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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156240/mental-files-theory-of-mind-when-do-children-consider-agents-acquainted-with-different-object-identities
#1
Michael Huemer, Josef Perner, Brian Leahy
Mental files theory explains why children pass many perspective taking tasks like the false belief test around age 4 (Perner & Leahy, 2016). It also explains why older children struggle to understand that beliefs about an object depend on how one is acquainted with it (intensionality or aspectuality). If Heinz looks at an object that is both a die and an eraser, but cannot tell by looking that it is an eraser, he will not reach for it if he needs an eraser. Four- to 6-year olds find this difficult (Apperly & Robinson, 1998)...
November 16, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156228/effect-of-abiotic-and-biotic-stress-factors-analysis-using-machine-learning-methods-in-zebrafish
#2
Rajasekar Gutha, Suresh Yarrappagaari, Lavanya Thopireddy, Kesireddy Sathyavelu Reddy, Rajeswara Reddy Saddala
In order to understand the mechanisms underlying stress responses, meta-analysis of transcriptome is made to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their biological, molecular and cellular mechanisms in response to stressors. The present study is aimed at identifying the effect of abiotic and biotic stress factors, and it is found that several stress responsive genes are common for both abiotic and biotic stress factors in zebrafish. The meta-analysis of micro-array studies revealed that almost 4...
November 11, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154804/event-related-brain-potentials-and-the-study-of-reward-processing-methodological-considerations
#3
REVIEW
Olave E Krigolson
There is growing interest in using electroencephalography and specifically the event-related brain potential (ERP) methodology to study human reward processing. Since the discovery of the feedback related negativity (Miltner et al., 1997) and the development of theories associating the feedback related negativity and more recently the reward positivity with reinforcement learning, midbrain dopamine function, and the anterior cingulate cortex (i.e., Holroyd and Coles, 2002) researchers have used the ERP methodology to probe the neural basis of reward learning in humans...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154128/discrete-circuits-support-generalized-versus-context-specific-vocal-learning-in-the-songbird
#4
Lucas Y Tian, Michael S Brainard
Motor skills depend on the reuse of individual gestures in multiple sequential contexts (e.g., a single phoneme in different words). Yet optimal performance requires that a given gesture be modified appropriately depending on the sequence in which it occurs. To investigate the neural architecture underlying such context-dependent modifications, we studied Bengalese finch song, which, like speech, consists of variable sequences of "syllables." We found that when birds are instructed to modify a syllable in one sequential context, learning generalizes across contexts; however, if unique instruction is provided in different contexts, learning is specific for each context...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154033/measuring-preschool-learning-engagement-in-the-laboratory
#5
Simone E Halliday, Susan D Calkins, Esther M Leerkes
Learning engagement is a critical factor for academic achievement and successful school transitioning. However, current methods of assessing learning engagement in young children are limited to teacher report or classroom observation, which may limit the types of research questions one could assess about this construct. The current study investigated the validity of a novel assessment designed to measure behavioral learning engagement among young children in a standardized laboratory setting and examined how learning engagement in the laboratory relates to future classroom adjustment...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154028/listening-while-reading-promotes-word-learning-from-stories
#6
Alessandra Valentini, Jessie Ricketts, Rachel E Pye, Carmel Houston-Price
Reading and listening to stories fosters vocabulary development. Studies of single word learning suggest that new words are more likely to be learned when both their oral and written forms are provided, compared with when only one form is given. This study explored children's learning of phonological, orthographic, and semantic information about words encountered in a story context. A total of 71 children (8- and 9-year-olds) were exposed to a story containing novel words in one of three conditions: (a) listening, (b) reading, or (c) simultaneous listening and reading ("combined" condition)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153972/uses-of-oral-history-and-digital-storytelling-in-public-health-research-and-practice
#7
E K Tsui, A Starecheski
OBJECTIVES: Oral history (OH) and digital storytelling (DST) have been used in a range of ways in public health, including educating populations about health-protecting practices, advocating for improved clinical care and reflecting on public health efforts to combat infectious disease. Yet, these methods are rarely recognized for their potential to contribute to public health research and practice. The aim of this article is to assess how OH and DST have been used in the health fields and to provide examples of ways that these methods have contributed to work in several domains of public health...
November 15, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153961/welcoming-expertise-bereaved-parents-perceptions-of-the-parent-healthcare-provider-relationship-when-a-critically-ill-child-is-admitted-to-the-paediatric-intensive-care-unit
#8
Ashleigh E Butler, Beverley Copnell, Helen Hall
BACKGROUND: Entering the paediatric intensive care unit with a critically ill child is a stressful experience for parents. In addition to fearing for their child's well-being, parents must navigate both a challenging environment and numerous new relationships with healthcare staff. How parents form relationships with staff and how they perceive both their own and the healthcare providers' roles in this early stage of their paediatric intensive care journey is currently unknown. PURPOSE: This paper explores bereaved parents' perceptions of their role and their relationships with healthcare providers when their child is admitted to the intensive care unit, as part of a larger study exploring their experiences when their child dies in intensive care...
November 15, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153386/new-normative-data-from-the-spanish-language-version-of-the-repeatable-battery-for-the-assessment-of-neuropsychological-status-rbans-form-a
#9
S Muntal, E Doval, D Badenes, L Casas-Hernanz, N Cerulla, N Calzado, M Aguilar
INTRODUCTION: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is frequently used in clinical practice to evaluate cognitive function. It is quick to administer (20-30minutes) and is not influenced by a learning effect. The RBANS includes 4 parallel versions and has a high discriminative ability. Our study provides normative data from the RBANS-E (Spanish-language version of RBANS form A) for a Spanish population aged 20 to 89 years. METHODS: The study included 609 subjects aged 20 to 89 years...
November 15, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153352/-choosing-wisely-in-medical-education
#10
Milena Goldmann, Angelina-Charline Middeke, Nikolai Schuelper, Terese Dehl, Tobias Raupach
Choosing Wisely recommendations address situations where physicians will have to make decisions about further diagnostic and therapeutic steps. Undergraduate medical education needs to equip students with the foundations on which clinical reasoning skills can be acquired and fostered throughout their clinical career. Teaching these skills usually involves patients (e.g., bedside teaching, electives, clinical attachments) but it can also be delivered in the format of formalised small-group, case-based learning...
November 15, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153154/a-100-year-review-from-ascorbic-acid-to-zinc-mineral-and-vitamin-nutrition-of-dairy-cows
#11
W P Weiss
Mineral and vitamin nutrition of dairy cows was studied before the first volume of the Journal of Dairy Science was published and is still actively researched today. The initial studies on mineral nutrition of dairy cows were simple balance experiments (although the methods available at the time for measuring minerals were anything but simple). Output of Ca and P in feces, urine, and milk was subtracted from intake of Ca and P, and if values were negative it was often assumed that cows were lacking in the particular mineral...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152588/the-delivery-science-rapid-analysis-program-a-research-and-operational-partnership-at-kaiser-permanente-northern-california
#12
Julie A Schmittdiel, Rick Dlott, Joseph D Young, Michael B Rothmann, Wendy Dyer, Alyce S Adams
Introduction: Health care researchers and delivery system leaders share a common mission to improve health care quality and outcomes. However, differing timelines, incentives, and priorities are often a barrier to research and operational partnerships. In addition, few funding mechanisms exist to generate and solicit analytic questions that are of interest to both research and to operations within health care settings, and provide rapid results that can be used to improve practice and outcomes...
October 2017: Learn Health Syst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152417/assessing-mongolian-gerbil-emotional-behavior-effects-of-two-shock-intensities-and-response-independent-shocks-during-an-extended-inhibitory-avoidance-task
#13
Camilo Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo González-León, Mónica A Arias-Higuera, Angelo Cardona, Lucia G Medina, Laura García-Muñoz, Christian Sánchez, Julián Cifuentes, Juan Carlos Forigua, Andrea Ortiz, Cesar A Acevedo-Triana, Javier L Rico
Despite step-down inhibitory avoidance procedures that have been widely implemented in rats and mice to study learning and emotion phenomena, performance of other species in these tasks has received less attention. The case of the Mongolian gerbil is of relevance considering the discrepancies in the parameters of the step-down protocols implemented, especially the wide range of foot-shock intensities (i.e., 0.4-4.0 mA), and the lack of information on long-term performance, extinction effects, and behavioral patterning during these tasks...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151843/acquiring-and-preprocessing-leaf-images-for-automated-plant-identification-understanding-the-tradeoff-between-effort-and-information-gain
#14
Michael Rzanny, Marco Seeland, Jana Wäldchen, Patrick Mäder
Background: Automated species identification is a long term research subject. Contrary to flowers and fruits, leaves are available throughout most of the year. Offering margin and texture to characterize a species, they are the most studied organ for automated identification. Substantially matured machine learning techniques generate the need for more training data (aka leaf images). Researchers as well as enthusiasts miss guidance on how to acquire suitable training images in an efficient way...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150759/from-experiment-to-theory-what-can-we-learn-from-growth-curves
#15
Irina Kareva, Georgy Karev
Finding an appropriate functional form to describe population growth based on key properties of a described system allows making justified predictions about future population development. This information can be of vital importance in all areas of research, ranging from cell growth to global demography. Here, we use this connection between theory and observation to pose the following question: what can we infer about intrinsic properties of a population (i.e., degree of heterogeneity, or dependence on external resources) based on which growth function best fits its growth dynamics? We investigate several nonstandard classes of multi-phase growth curves that capture different stages of population growth; these models include hyperbolic-exponential, exponential-linear, exponential-linear-saturation growth patterns...
November 17, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150748/an-evaluation-of-a-rural-community-based-breast-education-and-navigation-program-highlights-and-lessons-learned
#16
Essie Torres, Alice R Richman, Ann M Schreier, Nasreen Vohra, Kathryn Verbanac
Cancer has become the leading cause of death in North Carolina (NC) (North Carolina DHHS, State Center for Health Statistics 2015) and the eastern region of North Carolina (ENC) has experienced greater cancer mortality than the remainder of the state. The Pitt County Breast Wellness Initiative-Education (PCBWI-E) provides culturally tailored breast cancer education and navigation to screening services for uninsured/underinsured women in Pitt and Edgecombe Counties in ENC. PCBWI-E created a network of 23 lay breast health educators, and has educated 735 women on breast health and breast cancer screening guidelines...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150237/-maternal-deaths-due-to-amniotic-fluid-embolism-results-from-the-french-confidential-enquiry-into-maternal-deaths-2010-2012
#17
E Morau, A Proust, J-C Ducloy
Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an unpredictable, dreadful complication of pregnancy or childbirth. EA typically includes in the same lapse of time respiratory, haemodynamic, neurological and hemorrhagic symptoms (from early and severe coagulopathy). Immediate supportive treatment by a multidisciplinary team is the cornerstone of the management. Between 2010 an 2012 in France, 24 deaths were related to AFE giving a maternal mortality ratio of 1/100,000 live births (CI 95% 0.6-1.4). AFE ranks as the second leading cause of direct maternal death...
November 14, 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149972/right-extended-split-liver-transplantation-compared-with-whole-liver-transplantation-lessons-learned-at-a-single-center-in-latin-america-results-from-a-match-case-control-study
#18
S E Gambaro, P Romero, N Pedraza, L Moulin, S Yantorno, D Ramisch, C Rumbo, P Barros-Schelotto, V Descalzi, G E Gondolesi
BACKGROUND: Despite the progressively increasing gap between patients waiting for liver transplant under the Model for End-stage Liver Disease MELD system and the availability of deceased donor organs, the use of right extended split liver grafts (RESLG) has not been accepted by all centers. In this study, we compared the results obtained using RESLG vs a group of matched whole liver graft (WLG) recipients at a single center in Latin America. METHODS: A single-center retrospective review performed between August 2009 and December 2015...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149842/italian-version-of-nursing-students-perception-of-instructor-caring-i-nspic-assessment-of-reliability-and-validity
#19
C Arrigoni, M Puci, A M Grugnetti, L Collivasone, E Fenizia, P Borrelli, E Vellone, R Alvaro, M Piredda, M G De Marinis
BACKGROUND: Clinical experience is an essential component of nursing education since it provides students with the opportunity to construct and develop clinical competencies. Instructor caring is a pivotal facilitator at the forefront of clinical education, playing a key and complex educating role in clinical sectors. For these reasons the aims of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Italian version of NSPIC (I-NSPIC). METHODS: A validation multicentre study was conducted in three different Italian universities...
November 17, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149154/philosophical-issues-and-psychological-variables-that-influence-the-determination-of-opioid-effectiveness-a-narrative-review
#20
Daniel Michael Doleys
BACKGROUND: The prescribing of opioids in the chronic pain setting is often based on the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacogenetics of the drug obtained during development and clinical trials. However, the effectiveness of opioids varies widely and often appears to bear no relationship to the aforementioned variables. The impact of philosophical issues and psychological factors on determining how clinically effective opioid therapy is has often been over looked. OBJECTIVES: This manuscript provides a selective review and narrative summary of the philosophical issues and psychological factors which can influence opioid effectiveness...
November 2017: Pain Physician
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