) effect as an indicator of refreshing, the present study investigated whether an isochronous rhythm might benefit memory performance under varying cognitive load. For that goal, the presence of a regular rhythm and the cognitive load of the concurrent task (i.e., reading of digits that were either same or different within a trial) were systematically varied...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Guro Jahr, Michele Da Broi, Harald Holte, Klaus Beiske, Torstein R Meling
Objectives: To evaluate the validity of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group (IELSG) prognostic scoring systems for Overall Survival (OS) in intracranial Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) of all patients diagnosed at a single center. Material and Methods: Pretreatment clinical factors including tumor characteristics and histology, treatment, and survival of PCNSL patients with diagnostic biopsies over a 12-year period (2003-2014) were retrieved from a prospective database at Oslo University Hospital...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Artur C Jaschke, Henkjan Honing, Erik J A Scherder
Background: Research on the effects of music education on cognitive abilities has generated increasing interest across the scientific community. Nonetheless, longitudinal studies investigating the effects of structured music education on cognitive sub-functions are still rare. Prime candidates for investigating a relationship between academic achievement and music education appear to be executive functions such as planning, working memory, and inhibition. Methods: One hundred and forty-seven primary school children, Mage = 6...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Mohammad Noor-A-Alam, Hamid Ullah, Young-Han Shin
Graphene, despite its many unique properties, is neither intrinsically polar due to inversion symmetry nor magnetic. However, based on density functional theory, we find that Mn, one of transition metals, embedded in single or double vacancy (Mn@SV and Mn@DV) in a graphene monolayer induces a dipole moment perpendicular to the sheet, which can be switched from up to down by Mn penetration through the graphene. Such switching could be realized by an external stimuli introduced through the tip of a scanning probe microscope, as already utilized in the studies of molecular switches...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
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