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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923981/sarcopenia-and-frailty-in-chronic-respiratory-disease-lessons-from-gerontology
#1
Anna E Bone, Nilay Hepgul, Samantha Kon, Matthew Maddocks
Sarcopenia and frailty are geriatric syndromes characterized by multisystem decline, which are related to and reflected by markers of skeletal muscle dysfunction. In older people, sarcopenia and frailty have been used for risk stratification, to predict adverse outcomes and to prompt intervention aimed at preventing decline in those at greatest risk. In this review, we examine sarcopenia and frailty in the context of chronic respiratory disease, providing an overview of the common assessments tools and studies to date in the field...
December 6, 2016: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919548/cognitive-decline-over-time-in-adults-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-a-9-year-longitudinal-study
#2
Benjamin Gallais, Cynthia Gagnon, Jean Mathieu, Louis Richer
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an inherited neuromuscular disease with multisystemic involvement including the central nervous system. The evolution of the cognitive profile is a matter of debate, whether an eventual decline could be global or process-specific. Study aims are to describe, compare and document the clinical relevance of the progression of cognitive abilities in DM1 patients with adult and late-onset phenotypes. A total of 115 DM1 patients (90 adult; 25 late-onset) were assessed twice within a 9-year period on cognitive abilities (language, memory, visual attention, processing speed, visuoconstructive abilities and executive functions) and intellectual functioning (WAIS-R 7)...
October 14, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919482/the-association-of-cognitive-impairment-with-gray-matter-atrophy-and-cortical-lesion-load-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome
#3
Sevda Diker, Arzu Ceylan Has, Aslı Kurne, Rahşan Göçmen, Kader Karlı Oğuz, Rana Karabudak
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis can impair cognition from the early stages and has been shown to be associated with gray matter damage in addition to white matter pathology. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the profile of cognitive impairment in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and the contribution of cortical inflammation, cortical and deep gray matter atrophy, and white matter lesions to cognitive decline. METHODS: Thirty patients with clinically isolated syndrome and twenty demographically- matched healthy controls underwent neuropsychologic assessment through the Rao Brief Repeatable Battery, and brain magnetic resonance imaging with double inversion recovery using a 3T scanner...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917464/relation-of-dysglycemia-to-structural-brain-changes-in-a-multiethnic-elderly-cohort
#4
Christiane Reitz, Vanessa A Guzman, Atul Narkhede, Charles DeCarli, Adam M Brickman, José A Luchsinger
OBJECTIVES: Abnormally high glucose levels (dysglycemia) increase with age. Epidemiological studies suggest that dysglycemia is a risk factor for cognitive impairment but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the relation of dysglycemia clinical categories (normal glucose tolerance (NGT), pre-diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, known diabetes) with brain structure in older adults. We also assessed the relation between dysglycemia and cognitive performance...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917152/amyloid-dysmetabolism-relates-to-reduced-glucose-uptake-in-white-matter-hyperintensities
#5
Lisa Flem Kalheim, Per Selnes, Atle Bjørnerud, Christopher Coello, Kjetil Vegge, Tormod Fladby
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and cause of dementia and is characterized by amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. AD has traditionally been considered to primarily affect gray matter, but multiple lines of evidence also indicate white matter (WM) pathology and associated small-vessel cerebrovascular disease. WM glucose delivery and metabolism may have implications for local tissue integrity, and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) may be helpful to assess neuroglial and axonal function in WM...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912156/health-benefits-of-aerobic-training-programs-in-adults-aged-70-and-over-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Walid Bouaziz, Thomas Vogel, Elise Schmitt, Georges Kaltenbach, Bernard Geny, Pierre Olivier Lang
Aging is intrinsically associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength and mass, and aerobic capacity. This contributes to reduced mobility and impaired quality of life (QoL) among seniors. Regular physical activity, and more particularly aerobic training (AT), has demonstrated benefits on adults' health. The aim of this review was to assess the current level of evidence regarding the health benefits of AT in the population aged 70 years and over. A comprehensive, systematic database search for manuscripts was performed...
October 31, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911299/chronotropic-response-and-cognitive-function-in-a-cohort-at-risk-for%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Lena L Law, Stephanie A Schultz, Elizabeth A Boots, Jean A Einerson, Ryan J Dougherty, Jennifer M Oh, Claudia E Korcarz, Dorothy F Edwards, Rebecca L Koscik, N Maritza Dowling, Catherine L Gallagher, Barbara B Bendlin, Cynthia M Carlsson, Sanjay Asthana, Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager, Sterling C Johnson, Dane B Cook, James H Stein, Ozioma C Okonkwo
The objective of this study was to examine the association of chronotropic response (CR) and heart rate (HR) recovery- two indices of cardiovascular function within the context of a graded exercise test- with cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy, late-middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ninety participants (age = 63.52±5.86 years; 65.6% female) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participated in this study. They underwent graded exercise testing and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment that assessed the following four cognitive domains: Immediate Memory, Verbal & Learning Memory, Working Memory, and Speed & Flexibility...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909039/algorithm-for-predicting-death-among-older-adults-in-the-home-care-setting-study-protocol-for-the-risk-evaluation-for-support-predictions-for-elder-life-in-the-community-tool-respect
#8
Amy T Hsu, Douglas G Manuel, Monica Taljaard, Mathieu Chalifoux, Carol Bennett, Andrew P Costa, Susan Bronskill, Daniel Kobewka, Peter Tanuseputro
INTRODUCTION: Older adults living in the community often have multiple, chronic conditions and functional impairments. A challenge for healthcare providers working in the community is the lack of a predictive tool that can be applied to the broad spectrum of mortality risks observed and may be used to inform care planning. OBJECTIVE: To predict survival time for older adults in the home care setting. The final mortality risk algorithm will be implemented as a web-based calculator that can be used by older adults needing care and by their caregivers...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905859/baseline-neurocognitive-performance-and-clearance-for-athletes-to-return-to-contact
#9
Breton M Asken, James R Clugston, Aliyah R Snyder, Russell M Bauer
CONTEXT:  Computerized neurocognitive assessments are commonly used to manage sport-related concussion. Variations in baseline performance may influence neurocognitive performance after injury as well as the amount of time needed for an athlete to be cleared for return to sport participation. OBJECTIVE:  To investigate the relationship between mean baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) scores and postconcussion reliable decline as well as the association between postconcussion cognitive decline and days missed after injury...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905389/-lipid-profile-and-psychometric-traits-in-patients-with-psychosomatic-disorders-and-chronic-cerebral-ischemia
#10
A V Shevchenko, B M Doronin, V B Kuznetsova, T G Amstislavskaya
AIM: To explore the correlation of serum cholesterol and triglycerides with psychometric traits in patients with psychosomatic disorders and chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with CCI, aged from 46 to 76 years, were examined. Total cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in the blood. A battery of tests for assessment of cognitive functions and neurotic traits was used. RESULTS: The level of cholesterol was higher in patients with post-infarction cardiosclerosis (PICS) compared to patients with CCI without psychosomatic disorders but did not differ from that in patients with gastric ulcer (GU)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899478/one-year-prospective-study-on-the-presence-of-chronic-diseases-and-subsequent-cognitive-decline-in-older-adults
#11
Hamzah Bakouni, Samantha Gontijo Guerra, Veronica Chudzinski, Djamal Berbiche, Helen-Maria Vasiliadis
BACKGROUND: The literature is inconsistent regarding the effect of the presence of chronic physical and mental diseases on cognitive decline in older adults. The objectives of this study were to explore the effect of chronic diseases on subsequent cognitive decline assessed via the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in community living older adults. METHODS: We used data from individuals (n = 2010) participating in the ESA (Étude sur la Santé des Aînés) study...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897677/cognitive-training-in-the-elderly-bottlenecks-and-new-avenues
#12
Nahid Zokaei, Christopher MacKellar, Giedrė Čepukaitytė, Eva Zita Patai, Anna Christina Nobre
Development of measures to preserve cognitive function or even reverse cognitive decline in the ever-growing elderly population is the focus of many research and commercial efforts. One such measure gaining in popularity is the development of computer-based interventions that "exercise" cognitive functions. Computer-based cognitive training has the potential to be specific and flexible, accommodates feedback, and is highly accessible. As in most budding fields, there are still considerable inconsistencies across methodologies and results, as well as a lack of consensus on a comprehensive assessment protocol...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896574/cognitive-function-in-early-hiv-infection
#13
Aanchal Prakash, Jue Hou, Lei Liu, Yi Gao, Casey Kettering, Ann B Ragin
This study aimed to examine cognitive function in acute/early HIV infection over the subsequent 2 years. Fifty-six HIV+ subjects and 21 seronegative participants of the Chicago Early HIV Infection Study were evaluated using a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment at study enrollment and at 2-year follow-up. Cognitive performance measures were compared in the groups using t tests and mixed-effect models. Patterns of relationship with clinical measures were determined between cognitive function and clinical status markers using Spearman's correlations...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895549/the-repeatable-battery-for-the-assessment-of-neuropsychological-status-for-hearing-impaired-individuals-rbans-h-before-and-after-cochlear-implantation-a-protocol-for-a-prospective-longitudinal-cohort-study
#14
Annes J Claes, Griet Mertens, Annick Gilles, Anouk Hofkens-Van den Brandt, Erik Fransen, Vincent Van Rompaey, Paul Van de Heyning
Background: Currently, an independent relationship between hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults is suggested by large prospective studies. In general, cochlear implants improve hearing and the quality of life in severely to profoundly hearing impaired older persons. However, little is known about the effects of cochlear implantation on the cognitive evolution in this population. Aim of the study: The primary goal of this prospective, longitudinal cohort study is to explore the cognitive profile of severely to profoundly postlingually hearing impaired subjects before and after cochlear implantation...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894458/personality-and-global-cognitive-decline-in-japanese-community-dwelling-elderly-people-a-10-year-longitudinal-study
#15
Yukiko Nishita, Chikako Tange, Makiko Tomida, Rei Otsuka, Fujiko Ando, Hiroshi Shimokata
OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal associations between the big five personality and changes in global cognitive function among community-dwelling elderly people involved in the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging. METHODS: The participants were 594 individuals (age range 60-81years) and followed for 10years and tested six times. Personality was assessed by the Japanese version of NEO five factor inventory at baseline. Cognitive function was assessed by the Japanese version of Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) at all visits...
December 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894201/screening-for-cognitive-dysfunction-in-als-validation-of-the-edinburgh-cognitive-and-behavioural-als-screen-ecas-using-age-and-education-adjusted-normative-data
#16
Marta Pinto-Grau, Tom Burke, Katie Lonergan, Caroline McHugh, Iain Mays, Caoifa Madden, Alice Vajda, Mark Heverin, Marwa Elamin, Orla Hardiman, Niall Pender
BACKGROUND: Cognitive and behavioural changes are an important aspect in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) briefly assesses these changes in ALS. OBJECTIVE: To validate the ECAS against a standardised neuropsychological battery and assess its sensitivity and specificity using age and education adjusted cut-off scores. METHOD: 30 incident ALS cases were assessed on both, ECAS and neuropsychological battery...
November 28, 2016: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893859/hippocampal-calcification-on-computed-tomography-in-relation-to-cognitive-decline-in-memory-clinic-patients-a-case-control-study
#17
Remko Kockelkoren, Jill B De Vis, Willem P Th M Mali, Jeroen Hendrikse, Pim A de Jong, Annemieke M Rozemuller, Huiberdina L Koek
BACKGROUND: It was recently shown that calcification of the hippocampus can be detected on computed tomography (CT) images and these calcifications occur in up to 20% of people over 50 years of age. However, little is known about hippocampal calcification and its relation to cognition and cognitive decline. Therefore, the aim of this study was to (1) determine the prevalence of hippocampal calcification on CT in memory clinic patients controls, and (2) to assess its relation with cognitive decline...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891520/short-term-lifestyle-strategies-for-sustaining-cognitive-status
#18
Elizabeth P Howard, John N Morris, Knight Steel, Kelley A Strout, Brant E Fries, Alice Moore, Vjenka Garms-Homolová
Cognitive decline impacts older adults, particularly their independence. The goal of this project was to increase understanding of how short-term, everyday lifestyle options, including physical activity, help an older adult sustain cognitive independence. Using a secondary analysis of lifestyle choices, we drew on a dataset of 4,620 community-dwelling elders in the US, assessed at baseline and one year later using 2 valid and reliable tools, the interRAI Community Health Assessment and the interRAI Wellness tool...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890459/relationship-of-systemic-cytokine-concentrations-to-cognitive-function-over-two-years-in-women-with-early-stage-breast-cancer
#19
Debra E Lyon, Ronald Cohen, Huaihou Chen, Debra L Kelly, Nancy L McCain, Angela Starkweather, Hyochol Ahn, Jamie Sturgill, Colleen K Jackson-Cook
: Cancer and its treatment are frequently associated with cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI). While CRCI has been associated with linked to chemotherapy, there is increasing evidence that the condition may start prior to treatment and for some, remain unresolved after active treatment and into survivorship. Although the pathophysiology of the condition is complex, alterations in systemic cytokines, signaling molecules activated in response to infection or injury that trigger inflammation, are a possible mechanism linked to cognitive dysfunction in breast cancer and other conditions...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888736/activity-engagement-and-physical-function-in-old-age-sample
#20
Krupa N Shah, Feng V Lin, Fang Yu, James M McMahon
OBJECTIVES: To describe the patterns of engagement in mental, physical, and social activity (MA, PA, and SA) and to examine the relationship between combined activity engagement and physical function among community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional correlational study. SETTING: Multiple communities. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 466 individuals aged 55 years or older. MEASUREMENTS: Physical function was assessed using grip strength and gait speed...
November 17, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
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