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Assessment cognitive decline

Romee van Dam, Jeanine M Van Ancum, Sjors Verlaan, Kira Scheerman, Carel G M Meskers, Andrea B Maier
BACKGROUND: Low muscle strength and muscle mass are associated with adverse outcomes in older hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to assess the association between cognitive functioning and muscle strength and muscle mass in hospitalized older patients. METHODS: This prospective inception cohort included 378 patients aged 70 years or older. At admission patients were assessed for cognitive functioning by use of the Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6-CIT)...
June 18, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Antonella Delle Fave, Marta Bassi, Elena S Boccaletti, Carlotta Roncaglione, Giuseppina Bernardelli, Daniela Mari
In the last few decades, the relationship between physical conditions and mental health has increasingly attracted the interest of researchers and professionals across disciplines. This relationship is especially relevant in old age, as the challenges posed by aging at various levels represent crucial concerns for policy makers. Due to the remarkable increase in life expectancy across countries, sustainable prevention strategies are needed to help individuals preserve psychophysical well-being in old age. In particular, the regular practice of a moderately intense physical activity is recommended by the World Health Organization to enhance balance, prevent falls, strengthen muscles, and promote psychophysical well-being...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
N E Carlozzi, S Schilling, A L Kratz, J S Paulsen, S Frank, J C Stout
PURPOSE: Symptom progression in Huntington disease (HD) is associated with cognitive decline which may interfere with the self-report of symptoms. Unfortunately, data to support or refute the psychometric reliability of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) as HD progresses are limited. This is problematic given that PROs are increasingly recognized as important measures of efficacy for new treatments. METHODS: We examined PRO data from the HDQLIFE Measurement System (Speech Difficulties; Swallowing Difficulties; Chorea) in 509 individuals with premanifest, early-stage, or late-stage HD...
June 16, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Julien Dufort-Gervais, Valérie Mongrain, Jonathan Brouillette
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive hippocampal-dependent explicit memory deficits that begin at the onset of the illness. An early hallmark of AD is the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aß) proteins in brain structures involved in encoding and consolidation of memory, like the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Aß neurotoxicity is known to induce synaptic dysfunctions and neuronal death leading to cognitive decline. Another recurrent event observed in AD is sleep disturbances...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Izabela Bialuk, Andrzej Taranta, Maria Małgorzata Winnicka
Significance of interleukin 6 (IL-6) deficiency in cognitive processes was evaluated in 4- and 24-month-old C57BL/6J IL-6-deficient (IL-6 KO) and control (WT) mice in Morris water maze (MWM), holeboard test (HB) and elevated plus maze (EPM). During 3-day learning escape latency time (ELT) was longer in IL-6 KO than in WT mice, however their swimming was slower, floating longer, and path length did not differ. The comparison of ELT and the distance traveled between the first and the third learning day within each group revealed significant decrease of ELT in all groups with the highest difference in 4-month-old WT mice, and significant decrease of distance travelled only in both groups of WT mice...
June 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Lei Yu, Vladislav A Petyuk, Chris Gaiteri, Sara Mostafavi, Tracy Young-Pearse, Raj C Shah, Aron S Buchman, Julie A Schneider, Paul D Piehowski, Ryan L Sontag, Thomas L Fillmore, Tujin Shi, Richard D Smith, Philip L De Jager, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: Previous gene expression analysis identified a network of co-expressed genes that is associated with β-amyloid neuropathology and cognitive decline in older adults. The current work targeted influential genes in this network with quantitative proteomics to identify potential novel therapeutic targets. METHODS: Data came from 834 community-based older persons who were followed annually, died and underwent brain autopsy. Uniform structured postmortem evaluations assessed the burden of β-amyloid and other common age-related neuropathologies...
June 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Casey Rosen, Larissa McKetton, Jeremy Russell, Kevin Sam, Julien Poublanc, Adrian Crawley, Jay S Han, Olivia Sobczyk, James Duffin, Danny M Mandell, Michael Tymianski, Joseph A Fisher, David J Mikulis, Lashmi Venkatraghavan
The purpose of this retrospective observational study is to investigate the long-term changes in cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) as a measure of cerebral hemodynamics in patients with intracranial steno-occlusive disease (IC-SOD) after they have undergone an Extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass. Twenty-six patients suffering from IC-SOD were selected from our CVR database. Nineteen patients underwent unilateral and 7 underwent bilateral revascularization. CVR measurements were done using BOLD-MRI and precisely controlled CO2 and expressed as ΔBOLD (%)/Δ PET CO2 (mmHg)...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Lisa Smithson, Tieghan Baird, Sukhpreet K Tamana, Amanda Lau, Jennifer Mariasine, Joyce Chikuma, Diana L Lefebvre, Padmaja Subbarao, Allan B Becker, Stuart E Turvey, Malcolm R Sears, Deryk S Beal, Jacqueline Pei, Piush J Mandhane
BACKGROUND: Both short sleep duration and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are associated with poor neurocognitive development. However, the co-contributions of short sleep duration and SDB on neurodevelopment in pre-school children are relatively unknown. METHODS: We assessed both sleep duration and SDB by quarterly questionnaire from three months to two years of age among Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort participants. Group-based modeling determined trajectories of total, daytime, and nighttime sleep duration and SDB...
April 30, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Lingguo Bu, Congcong Huo, Gongcheng Xu, Ying Liu, Zengyong Li, Yubo Fan, Jianfeng Li
To reveal the physiological mechanism of the cognitive decline in subjects with hypertension, the functional connectivity (FC) was assessed by using the wavelet phase coherence (WPCO), and effective connectivity (EC) was assessed by using the coupling strength (CS) of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals. NIRS signals were continuously recorded from the prefrontal cortex, sensorimotor cortex, and occipital lobes of 13 hypertensive patients (hypertension group, 70 ± 6.5 years old) and 16 elderly healthy subjects (control group, 71 ± 5...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Murat Bilgel, Yang An, Jessica Helphrey, Wendy Elkins, Gabriela Gomez, Dean F Wong, Christos Davatzikos, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick
Understanding short-term cognitive decline in relation to Alzheimer's neuroimaging biomarkers in early stages of the development of neuropathology and neurodegeneration will inform participant recruitment and monitoring strategies in clinical trials aimed at prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia. We assessed associations among neuroimaging measures of cerebral amyloid pathology, a hallmark Alzheimer's neuropathology, hippocampal atrophy, and prospective cognition among 171 cognitively normal Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants (baseline age 56-95 years, 48% female, 562 cognitive assessments, 3...
June 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Hwee-Woon Lim, Woei-Yuh Saw, Lei Feng, Yuan-Kun Lee, Ratha Mahendran, Irwin Kee-Mun Cheah, Iris Rawtaer, Alan Prem Kumar, Ee-Heok Kua, Rathi Mahendran, Ene-Choo Tan
It has been reported that relaxation techniques can improve physical health and cognitive function. A number of studies involving different types of relaxation practices showed changes in expression of genes. We investigated the gene expression pattern of a cohort of elderly subjects of Asian descent after weekly (for the first three months) and monthly (for the subsequent six months) intervention. Sixty consenting elderly subjects (aged 60-90 years) with mild cognitive impairment were assigned to either the Mindfulness Awareness Practice (MAP) or Health Education Program (HEP) group in a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of the programs in preventing further cognitive decline and evaluate the influence on neurological, cellular and biochemical factors...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Henry M Corpuz, Saki Ichikawa, Misa Arimura, Toshihiro Mihara, Takehisa Kumagai, Takakazu Mitani, Soichiro Nakamura, Shigeru Katayama
This study aimed to assess the suppressive effect of long-term diet supplementation with Lactobacillus strains on cognitive decline in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) model. For 43 weeks, fourteen-week-old female SAMP8 mice were fed a standard diet containing 0.05% ( w / w ) Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei 327 (L. 327) or Lactobacillus paracasei K71 (L. K71) derived from rice grains and sake lees, respectively. SAMP8 mice that were fed a L. K71-supplemented diet had better cognitive performance compared with the control and L...
June 13, 2018: Nutrients
Gheorghe-Andrei Dan, Konstantinos Iliodromitis, Daniel Scherr, Francisco Marín, Radoslaw Lenarczyk, Heidi L Estner, Marcin Kostkiewicz, Nikolaos Dagres, Gregory Y H Lip
Despite the huge progress made in the both understanding the mechanisms and the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) this arrhythmia still represents an important health and social burden. Atrial fibrillation is increasing in frequency and is a major cause of death, stroke, heart failure, cognitive decline, and hospitalizations. New data have emerged emphasizing the multidisciplinary approach to better management of this common arrhythmia. Despite the availability of AF management guidelines, practice among European centres may differ from the current guideline recommendations...
June 8, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Marta Noa Valcarcel-Ares, Zsuzsanna Tucsek, Tamas Kiss, Cory B Giles, Stefano Tarantini, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Priya Balasubramanian, Tripti Gautam, Veronica Galvan, Praveen Ballabh, Arlan Richardson, Willard M Freeman, Jonathan D Wren, Ferenc Deak, Zoltan Ungvari, Anna Csiszar
There is strong evidence that obesity has deleterious effects on cognitive function of older adults. Previous preclinical studies demonstrate that obesity in aging is associated with a heightened state of systemic inflammation, which exacerbates blood brain barrier disruption, promoting neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. To test the hypothesis that synergistic effects of obesity and aging on inflammatory processes exert deleterious effects on hippocampal function, young and aged C57BL/6 mice were rendered obese by chronic feeding of a high fat diet followed by assessment of learning and memory function, measurement of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), assessment of changes in hippocampal expression of genes relevant for synaptic function and determination of synaptic density...
June 8, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Leslie Grasset, Hélène Jacqmin-Gadda, Cécile Proust-Lima, Karine Pérès, Hélène Amieva, Jean-François Dartigues, Catherine Helmer
In line with declining trends in dementia incidence, this work thus aimed to compare the cognitive and functional evolution of two "generations" separated by 10 years and to evaluate the impact of specific risk factors on this evolution. This study was conducted on two "generations" of elderly individuals aged 78-88 years, who were included 10 years apart in the Personnes Agées QUID (PAQUID) cohort (France) (n = 612 in 1991-92 and n = 628 in 2001-02) and followed-up for 12 years, with assessments of cognition and disability...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Benjumin Hsu, Vasant Hirani, Louise M Waite, Vasi Naganathan, Fiona M Blyth, David G Le Couteur, Markus J Seibel, Robert G Cumming, David J Handelsman
Background: previous cross-sectional studies have reported bidirectional associations between sexual activity and cognitive function among older people. However, the temporal associations have not been studied. Methods: community-dwelling men aged 70+ from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project were assessed. This study was based on 986 men at baseline, 829 men at 2 year and 595 men at 5-year follow-up. Sexual function using a standardised questionnaire (erectile function, sexual activity, sexual satisfaction, sexual desire) was analysed by generalised estimating equations to examine associations between changes in sexual function and changes in mini-mental state examination (MMSE) across three time points over 5 years...
June 8, 2018: Age and Ageing
Lisbeth A Evered, Brendan S Silbert
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is an objectively measured decline in cognition postoperatively compared with preoperative function. POCD has been considered in the anesthetic and surgical literature in isolation of cognitive decline which is common in the elderly within the community and where it is labeled as mild cognitive impairment, neurocognitive disorder, or dementia. This narrative review seeks to place POCD in the broad context of cognitive decline in the general population. Cognitive change after anesthesia and surgery was described over 100 years ago, initially as delirium and dementia...
June 8, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Dóra Juhász, Dezső Németh
Background and purpose: Introduction - Mental health has crucial role in our life. Cognitive changes or decline can lead to many difficulties in daily routine of older people (e.g. organization of daily activities), which can, consequently, influence their well-being. Therefore it is an important question, which cognitive abilities are affected by age-related decline. Methods: In our study we aimed to investigate the changes of cognitive abilities in healthy older adults between 61 and 85 years of age compared to the performance of younger adults...
March 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Maria Vassilaki, Jeremiah A Aakre, Jeremy A Syrjanen, Michelle M Mielke, Yonas E Geda, Walter K Kremers, Mary M Machulda, Rabe E Alhurani, Sara C Staubo, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Rosebud O Roberts
BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence suggesting that diet may play a role in preventing or delaying cognitive decline and dementia, but the underlying biological mechanisms are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: To examine the cross-sectional associations of the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) and its components with 11C-PiB-PET scan measures of amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition. METHODS: The study consisted of 278 Mayo Clinic Study of Aging participants 70+ years old, who were cognitively unimpaired (CU) at the time of completion of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and when they underwent PET imaging...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Alexandra König, Nicklas Linz, Johannes Tröger, Maria Wolters, Jan Alexandersson, Phillipe Robert
BACKGROUND: Semantic verbal fluency (SVF) tests are routinely used in screening for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this task, participants name as many items as possible of a semantic category under a time constraint. Clinicians measure task performance manually by summing the number of correct words and errors. More fine-grained variables add valuable information to clinical assessment, but are time-consuming. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether automatic analysis of the SVF could provide these as accurate as manual and thus, support qualitative screening of neurocognitive impairment...
June 8, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
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