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Assessment short-term memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767647/differential-spontaneous-recovery-across-cognitive-abilities-during-detoxification-period-in-alcohol-dependence
#1
Géraldine Petit, Olivier Luminet, Mariana Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Alexis Zorbas, Pierre Maurage, Philippe de Timary
OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of consensus regarding the extent to which cognitive dysfunctions may recover upon cessation of alcohol intake by alcohol-dependents (AD), and the divergent findings are most likely due to methodological differences between the various studies. The present study was aimed at conducting a very strict longitudinal study of cognitive recovery in terms of assessment points, the duration of abstinence, control of age and duration of the addiction, and by use of individual analyses in addition to mean group comparisons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766463/long-term-effects-of-directed-forgetting
#2
Almut Hupbach
The intention to forget reduces the accessibility of information in memory, which is commonly explained with temporary retrieval difficulties. Long-term effects have rarely been studied, and results are inconsistent. The present study re-assessed the long-term effects of directed forgetting (DF). Participants encoded a first list of items (L1), and were then instructed to forget or to remember this list. Immediately afterwards, all participants were presented with a second list to remember. In Experiment 1, memory for L1 and L2 was assessed after a 24-h delay...
August 2, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766254/vegf-mediated-cognitive-and-synaptic-improvement-in-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-rats-involves-autophagy-process
#3
Ling Wang, Jingyu Wang, Faqi Wang, Chunhua Liu, Xuening Yang, Jiajia Yang, Dong Ming
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is associated with various neurodegenerative diseases characterized by cognitive impairment. Dozens of studies including ours have indicated that exogenous administration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could exert effective cognitive protection during ischemia. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism has not been well clarified. To address this issue, we explored the synaptic mechanisms in vivo since hippocampal synaptic function is essential to the learning and memory process...
August 1, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760549/cognitive-deficits-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-insights-from-a-meta-review-and-comparison-with-deficits-observed-in-copd-insomnia-and-sleep-deprivation
#4
REVIEW
Michelle Olaithe, Romola S Bucks, David R Hillman, Peter R Eastwood
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a nocturnal breathing disorder that is associated with cognitive impairment. The primary determinants of cognitive deficits in OSA are thought to be sleep disruption and blood gas abnormalities. Cognitive impairment is also seen in other disorders that are characterised primarily by sleep disturbance (e.g., sleep restriction/deprivation, insomnia) or hypoxia/hypercarbia (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)). Assessment of the cognitive deficits observed in these other disorders could help better define the mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in OSA...
March 30, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757160/mitochondrial-impairments-contribute-to-spatial-learning-and-memory-dysfunction-induced-by-chronic-tramadol-administration-in-rat-protective-effect-of-physical-exercise
#5
Hajar Mehdizadeh, Jalal Pourahmad, Ghorban Taghizadeh, Nasim Vousooghi, Ali Yoonessi, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Ladan Behzadfar, Mohammad Reza Rouini, Mohammad Sharifzadeh
Despite the worldwide use of tramadol, few studies have been conducted about its effects on memory and mitochondrial function, and controversial results have been reported. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in physical exercise as a protective approach to neuronal and cognitive impairments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physical exercise on spatial learning and memory and brain mitochondrial function in tramadol-treated rats. After completion of 2-week (short-term) and 4-week (long-term) treadmill exercise regimens, male Wistar rats received tramadol (20, 40, 80mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 30days...
July 27, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755273/cognitive-impairment-and-brain-and-peripheral-alterations-in-a-murine-model-of-intraventricular-hemorrhage-in-the-preterm-newborn
#6
Antonio Segado-Arenas, Carmen Infante-Garcia, Isabel Benavente-Fernandez, Daniel Sanchez-Sotano, Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez, Almudena Alonso-Ojembarrena, Simon Lubian-Lopez, Monica Garcia-Alloza
Germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) remains a serious complication in the preterm newborn. The significant increase of survival rates in extremelye preterm newborns has also contributed to increase the absolute number of patients developing GMH-IVH. However, there are relatively few available animal models to understand the underlying mechanisms and peripheral markers or prognostic tools. In order to further characterize central complications and evolution of GMH-IVH, we injected collagenase intraventricularly to P7 CD1 mice and assessed them in the short (P14) and the long term (P70)...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754515/maternal-systemic-interleukin-6-during-pregnancy-is-associated-with-newborn-amygdala-phenotypes-and-subsequent-behavior-at-2-years-of-age
#7
Alice M Graham, Jerod M Rasmussen, Marc D Rudolph, Christine M Heim, John H Gilmore, Martin Styner, Steven G Potkin, Sonja Entringer, Pathik D Wadhwa, Damien A Fair, Claudia Buss
BACKGROUND: Maternal inflammation during pregnancy increases the risk for offspring psychiatric disorders and other adverse long-term health outcomes. The influence of inflammation on the developing fetal brain is hypothesized as one potential mechanism but has not been examined in humans. METHODS: Participants were adult women (N = 86) who were recruited during early pregnancy and whose offspring were born after 34 weeks' gestation. A biological indicator of maternal inflammation (interleukin-6) that has been shown to influence fetal brain development in animal models was quantified serially in early, mid-, and late pregnancy...
June 19, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748537/differences-in-brain-morphology-and-working-memory-capacity-across-childhood
#8
Joe Bathelt, Susan E Gathercole, Amy Johnson, Duncan E Astle
Working memory (WM) skills are closely associated with learning progress in key areas such as reading and mathematics across childhood. As yet, however, little is known about how the brain systems underpinning WM develop over this critical developmental period. The current study investigated whether and how structural brain correlates of components of the working memory system change over development. Verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory were assessed in 153 children between 5.58 and 15.92 years, and latent components of the working memory system were derived...
July 26, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748058/electroconvulsive-therapy-hasn-t-negative-effects-on-short-term-memory-function-as-assessed-using-a-bedside-hand-held-device
#9
Helge H O Müller, Mareen Reike, Simon Grosse-Holz, Mareike Röther, Caroline Lücke, Alexandra Philipsen, Johannes Kornhuber, Teja W Grömer
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is effective in the treatment of treatment-resistant major depression. The fear of cognitive impairment after ECT often deters patients from choosing this treatment option. There is little reliable information regarding the effects of ECT on overall cognitive performance, while short-term memory deficits are well known but not easy to measure within clinical routines. In this pilot study, we examined ECT recipients' pre- and post-treatment performances on a digital ascending number tapping test...
March 22, 2017: Mental Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747485/developmental-vitamin-d-deficiency-affects-spatial-learning-in-wistar-rats
#10
Anwar N Al-Harbi, Khalid M Khan, Abdur Rahman
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a global problem. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D is involved in brain development and function. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with poor cognitive function in adults, but the effect of developmental vitamin D deficiency (DVDD) on cognitive function and brain development in children has not been well established.Objective: We explored the effects of DVDD on cognitive functions and brain morphology of rat pups.Methods: Wistar rat pups born to control and vitamin D-deficient dams were divided into 4 groups: control (C), deficient during gestation (dG), deficient during lactation (dL), and deficient during gestation and lactation (dGL)...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734078/associations-between-adolescent-cannabis-use-and-neuropsychological-decline-a-longitudinal-co-twin-control-study
#11
Madeline H Meier, Avshalom Caspi, Andrea Danese, Helen L Fisher, Renate Houts, Louise Arseneault, Terrie E Moffitt
AIMS: This study tested whether adolescents who used cannabis or met criteria for cannabis dependence showed neuropsychological impairment prior to cannabis initiation and neuropsychological decline from before to after cannabis initiation. DESIGN: A longitudinal co-twin control study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 1,989 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative birth cohort of twins born in England and Wales from 1994-1995...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730861/comparative-outcomes-in-children-and-adults-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis
#12
Eliza Gordon-Lipkin, Anusha K Yeshokumar, Deanna Saylor, Ana Arenivas, John C Probasco
This study compared neurologic disability and adaptive function in children and adults >1 year following anti- N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis diagnosis. Retrospective record review identified 12 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. At last follow-up, all surviving patients had "good" modified Rankin Score (0-2). Four children, 6 adults, and their families participated in a telephone interview. Median duration since diagnosis was similar for children (2.42 years, interquartile range 2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720169/characteristics-of-healthy-older-adults-that-influence-self-rated-cognitive-function
#13
Bryce P Mulligan, Colette M Smart, Sidney J Segalowitz, Stuart W S MacDonald
OBJECTIVES: We sought to clarify the nature of self-reported cognitive function among healthy older adults by considering the short-term, within-person association (coupling) of subjective cognitive function with objective cognitive performance. We expected this within-person coupling to differ between persons as a function of self-perceived global cognitive decline and depression, anxiety, or neuroticism. METHODS: This was an intensive measurement (short-term longitudinal) study of 29 older adult volunteers between the ages of 65 and 80 years without an existing diagnosis of dementia or mild cognitive impairment...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720165/bdnf-val66met-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-is-associated-with-short-term-changes-in-episodic-memory-and-hippocampal-volume-but-not-serum-mbdnf
#14
Yen Ying Lim, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Yoon Lim, Simon M Laws, Veer Gupta, Tenielle Porter, Pierrick Bourgeat, David Ames, Christopher Fowler, Olivier Salvado, Victor L Villemagne, Christopher C Rowe, Colin L Masters, Xin Fu Zhou, Ralph N Martins, Paul Maruff
BACKGROUND: The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism Met allele exacerbates amyloid (Aβ) related decline in episodic memory (EM) and hippocampal volume (HV) over 36-54 months in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the extent to which Aβ+ and BDNF Val66Met is related to circulating markers of BDNF (e.g. serum) is unknown. We aimed to determine the effect of Aβ and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on levels of serum mBDNF, EM, and HV at baseline and over 18-months...
July 19, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719855/high-fat-diet-and-aging-interact-to-produce-neuroinflammation-and-impair-hippocampal-and-amygdalar-dependent-memory
#15
Sarah J Spencer, Heather D'Angelo, Alita Soch, Linda R Watkins, Steven F Maier, Ruth M Barrientos
More Americans are consuming diets higher in saturated fats and refined sugars than ever before, and based on increasing obesity rates, this is a growing trend among older adults as well. While high saturated fat diet (HFD) consumption has been shown to sensitize the inflammatory response to a subsequent immune challenge in young adult rats, the inflammatory effect of HFD in the already-vulnerable aging brain has not yet been assessed. Here, we explored whether short-term (3 days) consumption of HFD would serve as a neuroinflammatory trigger in aging animals, leading to cognitive deficits...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718878/deep-brain-and-cortical-stimulation-for-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
Mathieu Sprengers, Kristl Vonck, Evelien Carrette, Anthony G Marson, Paul Boon
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal medical treatment, including epilepsy surgery, many epilepsy patients have uncontrolled seizures. Since the 1970s interest has grown in invasive intracranial neurostimulation as a treatment for these patients. Intracranial stimulation includes both deep brain stimulation (DBS) (stimulation through depth electrodes) and cortical stimulation (subdural electrodes). This is an updated version of a previous Cochrane review published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of DBS and cortical stimulation for refractory epilepsy based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
July 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711473/interaction-of-reelin-and-stress-on-immobility-in-the-forced-swim-test-but-not-dopamine-mediated-locomotor-hyperactivity-or-prepulse-inhibition-disruption-relevance-to-psychotic-and-mood-disorders
#17
Michael J Notaras, Billie Vivian, Carey Wilson, Maarten van den Buuse
RATIONALE: Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, as well as some mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder, have been suggested to share common biological risk factors. One such factor is reelin, a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein that regulates neuronal migration during development as well as numerous activity-dependent processes in the adult brain. The current study sought to evaluate whether a history of stress exposure interacts with endogenous reelin levels to modify behavioural endophenotypes of relevance to psychotic and mood disorders...
July 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697904/the-adra2b-gene-in-the-production-of-false-memories-for-affective-information-in-healthy-female-volunteers
#18
Beth Fairfield, Nicola Mammarella, Alberto Di Domenico, Marco D'Aurora, Liborio Stuppia, Valentina Gatta
False memories are common memory distortions in everyday life and seem to increase with affectively connoted complex information. In line with recent studies showing a significant interaction between the noradrenergic system and emotional memory, we investigated whether healthy volunteer carriers of the deletion variant of the ADRA2B gene that codes for the α2b-adrenergic receptor are more prone to false memories than non-carriers. In this study, we collected genotype data from 212 healthy female volunteers; 91 ADRA2B carriers and 121 non-carriers...
July 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689930/long-term-verbal-memory-recall-deficits-in-fragile-x-premutation-females
#19
Annie L Shelton, Kim Cornish, Joanne Fielding
Carriers of a FMR1 premutation allele (between 55 and 199 CGG repeats) are at risk of developing a wide range of medical, psychiatric and cognitive disorders, including executive dysfunction. These cognitive deficits are often less severe for female premutation carriers compared to male premutation carriers, albeit similar in nature. However, it remains unclear whether female premutation carriers who exhibit executive dysfunction also report verbal learning and memory deficits like those of their male counterparts...
July 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686563/-legal-capacity-and-instruments-assessing-cognitive-functions-in-patients-with-dementia
#20
P Voskou, S Papageorgiou, A Economou, A Douzenis
The term "legal capacity" refers to the ability of a person to make a valid declaration of his will or to accept such a declaration. This ability constitutes the main condition for the validity of the legal transaction. The legal transaction includes issues that are adjusted by the Civil Code with which the relations of the citizens in a society are regulated. General practitioners and legal advisors, in any case of a person with cognitive impairment of various severity, should take into account that the assessment tests of the cognitive functions are not by themselves diagnostic of the dementia and they cannot be used as the only way of evaluation of the capacity of patients with cognitive impairment or possible dementia to respond to the needs of everyday life and in more complex decisions, such as the legal capacity...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
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