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Assessment psychosis

Conrad Molins, Mar Carceller-Sindreu, Helena Navarro, Cristina Carmona, Marina Piñeiro, Estrella Martínez, Enric Álvarez, Maria J Portella
Cognitive symptoms play a central role in schizophrenia and are strongly associated with social functioning. Treatment with clozapine presents controversial results regarding its effects on cognition. The opposite effects of clozapine and n-desmethylclozapine (NDMC) on cholinergic system have been suggested to underlie these inconclusive findings. The aim of this study is to determine whether clozapine/NDMC ratio can predict cognitive performance in patients with treatment-resistant psychosis. Nineteen clinically stable patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with clozapine monotherapy completed demographic and clinical interviews...
October 3, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Gemma Modinos, Fatma Simsek, Jamie Horder, Matthijs Bossong, Ilaria Bonoldi, Matilda Azis, Jesus Perez, Matthew Broome, David J Lythgoe, James M Stone, Oliver D Howes, Declan G Murphy, Anthony A Grace, Paul Allen, Philip McGuire
Background: Whilst robust preclinical and postmortem evidence suggests that altered GABAergic function is central to the development of psychosis, little is known about whether it is altered in subjects at ultra-high risk of psychosis, or its relationship to prodromal symptoms. Methods: Twenty-one anti-psychotic naïve UHR individuals and 20 healthy volunteers underwent proton magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. GABA levels were obtained from the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) using MEGA-PRESS, and expressed as peak-area ratios relative to the synchronously-acquired creatine signal...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Yoshiaki Miyamoto, Noriyuki Iegaki, Kequan Fu, Yudai Ishikawa, Kazuyuki Sumi, Sota Azuma, Kyosuke Uno, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu, Atsumi Nitta
Background: Several clinical studies have suggested that N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) levels in the human brain are associated with various psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder. We have previously identified Shati/Nat8l, an N-acetyltransferase, in the brain using an animal model of psychosis. Shati/Nat8l synthesizes NAA from L-aspartate and acetyl-coenzyme A. Further, NAA is converted into NAAG, a neurotransmitter for metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGluR3)...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Oye Gureje, Victor Makanjuola, Lola Kola, Bidemi Yusuf, Leshawndra Price, Oluyomi Esan, Bibilola D Oladeji, John Appiah-Poku, Benjamin Haris, Caleb Othieno, Soraya Seedat
BACKGROUND: Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental disorders that cause considerable disability to sufferers and a high level of burden to families. In many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), traditional and faith healers are the main providers of care to affected persons. Even though frequently canvassed as desirable for improved care delivery, collaboration between these complementary alternative health providers (CAPs) and conventional health providers has yet to be rigorously tested for feasibility and effectiveness on patient outcomes...
October 10, 2017: Trials
G Selbæk, S I M Janus, S Bergh, K Engedal, S Ruths, A S Helvik, J Šaltyte Benth, S U Zuidema
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess whether there were any changes in the use of psychotropic drugs in Norwegian nursing homes between 2004 and 2011. Also, we investigated whether the predictors of use of specific psychotropic drug groups have changed. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of two cohort studies of two Norwegian nursing home samples (2004/05 and 2010/11). Multivariate models were applied. RESULTS: We found a significant decrease in the prescription of antipsychotic drugs between 2004 and 2011 (0...
October 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
Daisuke Koshiyama, Kenji Kirihara, Mariko Tada, Tatsuya Nagai, Mao Fujioka, Shinsuke Koike, Motomu Suga, Tsuyoshi Araki, Kiyoto Kasai
BACKGROUND: Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a candidate biomarker for early stages of psychosis. Although an association among duration MMN (dMMN), cognitive deficits, and functional outcome in chronic schizophrenia has been shown by a large-scale study, the effects of deviant type and clinical stages have not been investigated. METHODS: We investigated the relationships among dMMN, frequency MMN (fMMN), global functioning, and cognitive function in early stages of psychosis...
October 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Jessica A Hartmann, Barnaby Nelson, Rachael Spooner, G Paul Amminger, Andrew Chanen, Christopher G Davey, Meredith McHugh, Aswin Ratheesh, Devi Treen, Hok Pan Yuen, Patrick D McGorry
AIM: The development of the ultra-high risk (UHR) criteria for psychosis created a new paradigm for the prevention research in psychiatry. Since (1) prevention research faces the challenge of achieving adequate statistical power when focusing on single low-incidence syndromes and (2) early clinical phenotypes are overlapping and non-specific, this study broadens the UHR state beyond psychosis as an outcome. The CHARMS (clinical high at-risk mental state) study aims to prospectively validate a set of trans-diagnostic criteria to identify help-seeking young people at risk of developing a range of serious mental illnesses...
October 5, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Ka Wa Lau, Sherry K W Chan, Christy L M Hui, Edwin H M Lee, Wing Chung Chang, Catherine Shiu-Yin Chong, William Tak-Lam Lo, Eric Y H Chen
AIM: This study aims at assessing the rate and predictors of disengagement of patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) from the early intervention (EI) service in Hong Kong (EASY) that covers age 15 to 64. METHODS: All FEP patients aged 15 to 64 years who were newly registered with the EASY programme of Kowloon West Psychiatric Unit from January to December 2012 were included. Data on socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and disengagement over 3 years of the EI service were obtained retrospectively through systematic clinical record review...
October 6, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
John Lally, Olesya Ajnakina, Brendon Stubbs, Michael Cullinane, Kieran C Murphy, Fiona Gaughran, Robin M Murray
BackgroundRemission and recovery rates for people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) remain uncertain.AimsTo assess pooled prevalence rates of remission and recovery in FEP and to investigate potential moderators.MethodWe conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess pooled prevalence rates of remission and recovery in FEP in longitudinal studies with more than 1 year of follow-up data, and conducted meta-regression analyses to investigate potential moderators.ResultsSeventy-nine studies were included representing 19072 patients with FEP...
October 5, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Jessica McGinty, M Sayeed Haque, Rachel Upthegrove
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests first episode psychosis (FEP) is associated with suicide, and the influence of depression on suicidal behaviour in cross sectional studies is clear. However the influence of depression during FEP on longer-term mortality is not certain. Existing evidence was synthesised to understand the influence of depressive symptoms during FEP on subsequent suicidal behaviour. METHODS: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, OpenGrey, and NICE Evidence were searched from inception to Jan 25, 2017...
October 2, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Vidyulata Kamath, Patricia Lasutschinkow, Koko Ishizuka, Akira Sawa
BACKGROUND: Though olfactory deficits are well-documented in schizophrenia, fewer studies have examined olfactory performance profiles across the psychosis spectrum. The current study examined odor identification, discrimination, and detection threshold performance in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, major depression with psychotic features, and other psychotic conditions. METHOD: FEP patients (n = 97) and healthy adults (n = 98) completed birhinal assessments of odor identification, discrimination, and detection threshold sensitivity for lyral and citralva...
August 31, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Jason C McIntyre, Sophie Wickham, Ben Barr, Richard P Bentall
Humans possess a basic need to belong and will join groups even when they provide no practical benefit. Paranoid symptoms imply a disruption of the processes involved in belonging and social trust. Past research suggests that joining social groups and incorporating those groups into one's identity (social identification) promotes positive self-views and better physical and mental health. However, no research has investigated whether social identity is associated with paranoia, nor the mechanisms by which this effect may emerge...
August 26, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Randolph C H Chan, Winnie W S Mak, Floria H N Chio, Alan C Y Tong
Well-being is not just the absence of mental disorder but also involves positive feelings and contentment (emotional well-being), meaningful engagement (psychological well-being), and contribution of one's community or society (social well-being). Recovery processes, which encompass mitigation of clinical symptomatology (clinical recovery), improvement in occupational, social, and adaptive functioning (functional recovery), and development of personally valued goals and identity (personal recovery), have demonstrated to be important markers of well-being...
September 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Daniel Fulford, Danijela Piskulic, Jean Addington, John M Kane, Nina R Schooler, Kim T Mueser
Diminished motivation is associated with robust impairment in psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia (SZ). Little is known about the reciprocal relationships between motivation and functioning, particularly following a first episode of psychosis. We tested bidirectional associations between motivation and social and occupational functioning in the year following a first episode of SZ spectrum disorder among patients in the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode-Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP) study...
August 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Burak Baytunca, Tuğba Kalyoncu, Ismail Ozel, Serpil Erermiş, Bülent Kayahan, Dost Öngur
OBJECTIVES: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is notably a comorbid disorder in patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to evaluate clinical features and correlates of early onset patients with schizophrenia with OCD. METHODS: In the present study, we included 10 patients with both schizophrenia and OCD and 19 patients with schizophrenia without OCD. The mean antipsychotic doses the patients needed for treatment are standardized as chlorpromazine equivalent dose...
October 2, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Bruce I Turetsky, Paul J Moberg, Megan Quarmley, Erich Dress, Monica E Calkins, Kosha Ruparel, Karthik Prabhakaran, Raquel E Gur, David R Roalf
BACKGROUND: Olfactory impairments are prominent in both schizophrenia and the preceding at-risk state. Their presence prior to illness predicts poor functional outcome. In schizophrenia, these impairments reflect peripheral olfactory structural abnormalities, which are hypothesized to arise during early embryonic development. If this is correct, then similar structural anomalies should be apparent among clinical high-risk subjects. METHODS: Thirty-nine clinical high-risk (CR) subjects (24M/15F) were compared to 36 low-risk (LR) subjects (19M/17F)...
September 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
Stefan Borgwardt, André Schmidt
In this issue, Falkenberg et al explore the practicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as part of the initial clinical assessment in patients with first-episode psychosis and the prevalence, nature and clinical significance of radiological abnormalities in these patients. They provide evidence for the use of MRI data to detect gross brain abnormalities. In addition, improvements in quantitative analyses makes MRI an indispensable tool to elucidate the neurobiological substrates that might underlie primary (or idiopathic) psychotic illness...
October 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Lucas Elio González, Raquel López-Carrilero, Maria Luisa Barrigón, Eva Grasa, Ana Barajas, Esther Pousa, Fermín González-Higueras, Isabel Ruiz-Delgado, Jordi Cid, Esther Lorente-Rovira, Trinidad Pélaez, Susana Ochoa
BACKGROUND: The reasoning bias of jumping to conclusions (JTC) consists of a tendency to make assumptions having little information. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the differences in neuropsychological functioning between recent onset psychotic patients who jump to conclusions and those who do not jump to conclusions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty-two patients with a recent onset of a psychotic disorder were assessed with three JTC tasks and a neuropsychological battery exploring verbal learning, memory, attention, psychomotor speed, visuoperceptual abilities, working memory, problem solving, executive functioning...
September 29, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
H J Segat, R C S Barcelos, V G Metz, H Z Rosa, Kr Roversi, C T D Antoniazzi, L T Vey, M Kronbauer, J C Veit, J C Piccolo, T Emanuelli, M E Burger
Amphetamine (AMPH) and its derivatives are addictive drugs used to promote and enhance alertness, motivation, willingness, courage and wellbeing. However, their chronic use is related to memory loss, emotional instability, insomnia, psychosis and paranoia. In the last decades, modern society has included processed foods, rich in trans fatty acids (TFA), in their diet, what has been related to several health problems including increased AMPH preference and self-administration. In this scenario, physical activity appears to be useful to attenuate rewarding symptoms related to addictive drugs mainly by affecting brain neuroplasticity and neurotransmission...
September 28, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
Manuel J Cuesta, Pablo Lecumberri, Teresa Cabada, Lucia Moreno-Izco, María Ribeiro, Jose M López-Ilundain, Victor Peralta, Ruth Lorente-Omeñaca, Ana Maria Sánchez-Torres, Marisol Gómez
Patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) exhibit considerable heterogeneity in subcortical brain volumes. We sought to compare ventricle and basal ganglia volumes in FEP patients (n = 50) with those in unaffected relatives (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 24). Participants were assessed with a semistructured interview and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients had significantly larger left lateral, right lateral and third ventricle volumes than their siblings and larger third ventricle volumes than controls...
September 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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