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Assessment psychosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455628/ng%C3%A4-whak%C3%A4-whitinga-standing-at-the-crossroads-how-m%C3%A4-ori-understand-what-western-psychiatry-calls-schizophrenia
#1
Melissa Taitimu, John Read, Tracey McIntosh
This project explored how Māori understand experiences commonly labelled "schizophrenic" or "psychotic". Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 57 Māori participants who had either personal experiences labelled as "psychosis" or "schizophrenia", or who work with people with such experiences; including tangata whaiora (users of mental health services), tohunga (traditional healers), kaumatua/kuia (elders), Māori clinicians, cultural support workers and students...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453035/changes-in-correlation-characteristics-of-time-consumption-and-mind-reading-performance-in-pre-onset-and-post-onset-psychosis
#2
TianHong Zhang, LiHua Xu, HuiRu Cui, YingYing Tang, YanYan Wei, XiaoChen Tang, XiaoHua Liu, XinMei Cao, ChunBo Li, JiJun Wang
There is a strong correlation between neurocognition and social cognition. However, none of these studies have examined the key role of time consumption during social cognition tasks. Participants included 84 individuals with clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR), 95 healthy controls (HC), and 66 case controls (schizophrenia patients, SZ), who were assessed through the Reading-Mind-in-Eyes Tasks (RMET) with computerized recording of the response time (RT). Neurocognitive tests were also performed for the HC and CHR groups...
February 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452966/gender-differences-in-the-relationship-of-childhood-trauma-and-the-course-of-illness-in-schizophrenia
#3
Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár, Veronika Mészáros, Dóra Perczel-Forintos
INTRODUCTION: Different types of childhood trauma have been repeatedly shown to contribute to psychotic symptoms. Gender differences in schizophrenia are well known. Some studies argue that trauma history means a significantly higher risk of psychosis for women than men. However, there is evidence of early adverse life events to be associated with higher stress-sensitivity in men. Little is known about the connection of specific type of trauma and specific psychotic symptoms as well as the course of illness with explicit regard to gender differences...
February 13, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452684/evaluation-of-the-safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-pimavanserin-versus-placebo-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-psychosis-a-phase-2-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-study
#4
Clive Ballard, Carol Banister, Zunera Khan, Jeffrey Cummings, George Demos, Bruce Coate, James M Youakim, Randall Owen, Srdjan Stankovic
BACKGROUND: Pimavanserin is a selective 5-HT 2A receptor inverse agonist and antagonist approved in the USA for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson's disease psychosis. No safe or effective pharmacological treatment is approved for psychosis in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of pimavanserin versus placebo in patients with Alzheimer's disease psychosis. METHODS: We did a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-centre (with multiple affiliated nursing home sites across the UK) study...
March 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450471/association-of-childhood-infection-with-iq-and-adult-nonaffective-psychosis-in-swedish-men-a-population-based-longitudinal-cohort-and-co-relative-study
#5
Golam M Khandaker, Christina Dalman, Nils Kappelmann, Jan Stochl, Henrik Dal, Kyriaki Kosidou, Peter B Jones, Håkan Karlsson
Importance: Associations between childhood infection, IQ, and adult nonaffective psychosis (NAP) are well established. However, examination of sensitive periods for exposure, effect of familial confounding, and whether IQ provides a link between childhood infection and adult NAP may elucidate pathogenesis of psychosis further. Objectives: To test the association of childhood infection with IQ and adult NAP, to find whether shared familial confounding explains the infection-NAP and IQ-NAP associations, and to examine whether IQ mediates and/or moderates the childhood infection-NAP association...
February 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449557/differential-patterns-of-contextual-organization-of-memory-in-first-episode-psychosis
#6
Vishnu P Murty, Rachel A McKinney, Sarah DuBrow, Maria Jalbrzikowski, Gretchen L Haas, Beatriz Luna
Contextual information is used to support and organize episodic memory. Prior research has reliably shown memory deficits in psychosis; however, little research has characterized how this population uses contextual information during memory recall. We employed an approach founded in a computational framework of free recall to quantify how individuals with first episode of psychosis (FEP, N = 97) and controls (CON, N = 55) use temporal and semantic context to organize memory recall. Free recall was characterized using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R)...
February 15, 2018: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447186/can-an-experimental-white-noise-task-assess-psychosis-vulnerability-in-adult-healthy-controls
#7
Maider Gonzalez de Artaza, Ana Catalan, Virxinia Angosto, Cristina Valverde, Amaia Bilbao, Jim van Os, Miguel Angel Gonzalez-Torres
BACKGROUND: This is an extension of a paper published earlier. We investigated the association between the tendency to detect speech illusion in random noise and levels of positive schizotypy in a sample of 185 adult healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subclinical positive, negative and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE); positive and negative schizotypy was assessed with the Structured Interview for Schizotypy-Revised (SIS-R)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444152/the-interaction-between-cannabis-use-and-the-val158met-polymorphism-of-the-comt-gene-in-psychosis-a-transdiagnostic-meta-analysis
#8
Thomas Stephanus Johannes Vaessen, Lea de Jong, Annika Theresia Schäfer, Thomas Damen, Aniek Uittenboogaard, Pauline Krolinski, Chinyere Vicky Nwosu, Florentina Maria Egidius Pinckaers, Iris Leah Marije Rotee, Antonius Petrus Wilhelmus Smeets, Ayşegül Ermiş, James L Kennedy, Dorien H Nieman, Arun Tiwari, Jim van Os, Marjan Drukker
BACKGROUND: Neither environmental nor genetic factors are sufficient to predict the transdiagnostic expression of psychosis. Therefore, analysis of gene-environment interactions may be productive. OBJECTIVE: A meta-analysis was performed using papers investigating the interaction between cannabis use and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) polymorphism Val158Met (COMTVal158Met). DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, PsychInfo. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: All observational studies assessing the interaction between COMTVal158Met and cannabis with any psychosis or psychotic symptoms measure as an outcome...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439333/risk-of-conversion-to-dementia-in-a-mild-behavioral-impairment-group-compared-to-a-psychiatric-group-and-to-a-mild-cognitive-impairment-group
#9
Fernando E Taragano, Ricardo F Allegri, Silvina L Heisecke, María I Martelli, Mónica L Feldman, Viviana Sánchez, Virginia A García, Graciela Tufro, Diego M Castro, Patricio Perez Leguizamón, Verónica Guelar, Eva Ruotolo, Cecilia Zegarra, Carol Dillon
BACKGROUND: There is insufficient available information on behavioral changes in the absence of cognitive impairment as factors increasing the risk of conversion to dementia. OBJECTIVE: To observe and analyze patients with mild behavioral impairment (MBI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and a psychiatry group (PG) to compare the risk of progression to dementia. METHODS: From 677 initially assessed ≥60-year-old patients, a series of 348 patients was studied for a five-year period until censoring or conversion to dementia: 96 with MBI, 87 with MCI, and 165 with general psychiatry disorders, including 4 subgroups: Anxiety, Depression, Psychosis and Others...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429415/sibling-bullying-in-middle-childhood-and-psychotic-disorder-at-18-years-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Slava Dantchev, Stanley Zammit, Dieter Wolke
BACKGROUND: Being bullied by a sibling has been recently identified as a potential risk factor for developing depression and self-harm. It is unknown whether this risk extends to other serious mental health problems such as psychosis. We investigated whether sibling bullying victimization or perpetration in middle childhood was prospectively associated with psychotic disorder in early adulthood. METHODS: The current study investigated 6988 participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK community-based birth cohort...
February 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427955/allostatic-load-is-associated-with-psychotic-symptoms-and-decreases-with-antipsychotic-treatment-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-first-episode-psychosis
#11
Maximus Berger, Robert-Paul Juster, Sabine Westphal, G Paul Amminger, Bernhard Bogerts, Kolja Schiltz, Sabine Bahn, Johann Steiner, Zoltan Sarnyai
Current pathophysiological models of schizophrenia suggest that stress contributes to the etiology and trajectory of the disorder. We investigated if allostatic load (AL), an integrative index of neuroendocrine, immune and metabolic dysregulation in response to chronic stress, is elevated in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and first-episode psychosis (FEP) and related to psychotic symptoms and social and occupational functioning. Additionally, we assessed the temporal dynamics of AL in response to treatment with second-generation antipsychotics...
February 5, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426253/symptom-profile-of-psychiatric-patients-with-psychosis-or-psychotic-mood-disorder-in-prison
#12
J van Beek, P J Vuijk, J M Harte, E J A Scherder
There is evidence that psychiatric patients with psychotic or manic disorders who are incarcerated suffer from the same symptoms as psychiatric patients who are treated in the community. There are also indications that their symptoms might be more severe. The aim of this study was to examine the severity of psychotic and manic symptoms, as well as to collect information about the emotional functioning of patients admitted to a prison psychiatric ward. Incarcerated patients with a diagnosis of psychotic or a manic disorder were examined with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Expanded (BPRS-E)...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414034/stress-induced-cortisol-release-and-schizotypy
#13
Emma E Walter, Francesca Fernandez, Mollie Snelling, Emma Barkus
Cortisol is involved in preparing the body's response for stress. However, in those at risk for mental health problems, abnormal cortisol release following stress has been reported. In particular, we are yet to fully understand how stress leads to an exacerbation of symptoms and progression of risk in those who express psychosis proneness or schizotypy. Using the Trier Social Stress Test, we examined the effect of experimentally induced psychosocial stress on cortisol release in otherwise healthy individuals with schizotypal traits...
January 30, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413807/meta-analytical-prognostic-accuracy-of-the-comprehensive-assessment-of-at-risk-mental-states-caarms-the-need-for-refined-prediction
#14
D Oliver, M Kotlicka-Antczak, A Minichino, G Spada, P McGuire, P Fusar-Poli
Primary indicated prevention is reliant on accurate tools to predict the onset of psychosis. The gold standard assessment for detecting individuals at clinical high risk (CHR-P) for psychosis in the UK and many other countries is the Comprehensive Assessment for At Risk Mental States (CAARMS). While the prognostic accuracy of CHR-P instruments has been assessed in general, this is the first study to specifically analyse that of the CAARMS. As such, the CAARMS was used as the index test, with the reference index being psychosis onset within 2 years...
January 26, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410932/a-developmental-history-of-the-positive-and-negative-syndrome-scale-panss
#15
REVIEW
Stacy Liechti, Gianna Capodilupo, Douglas J Opler, Mark Opler, Lawrence H Yang
Psychometric instruments are products of their time-Their designs and initial purposes are influenced and shaped by the contemporary treatment regimens, context, and cultural and conceptual biases of their developers. In this review article, the authors explore the history of the most influential schizophrenia research tools that have been created over the past several decades. The authors describe the scientific concepts, cultural influences, and challenges of past and present researchers as they strive to develop better assessment tools for schizophrenia...
December 1, 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405487/history-of-psychosis-and-mania-and-outcomes-after-kidney-transplantation
#16
Miklos Z Molnar, James D Eason, Abduzhappar Gaipov, Manish Talwar, Praveen K Potukuchi, Kiran Joglekar, Adam Remport, Zoltan Mathe, Istvan Mucsi, Marta Novak, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Csaba P Kovesdy
History of psychosis or mania, if uncontrolled, both represent relative contraindications for kidney transplantation. We examined 3,680 US veterans who underwent kidney transplantation. The diagnosis of history of psychosis/mania was based on a validated algorithm. Measured confounders were used to create a propensity score-matched cohort (n=442). Associations between pre-transplantation psychosis/mania and death with functioning graft, all-cause death, graft loss and rejection were examined in survival models and logistic regression models...
February 6, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400347/effects-of-early-trauma-on-psychosis-development-in-clinical-high-risk-individuals-and-stability-of-trauma-assessment-across-studies-a-review
#17
Samantha L Redman, Cheryl M Corcoran, David Kimhy, Dolores Malaspina
Early trauma (ET), though broadly and inconsistently defined, has been repeatedly linked to numerous psychological disturbances, including various developmental stages of psychotic disorders. The prodromal phase of psychosis highlights a unique and relevant population that provides insight into the critical periods of psychosis development. As such, a relatively recent research focus on individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis reveals robust associations of early life trauma exposures with prodromal symptoms and function in these cohorts...
December 15, 2017: Arch Psychol (Chic)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398205/translocator-protein-tspo-and-stress-cascades-in-mouse-models-of-psychosis-with-inflammatory-disturbances
#18
Daisuke Fukudome, Lindsay N Hayes, Travis E Faust, Catherine A Foss, Mari A Kondo, Brian J Lee, Atsushi Saito, Shin-Ichi Kano, Jennifer M Coughlin, Atsushi Kamiya, Martin G Pomper, Akira Sawa, Minae Niwa
Changes in inflammatory cascades have been implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of psychosis. Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has been used to assess neuroinflammatory processes in psychotic disorders. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether TSPO, a mitochondrial protein, can be interpreted as a general marker for inflammation in diseases involving psychosis. To address this question, we investigated TSPO signaling in representative mouse models for psychosis with inflammatory disturbances. The maternal immune activation and cuprizone short-term exposure models show different TSPO signaling...
February 2, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395871/clinically-significant-personality-traits-in-individuals-at-high-risk-of-developing-psychosis
#19
Julia Sevilla-Llewellyn-Jones, Gustavo Camino, Debra A Russo, Michelle Painter, Angel L Montejo, Susana Ochoa, Peter B Jones, Jesus Perez
It is still unclear to what extent personality may influence the development of psychosis. We aimed to explore significant personality traits in individuals at high-risk (HR) for psychosis. Personalities of forty HR individuals and a matched sample of 40 healthy volunteers (HVs) were evaluated with the Millon Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III). They were also assessed with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI-II and BAI), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 6...
March 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388323/effects-of-repeated-long-term-psychosocial-stress-and-acute-cannabinoid-exposure-on-mouse-corticostriatal-circuitries-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#20
Jordi Tomas-Roig, Fabiana Piscitelli, Vanesa Gil, Ester Quintana, Lluís L Ramió-Torrentà, Jose Antonio Del Río, Timothy Patrick Moore, Hope Agbemenyah, Gabriela Salinas, Claudia Pommerenke, Stephan Lorenzen, Tim Beißbarth, Sigrid Hoyer-Fender, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke
INTRODUCTION: Vulnerability to psychiatric manifestations is achieved by the influence of genetic and environment including stress and cannabis consumption. Here, we used a psychosocial stress model based on resident-intruder confrontations to study the brain corticostriatal-function, since deregulation of corticostriatal circuitries has been reported in many psychiatric disorders. CB1 receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system and particularly, in both cortex and striatum brain structures...
January 31, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
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