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Calcium liver

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936487/platelet-dense-granules-begin-to-selectively-accumulate-mepacrine-during-proplatelet-formation
#1
Hayley A Hanby, Jialing Bao, Ji-Yoon Noh, Danuta Jarocha, Mortimer Poncz, Mitchell J Weiss, Michael S Marks
Platelet dense granules (DGs) are storage organelles for calcium ions, small organic molecules such as ADP and serotonin, and larger polyphosphates that are secreted upon platelet stimulation to enhance platelet activation, adhesion, and stabilization at sites of vascular damage. DGs are thought to fully mature within megakaryocytes (MKs) prior to platelet formation. Here we challenge this notion by exploiting vital fluorescent dyes to distinguish mildly acidic DGs from highly acidic compartments by microscopy in platelets and MKs...
August 22, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935446/mitochondrial-adaptation-in-steatotic-mice
#2
Claudia Einer, Simon Hohenester, Ralf Wimmer, Lena Wottke, Renate Artmann, Sabine Schulz, Christian Gosmann, Alisha Simmons, Christin Leitzinger, Carola Eberhagen, Sabine Borchard, Sabine Schmitt, Stefanie M Hauck, Christine von Toerne, Martin Jastroch, Ellen Walheim, Christian Rust, Alexander L Gerbes, Bastian Popper, Doris Mayr, Max Schnurr, Angelika M Vollmar, Gerald Denk, Hans Zischka
Western lifestyle-associated malnutrition causes steatosis that may progress to liver inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a key factor in promoting this disease. Here we have molecularly, biochemically and biophysically analyzed mitochondria from steatotic wild type and immune-compromised mice fed a Western diet (WD) - enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFAs). WD-mitochondria demonstrated lipidomic changes, a decreased mitochondrial ATP production capacity and a significant sensitivity to calcium...
September 18, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927426/the-acid-sensing-ion-channel-asic2-promotes-invasion-and-metastasis-of-colorectal-cancer-under-acidosis-by-activating-the-calcineurin-nfat1-axis
#3
Zhi-Hang Zhou, Jin-Wen Song, Wen Li, Xue Liu, Liu Cao, Lu-Ming Wan, Ying-Xia Tan, Shou-Ping Ji, Yu-Mei Liang, Feng Gong
BACKGROUND: The tumor acidic microenvironment, a common biochemical event in solid tumors, offers evolutional advantage for tumors cells and even enhances their aggressive phenotype. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the acidic microenvironment-induced invasion and metastasis. METHODS: We examined the expression of the acid-sending ion channel (ASIC) family members after acidic exposure using RT-PCR and immunofluoresence. Gene manipulation was applied to reveal the potential of ASIC2 on invasion, proliferation, colony formation of colorectal cancer (CRC)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926112/chronic-kidney-disease-and-vitamin-d-metabolism-in-human-bone-marrow-derived-mscs
#4
REVIEW
Shuanhu Zhou, Julie Glowacki
Vitamin D that is synthesized in the skin or is ingested undergoes sequential steps of metabolic activation via a cascade of cytochrome P450 enzymatic hydroxylations in the liver and kidney to produce 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1α,25(OH)2 D). There are many tissues that are able to synthesize 1α,25(OH)2 D, but the biological significance of extrarenal hydroxylases is unresolved. Human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (marrow stromal cells, hMSCs) give rise to osteoblasts, and their differentiation is stimulated by 1α,25(OH)2 D...
August 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924233/pharmacological-inhibition-of-camkk2-with-the-selective-antagonist-sto-609-regresses-nafld
#5
Brian York, Feng Li, Fumin Lin, Kathrina L Marcelo, Jianqiang Mao, Adam Dean, Naomi Gonzales, David Gooden, Suman Maity, Cristian Coarfa, Nagireddy Putluri, Anthony R Means
Binding of calcium to its intracellular receptor calmodulin (CaM) activates a family of Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinases. CaMKK2 (Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase kinase 2) is a central member of this kinase family as it controls the actions of a CaMK cascade involving CaMKI, CaMKIV or AMPK. CaMKK2 controls insulin signaling, metabolic homeostasis, inflammation and cancer cell growth highlighting its potential as a therapeutic target for a variety of diseases. STO-609 is a selective, small molecule inhibitor of CaMKK2...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923769/reconstitutable-spray-dried-ultra-fine-dispersion-as-a-robust-platform-for-effective-oral-delivery-of-an-antihyperlipidemic-drug
#6
Mona Basha, Alaa H Salama, Sally El Awdan
The current article highlights the application of spray drying technique to produce an ultra-fine powder encapsulating the antihyperlipidemic drug, atorvastatin calcium (ATV). First, ATV was dissolved in an emulsion formulation, and different carriers (pectin, alginate, chitosan HCl and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose) in two concentrations (1.5 and 3%) were added. Then, these carrier-containing formulations were subjected to spray drying, whereby ultra-fine ATV-loaded spray dried emulsions were produced (ATV-SDE)...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922379/elevating-serotonin-pre-partum-alters-the-holstein-dairy-cow-hepatic-adaptation-to-lactation
#7
Samantha R Weaver, Allan S Prichard, Noah L Maerz, Austin P Prichard, Elizabeth L Endres, Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Matthew S Akins, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Laura L Hernandez
Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915538/long-term-t3-and-t4-treatment-as-an-alternative-to-aerobic-exercise-training-in-improving-cardiac-function-post-myocardial-infarction
#8
Rayane Brinck Teixeira, Alexsandra Zimmer, Alexandre Luz de Castro, Bruna Gazzi de Lima-Seolin, Patrick Türck, Rafaela Siqueira, Adriane Belló-Klein, Pawan K Singal, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo
Here we aimed to compare the beneficial effects of T3 and T4 hormone treatment to those provided by aerobic exercise training in Wistar rats post-myocardial infarction (MI). Rats in one group were SHAM-operated and in the other group were subjected to MI surgery. One week after surgery, the MI group animals either received T3 and T4 hormones by gavage or underwent a low intensity aerobic exercise training protocol on a treadmill, and both treatments lasted until 10 weeks after MI. Untreated SHAM-operated and MI groups were also followed for the same duration...
September 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903979/calcium-dependent-o-glcnac-signaling-drives-liver-autophagy-in-adaptation-to-starvation
#9
Hai-Bin Ruan, Yina Ma, Sara Torres, Bichen Zhang, Colleen Feriod, Ryan M Heck, Kevin Qian, Minnie Fu, Xiuqi Li, Michael H Nathanson, Anton M Bennett, Yongzhan Nie, Barbara E Ehrlich, Xiaoyong Yang
Starvation induces liver autophagy, which is thought to provide nutrients for use by other organs and thereby maintain whole-body homeostasis. Here we demonstrate that O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) is required for glucagon-stimulated liver autophagy and metabolic adaptation to starvation. Genetic ablation of OGT in mouse livers reduces autophagic flux and the production of glucose and ketone bodies. Upon glucagon-induced calcium signaling, calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylates OGT, which in turn promotes O-GlcNAc modification and activation of Ulk proteins by potentiating AMPK-dependent phosphorylation...
September 13, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902456/safety-and-efficacy-of-hydroxyapatite-scaffold-in-the-prevention-of-jaw-osteonecrosis-in-vivo
#10
Adriana Duarte de Almeida, Fernanda Gomes Leite, Marco Vinícius Chaud, Márcia de Araújo Rebelo, Liliane Cristine Ferreira de Souza Borges, Fabia Judice Marques Viroel, Alessandre Hataka, Denise Grotto
Two scaffolds of chitosan/sodium alginate/hydroxyapatite (Ch/NaAlg/Hap) 1:1:0.2 and 1:1:0.6 were evaluated in the prevention of bisphosphonate-induced jaw osteonecrosis. Two groups of rats (n = 24, according to the euthanasia time: 15 or 30 days after the last Zoledronic acid (ZA) administration) were subdivided in four subgroups (n = 6): I - Control (saline + teeth extraction); II - ZA 0.6 mg/kg + teeth extraction; III - ZA + teeth extraction + scaffold 1:1:0.2; IV - ZA + teeth extraction + scaffold 1:1:0...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900935/metabolic-disorders-and-cancer-hepatocyte-store-operated-ca-2-channels-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Eunüs S Ali, Grigori Y Rychkov, Greg J Barritt
In steatotic hepatocytes, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis is substantially altered compared to normal. Decreased Ca(2+) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can lead to ER stress, an important mediator of the progression of liver steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, type 2 diabetes, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCs) in hepatocytes are composed principally of Orai1 and STIM1 proteins. Their main role is the maintenance of adequate Ca(2+) in the lumen of the ER. In steatotic hepatocytes, store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is substantially inhibited...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894435/neuroactive-steroids-receptor-interactions-and-responses
#12
REVIEW
Kald Beshir Tuem, Tesfay Mehari Atey
Neuroactive steroids (NASs) are naturally occurring steroids, which are synthesized centrally as de novo from cholesterol and are classified as pregnane, androstane, and sulfated neurosteroids (NSs). NASs modulate many processes via interacting with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), N-methyl-d-aspartate, serotonin, voltage-gated calcium channels, voltage-dependent anion channels, α-adrenoreceptors, X-receptors of the liver, transient receptor potential channels, microtubule-associated protein 2, neurotrophin nerve growth factor, and σ1 receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885731/a-multifunctional-nanocarrier-for-efficient-trail-based-gene-therapy-against-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-desmoplasia
#13
Chun-Hung Liu, Guann-Gen Chern, Fu-Fei Hsu, Kuan-Wei Huang, Yun-Chieh Sung, Hsi-Chien Huang, Jiantai Timothy Qiu, Sheng-Kai Wang, Chu-Chi Lin, Chien-Hsun Wu, Han-Chung Wu, Jia-Yu Liu, Yunching Chen
The anti-cancer efficacy of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-based therapy is limited due to systemic toxicity, poor bioavailability, and the development of TRAIL-resistance. We developed a tumor-targeted LCPP (Lipid/Calcium/Phosphate/Protamine) nanoparticle (NP) to deliver TRAIL plasmid DNA (pDNA) into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. TRAIL pDNA was encapsulated in a pH stimuli-responsive calcium phosphate (CaP) core, and protamine was added to facilitate nuclear delivery of pDNA. In addition, the intracellular release of Ca(2+) from the CaP core overcame TRAIL resistance via calcium influx-dependent DR5 upregulation...
September 8, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879543/apex-predatory-mammals-as-bioindicator-species-in-environmental-monitoring-of-elements-in-dinaric-alps-croatia
#14
Maja Lazarus, Ankica Sekovanić, Tatjana Orct, Slaven Reljić, Josip Kusak, Jasna Jurasović, Đuro Huber
Tissue element investigations of apex terrestrial mammals are very scarce in Europe. We quantified 16 essential and nonessential elements in the kidney cortex, liver, and muscle tissue of 467 brown bears (Ursus arctos), 125 gray wolves (Canis lupus), one Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), and three golden jackals (Canis aureus) from Croatia by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Renal cadmium (0.6% of animals) and lead (1%) and hepatic lead (5%) were found in toxicologically relevant levels for mammals only in bears, while the other elements were within normal range...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872112/fat-body-organ-culture-system-in-aedes-aegypti-a-vector-of-zika-virus
#15
Hae-Na Chung, Stacy D Rodriguez, Victoria K Carpenter, Julia Vulcan, C Donovan Bailey, Madhugiri Nageswara-Rao, Yiyi Li, Geoffrey M Attardo, Immo A Hansen
The insect fat body plays a central role in insect metabolism and nutrient storage, mirroring functions of the liver and fat tissue in vertebrates. Insect fat body tissue is usually distributed throughout the insect body. However, it is often concentrated in the abdomen and attached to the abdominal body wall. The mosquito fat body is the sole source of yolk proteins, which are critical for egg production. Therefore, the in vitro culture of mosquito fat body tissues represents an important system for the study of mosquito physiology, metabolism, and, ultimately, egg production...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871240/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-analysis-in-coronary-artery-disease-related-to-type-2-diabetes
#16
Teresa Infante, Ernesto Forte, Marco Aiello, Marco Salvatore, Carlo Cavaliere
AIM: The leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is coronary artery disease (CAD), a condition often asymptomatic but severe in these patients. Although glucose metabolism impairment and oxidative stress are known actors in the endothelial dysfunction/remodeling that occurs in diabetic patients, the relationship between cardiovascular disorders and DM is not fully understood. We have performed both an in vivo imaging and in vitro molecular analysis to investigate diabetic-specific CAD alterations...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869732/-effect-of-calcium-on-sporulation-of-taiwanofungus-camphoratus-in-submerged-fermentation
#17
Huaxiang Li, Zhenming Lu, Qing Zhu, Yan Geng, Jinsong Shi, Zhenghong Xu, Yanhe Ma
Taiwanofungus camphoratus is a valuable and rare medicinal mushroom with various bioactivities, such as liver protection and anti-cancer. T. camphoratus can produce many arthroconidia at the end of submerged fermentation, but molecular mechanism underlying this submerged conidiation remains unknown. In this study, we found that Ca²⁺ concentration in culture medium significantly affected the arthroconidium production of T. camphoratus. Then, we identified two proteins (CaM and HSP90) involved in Ca²⁺/calmodulin signaling pathway and one protein (AbaA) involved in FluG-mediated conidiation pathway by two-dimensional electrophoresis analyses...
July 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868183/effect-of-replenishment-of-vitamin-d-on-survival-in-patients-with-decompensated-liver-cirrhosis-a-prospective-study
#18
Ashish Kumar Jha, Sharad Kumar Jha, Amarendra Kumar, Vishwa Mohan Dayal, Sanjeev Kumar Jha
AIM: To assess the vitamin D (VD) deficiency as a prognostic factor and effect of replenishment of VD on mortality in decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: Patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis were screened for serum VD levels. A total of 101 VD deficient patients (< 20 ng/mL) were randomly enrolled in two groups: Treatment group (n = 51) and control group (n = 50). Treatment group received VD treatment in the form of intramuscular cholecalciferol 300000 IU as loading dose and 800 IU/d oral as maintenance dose along with 1000 mg oral calcium supplementation...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865222/evaluation-of-intra-testicular-injections-of-calcium-chloride-and-4-vinylcyclohexene-1-2-monoepoxide-for-chemical-sterilization-in-guinea-pigs
#19
C C Sen, N Yumusak, R Faundez, F Temamogullari, A Taskin
This study was aimed at investigating the use of intra-testicular calcium chloride (CaCl2) and 4-vinylcyclohexene 1,2-monoepoxide (VCM) injections as a side effect-free alternative method for the control of reproduction in guinea pigs. Fifty male guinea pigs were randomly assigned to five groups. In all groups, the chemical agents were injected into both testes in 1% lidocaine hydrochloride. While Groups I, II and III were administered with a single dose (0.25 mL) of sterile physiological saline, 15 mg/100 g CaCl2, and 240 mg/kg VCM, respectively, Group IV and V received a daily dose of 15 mg/100 g CaCl2, and 240 mg/kg VCM for 3 days, respectively...
March 1, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859746/oxalosis-in-a-patient-with-livedo-reticularis
#20
Meriam Triki, Meriem Ksentini, Rim Kallel, Emna Bahloul, Faiçal Jarraya, Abderrahmen Masmoudi, Tahya Boudawara
A 27-year-old man with terminal renal failure requiring peritoneal dialysis for the past 2 years was referred to the dermatologist for evaluation of red violaceous macular skin lesions consistent with livedo reticularis. These lesions had appeared suddenly on his legs (Figure 1). He had first experienced recurrent nephrolithiasis at the age of 14. Results from urine analysis and abdominal ultrasound revealed chronic kidney failure. Because the patient had a sister with similar findings, primary hyperoxaluria (PH) was suspected and genetic testing was performed in all members of his family...
2017: Skinmed
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