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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933536/genetic-dissection-of-variation-in-hippocampal-intra-and-infrapyramidal-mossy-fibers-in-the-mouse
#1
Anna Delprato, Wim E Crusio
This chapter describes the genetic analysis of a morphometric neuroanatomic trait. We used the extended BXD family of recombinant inbred mouse strains with the intent to analyze the genetic bases of heritable differences in hippocampal neurocircuitry and to identify Quantitative Trait Loci that underlie these variations. A detailed description of a GeneNetwork analysis is provided using data for the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fiber (IIPMF) terminal fields which are strongly correlated with spatial navigation/radial maze learning...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933164/effect-of-elevated-carbon-dioxide-on-shoal-familiarity-and-metabolism-in-a-coral-reef-fish
#2
Lauren E Nadler, Shaun S Killen, Mark I McCormick, Sue-Ann Watson, Philip L Munday
Atmospheric CO2 is expected to more than double by the end of the century. The resulting changes in ocean chemistry will affect the behaviour, sensory systems and physiology of a range of fish species. Although a number of past studies have examined effects of CO2 in gregarious fishes, most have assessed individuals in social isolation, which can alter individual behaviour and metabolism in social species. Within social groups, a learned familiarity can develop following a prolonged period of interaction between individuals, with fishes preferentially associating with familiar conspecifics because of benefits such as improved social learning and greater foraging opportunities...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933009/effects-of-embodied-learning-and-digital-platform-on-the-retention-of-physics-content-centripetal-force
#3
Mina C Johnson-Glenberg, Colleen Megowan-Romanowicz, David A Birchfield, Caroline Savio-Ramos
Embodiment theory proposes that knowledge is grounded in sensorimotor systems, and that learning can be facilitated to the extent that lessons can be mapped to these systems. This study with 109 college-age participants addresses two overarching questions: (a) how are immediate and delayed learning gains affected by the degree to which a lesson is embodied, and (b) how do the affordances of three different educational platforms affect immediate and delayed learning? Six 50 min-long lessons on centripetal force were created...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932852/evolutionary-connectionism-algorithmic-principles-underlying-the-evolution-of-biological-organisation-in-evo-devo-evo-eco-and-evolutionary-transitions
#4
Richard A Watson, Rob Mills, C L Buckley, Kostas Kouvaris, Adam Jackson, Simon T Powers, Chris Cox, Simon Tudge, Adam Davies, Loizos Kounios, Daniel Power
The mechanisms of variation, selection and inheritance, on which evolution by natural selection depends, are not fixed over evolutionary time. Current evolutionary biology is increasingly focussed on understanding how the evolution of developmental organisations modifies the distribution of phenotypic variation, the evolution of ecological relationships modifies the selective environment, and the evolution of reproductive relationships modifies the heritability of the evolutionary unit. The major transitions in evolution, in particular, involve radical changes in developmental, ecological and reproductive organisations that instantiate variation, selection and inheritance at a higher level of biological organisation...
2016: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932632/not-by-success-alone-role-models-provide-pathways-to-communal-opportunities-in-stem
#5
Melissa A Fuesting, Amanda B Diekman
Because of stereotypes that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields do not fulfill communal goals, communally oriented individuals may select out of STEM. One potential route to engaging and promoting communally oriented individuals in STEM fields is through interactions with advisors or role models in STEM. We first demonstrate the perceived difficulty of finding role models who enact communal behaviors in STEM relative to other fields (Preliminary Study). Communally oriented students reported higher likelihood of observing admired others in math or science (i...
December 8, 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931520/translational-potential-of-long-term-decreases-in-mitochondrial-lipids-in-a-mouse-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#6
Laila Abdullah, James E Evans, Utsav Joshi, Gogce Crynen, Jon Reed, Benoit Mouzon, Stephan Baumann, Hannah Montague, Zuchra Zakirova, Tanja Emmerich, Corbin Bachmeier, Nancy Klimas, Kimberly Sullivan, Michael Mullan, Ghania Ait-Ghezala, Fiona Crawford
Gulf War Illness (GWI) affects 25% of veterans from the 1990-1991 Gulf War (GW) and is accompanied by damage to the brain regions involved in memory processing. After twenty-five years, the chronic pathobiology of GWI is still unexplained. To address this problem, we examined the long-term consequences of GW exposures in an established GWI mouse model to identify biological processes that are relevant to the chronic symptoms of GWI. Three-month old male C57BL6 mice were exposed for 10days to GW agents (pyridostigmine bromide and permethrin)...
November 30, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931207/a-comparative-study-classification-vs-user-based-collaborative-filtering-for-clinical-prediction
#7
Fang Hao, Rachael Hageman Blair
BACKGROUND: Recommender systems have shown tremendous value for the prediction of personalized item recommendations for individuals in a variety of settings (e.g., marketing, e-commerce, etc.). User-based collaborative filtering is a popular recommender system, which leverages an individuals' prior satisfaction with items, as well as the satisfaction of individuals that are "similar". Recently, there have been applications of collaborative filtering based recommender systems for clinical risk prediction...
December 8, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930664/reliable-analysis-of-single-unit-recordings-from-the-human-brain-under-noisy-conditions-tracking-neurons-over-hours
#8
Johannes Niediek, Jan Boström, Christian E Elger, Florian Mormann
Recording extracellulary from neurons in the brains of animals in vivo is among the most established experimental techniques in neuroscience, and has recently become feasible in humans. Many interesting scientific questions can be addressed only when extracellular recordings last several hours, and when individual neurons are tracked throughout the entire recording. Such questions regard, for example, neuronal mechanisms of learning and memory consolidation, and the generation of epileptic seizures. Several difficulties have so far limited the use of extracellular multi-hour recordings in neuroscience: Datasets become huge, and data are necessarily noisy in clinical recording environments...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930379/reliability-validity-and-sensitivity-to-change-overtime-of-the-modified-melasma-area-and-severity-index-score
#9
Doaa A E Abou-Taleb, Ahmed K Ibrahim, Eman M K Youssef, Alaa E A Moubasher
BACKGROUND: The new modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI) score, the recently used outcome measure for melasma, has not been tested to determine its sensitivity to change in melasma. OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change overtime of the mMASI score in assessment of the severity of melasma. METHODS: Pearson correlation, Cronbach alpha, and intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated to assess the reliability of the mMASI score...
December 2, 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928857/further-examination-of-predictors-of-turnover-intention-among-mental-health-professionals
#10
N J Yanchus, D Periard, K Osatuke
: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: When mental health professionals leave organizations, detrimental effects on quality of patient care occur. Reasons for leaving include incivility, lack of autonomy, perceptions of unfair treatment and feeling psychologically unsafe at work. This paper sought to investigate additional reasons why mental health professionals intend to quit or to cognitively withdraw from their jobs. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Past research on this topic is limited in its scope and data...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927595/decreased-cerebral-perfusion-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-patients
#11
Nathalie Doorenweerd, Eve M Dumas, Eidrees Ghariq, Sophie Schmid, Chiara S M Straathof, Arno A W Roest, Beatrijs H Wokke, Erik W van Zwet, Andrew G Webb, Jos G M Hendriksen, Mark A van Buchem, Jan J G M Verschuuren, Iris Asllani, Erik H Niks, Matthias J P van Osch, Hermien E Kan
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by dystrophin gene mutations which lead to the absence of the protein dystrophin. A significant proportion of patients suffer from learning and behavioural disabilities, in addition to muscle weakness. We have previously shown that these patients have a smaller total brain and grey matter volume, and altered white matter microstructure compared to healthy controls. Patients with more distal gene mutations, predicted to affect dystrophin isoforms Dp140 and Dp427, showed greater grey matter reduction...
October 17, 2016: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927220/e-learning-for-research-capacity-strengthening-in-sexual-and-reproductive-health-the-experience-of-the-geneva-foundation-for-medical-education-and-research-and-the-department-of-reproductive-health-and-research-world-health-organization
#12
Karim Abawi, Venkatraman Chandra-Mouli, Igor Toskin, Mario Philip Festin, Lynn Gertiser, Raqibat Idris, Hanan Hamamy, Moazzam Ali, Ameyo Masakhwe Bonventure, Marleen Temmerman, Aldo Campana
: Technological advancement has resulted in the increasing use of e-learning and online education, initially in high-income countries and increasingly in low- and middle-income countries. BACKGROUND: In 2010, the Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and partner institutions, developed an online postgraduate course "From Research to Practice: Training Course in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research"...
December 7, 2016: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926742/modeling-deficits-from-early-auditory-information-processing-to-psychosocial-functioning-in-schizophrenia
#13
Michael L Thomas, Michael F Green, Gerhard Hellemann, Catherine A Sugar, Melissa Tarasenko, Monica E Calkins, Tiffany A Greenwood, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Laura C Lazzeroni, Keith H Nuechterlein, Allen D Radant, Larry J Seidman, Alexandra L Shiluk, Larry J Siever, Jeremy M Silverman, Joyce Sprock, William S Stone, Neal R Swerdlow, Debby W Tsuang, Ming T Tsuang, Bruce I Turetsky, David L Braff, Gregory A Light
Importance: Neurophysiologic measures of early auditory information processing (EAP) are used as endophenotypes in genomic studies and biomarkers in clinical intervention studies. Research in schizophrenia has established correlations among measures of EAP, cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional outcome. Clarifying these associations by determining the pathways through which deficits in EAP affect functioning would suggest when and where to therapeutically intervene. Objectives: To characterize the pathways from EAP to outcome and to estimate the extent to which enhancement of basic information processing might improve cognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926634/consensus-bundle-on-prevention-of-surgical-site-infections-after-major-gynecologic-surgery
#14
Joseph E Pellegrini, Paloma Toledo, David E Soper, William C Bradford, Deborah A Cruz, Barbara S Levy, Lauren A Lemieux
Surgical site infections are the most common complication of surgery in the United States. Of surgeries in women of reproductive age, hysterectomy is one of the most frequently performed, second only to cesarean birth. Therefore, prevention of surgical site infections in women undergoing gynecologic surgery is an ideal topic for a patient safety bundle. The primary purpose of this safety bundle is to provide recommendations that can be implemented into any surgical environment in an effort to reduce the incidence of surgical site infection...
December 2, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925649/the-predictive-value-of-ultrasound-learning-curves-across-simulated-and-clinical-settings
#15
Mette E Madsen, Lone N Nørgaard, Ann Tabor, Lars Konge, Charlotte Ringsted, Martin G Tolsgaard
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore whether learning curves on a virtual-reality (VR) sonographic simulator can be used to predict subsequent learning curves on a physical mannequin and learning curves during clinical training. METHODS: Twenty midwives completed a simulation-based training program in transvaginal sonography. The training was conducted on a VR simulator as well as on a physical mannequin. A subgroup of 6 participants underwent subsequent clinical training...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925613/experience-dependent-hippocampal-pattern-differentiation-prevents-interference-during-subsequent-learning
#16
Serra E Favila, Avi J H Chanales, Brice A Kuhl
The hippocampus is believed to reduce memory interference by disambiguating neural representations of similar events. However, there is limited empirical evidence linking representational overlap in the hippocampus to memory interference. Likewise, it is not fully understood how learning influences overlap among hippocampal representations. Using pattern-based fMRI analyses, we tested for a bidirectional relationship between memory overlap in the human hippocampus and learning. First, we show that learning drives hippocampal representations of similar events apart from one another...
April 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925605/large-scale-sparse-learning-from-noisy-tags-for-semantic-segmentation
#17
Aoxue Li, Zhiwu Lu, Liwei Wang, Peng Han, Ji-Rong Wen
In this paper, we present a large-scale sparse learning (LSSL) approach to solve the challenging task of semantic segmentation of images with noisy tags. Different from the traditional strongly supervised methods that exploit pixel-level labels for semantic segmentation, we make use of much weaker supervision (i.e., noisy tags of images) and then formulate the task of semantic segmentation as a weakly supervised learning (WSL) problem from the view point of noise reduction of superpixel labels. By learning the data manifolds, we transform the WSL problem into an LSSL problem...
December 2, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924874/context-and-auditory-fear-are-differentially-regulated-by-hdac3-activity-in-the-lateral-and-basal-subnuclei-of-the-amygdale
#18
Janine L Kwapis, Yasaman Alaghband, Alberto J López, André O White, Rianne R Campbell, Richard T Dang, Diane Rhee, Ashley V Tran, Allison E Carl, Dina P Matheos, Marcelo A Wood
Histone acetylation is a fundamental epigenetic mechanism that is dynamically regulated during memory formation. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) compete to modulate histone acetylation, allowing for rapid changes in acetylation in response to a learning event. HDACs are known to be powerful negative regulators of memory formation, but it is not clear whether this function depends on HDAC enzymatic activity per se. Here, we tested whether the enzymatic activity of an individual Class I HDAC, HDAC3, plays a role in fear memory formation in subregions of the hippocampus and amygdala...
December 7, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924318/transfer-shape-modeling-towards-high-throughput-microscopy-image-segmentation
#19
Fuyong Xing, Xiaoshuang Shi, Zizhao Zhang, JinZheng Cai, Yuanpu Xie, Lin Yang
In order to deal with ambiguous image appearances in cell segmentation, high-level shape modeling has been introduced to delineate cell boundaries. However, shape modeling usually requires sufficient annotated training shapes, which are often labor intensive or unavailable. Meanwhile, when applying the model to different datasets, it is necessary to repeat the tedious annotation process to generate enough training data, and this will significantly limit the applicability of the model. In this paper, we propose to transfer shape modeling learned from an existing but different dataset (e...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924290/data-on-multicultural-education-and-diagnostic-information-profiling-culture-learning-styles-and-creativity
#20
Andino Maseleno, Glenn Hardaker, Noraisikin Sabani, Nabilah Suhaili
This article contains data related to multicultural education and diagnostic information profiling preliminary findings. It includes the responses of 253 students. The data consists of six sections, i) culture: race, ethnicity, language and identity; ii) learning preferences: physiological and perceptual; iii) cognitive learning styles: physical, emotional and mental; iv) creativity skills and problem solving skills; v) motivation; and vi) students' background knowledge. The data may be used as part of data analytics for specific personalized e-learning platform...
December 2016: Data in Brief
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