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Calcium liver

Chia-Wen Hsu, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Ruili Huang, Dirk Pijnenburg, Thai Khuc, Jon Hamm, Jinghua Zhao, Caitlin Lynch, Rinie van Beuningen, Xiaoqing Chang, Rene Houtman, Menghang Xia
Chemicals that alter normal function of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) have been shown to affect the homeostasis of bile acids, glucose, and lipids. Several structural classes of environmental chemicals and drugs that modulated FXR transactivation were previously identified by quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) of the Tox21 10K chemical collection. In the present study, we validated the FXR antagonist activity of selected structural classes, including avermectin anthelmintics, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, 1,3-indandione rodenticides, and pyrethroid pesticides, using in vitro assay and quantitative structural-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis approaches...
October 20, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Muhammad Rafehi, Joachim C Burbiel, Isaac Y Attah, Aliaa Abdelrahman, Christa E Müller
The Gq protein-coupled, ATP- and UTP-activated P2Y2 receptor is a potential drug target for a range of different disorders, including tumor metastasis, inflammation, atherosclerosis, kidney disorders, and osteoporosis, but pharmacological studies are impeded by the limited availability of suitable antagonists. One of the most potent and selective antagonists is the thiouracil derivative AR-C118925. However, this compound was until recently not commercially available and little is known about its properties...
October 20, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
Stefano Fiorucci, Angela Zampella, Giuseppe Cirino, Mariarosaria Bucci, Eleonora Distrutti
Bile acids are end product of cholesterol metabolism generated in the liver and released in the intestine. In addition to their role in nutrient absorption, bile acids are increasingly recognized as regulatory signals which exert their function beyond the intestine by activating a network of membrane and nuclear receptors. The best characterized of these bile acid activated receptors, GPBAR1 (also known as TGR5) and the Farnesosid-x-receptor (FXR) have also been detected in the vascular system and their activation mediate the vasodilatory effects of bile acids in the systemic and splanchnic circulation...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Deliang Li, Jie Pi, Jianping Wang, Pengfei Zhu, Liuping Lei, Ting Zhang, Deming Liu
Discovering cost effective strategies to reduce cadmium (Cd) uptake is of great concern for consumer food safety in the aquaculture industry. This study investigated the protective effects of calcium (Ca) on Cd uptake in co-cultured silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and triangle sail mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii). The results show that Ca-depending on its applied concentration-caused a significant decrease in the Cd uptake into muscle (by 48 %-72 %), gills (by 51 %-57 %), liver (by 52 %-81 %) and kidney (by 54 %-81 %) of silver carp (p < 0...
October 19, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mitsutoshi Asakura, Fumika Karaki, Hideaki Fujii, Koichiro Atsuda, Tomoo Itoh, Ryoichi Fujiwara
Vildagliptin is a potent, orally active inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been reported that vildagliptin can cause hepatic dysfunction in patients. However, the molecular-mechanism of vildagliptin-induced liver dysfunction has not been elucidated. In this study, we employed an expression microarray to determine hepatic genes that were highly regulated by vildagliptin in mice. We found that pro-inflammatory S100 calcium-binding protein (S100) a8 and S100a9 were induced more than 5-fold by vildagliptin in the mouse liver...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yaser Atlasi, Rubina Noori, Ivana Marolin, Patrick Franken, Joana Brandao, Katharina Biermann, Paola Collini, Mariam Grigorian, Eugene Lukanidin, Noona Ambartsumian, Riccardo Fodde
INTRODUCTION: S100a4 is a calcium-binding protein belonging to the family of S100-proteins, highly expressed in different stromal cell types. S100A4 has been reported as a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer in association with tumour progression and metastasis. METHODS: In this study, we analysed the in vivo role of S100a4 in intestinal tumour initiation and progression using different transgenic and knockout mouse models. RESULTS: We found that genetic ablation or overexpression of S100a4 in both Apc- and Smad4-mutant mice do not affect tumour initiation in the intestinal tract...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Tiantian Luo, Jing Hu, Dan Xi, Haowei Xiong, Wenshuai He, Jichen Liu, Menghao Li, Hao Lu, Jinzhen Zhao, Wenyan Lai, Zhigang Guo
Previously, we reported that heat shock protein (HSP)65 impairs the effects of high-density lipoprotein on macrophages. We also showed that immune response activation adversely affects reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). In this study, we investigated the effects of the Src family kinase lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) and elucidated the mechanism underlying HSP65-regulated cholesterol efflux in T cells. We evaluated cell proliferation, Lck expression, and inflammatory cytokine production in Jurkat cells and CD4(+) T cells...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Catherine Daniel, Marie Titecat, Sabine Poiret, Delphine Cayet, Denise Boutillier, Michel Simonet, Jean-Claude Sirard, Nadine Lemaître, Florent Sebbane
BACKGROUND: Pseudotuberculosis is an infection caused by the bacterial enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and is considered to be a significant problem in veterinary medicine. We previously found that intranasal administration of a recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain that secretes the low-calcium response V (LcrV) antigen from Y. pseudotuberculosis (Ll-LcrV) confers protection against a lethal Y. pseudotuberculosis infection. Here, we aimed at characterizing the immunological basis of this LcrV-elicited protective response and at determining the duration of vaccine-induced immunity...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Hiroki Yoshioka, Miki Tanaka, Hirohisa Fujii, Tsunemasa Nonogaki
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of a Sasa veitchii leaf extract (SE) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity. METHODS: Seven-week-old male ddy mice were orally administered SE or saline for seven days. Twenty-four hours after the last SE or saline administration, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 3 g/kg CCl4 or olive oil. The mice from each group were euthanized and bled for plasma analysis 24 h after the CCl4/olive oil injection...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
Sidra Ishaq, Muhammad Adil Rasheed, Muhammad Ashraf, Imran Altaf, Saima Rehmat, Ghulam Fatima
Disinfectants are chemical agents used to eradicate, deactivate or kill microorganisms. Chemical disinfectants especially chlorine compound are extensively used for water sanitization. Among these calcium hypochlorite and chloramines are commonly used now a day. Large number of chemical compounds, drugs and endogenous substances are metabolized by hepatic enzymes known as cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Many chemicals are capable of enzyme induction. Enzyme induction may change the metabolism of other drugs and endogenous substances which may alter the plasma concentration of these chemicals...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Hamid Lorvand Amiri, Shahram Agah, Javad Tolouei Azar, Sharieh Hosseini, Farzad Shidfar, Seyedeh Neda Mousavi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite evidence for beneficial effects of vitamin D, to our knowledge, no study has compared the effects of calcium supplementation with vitamin D on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) regression during a hypo-energetic program. We compared the effect of the vitamin D supplementation with and without calcium on anthropometric measures and biochemical parameters in NAFLD patients during a weight-loss program. METHODS: A 12-week, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in 120 NAFLD patients randomly assigned to receive 25 μg calcitriol (n = 37), 500 mg calcium carbonate + 25 μg calcitriol (n = 37), or placebo (n = 36) every day with their lunch meals while following a weight-loss program...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Veeravich Jaruvongvanich, Kamonkiat Wirunsawanya, Anawin Sanguankeo, Sikarin Upala
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated increased cardiovascular events and mortality. Coronary artery calcium scanning (CAC) is the robust predictor of coronary events in the asymptomatic individuals. Several recent studies have investigated the association between NAFLD and this surrogate marker. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to better characterize the association between NAFLD and CAC. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched through May 2016...
September 17, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
Tomoyuki Yuasa, Kikuko Amo-Shiinoki, Shuhei Ishikura, Mitsuyoshi Takahara, Takaaki Matsuoka, Hideaki Kaneto, Akio Kuroda, Munehide Matsuhisa, Seiichi Hashida
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Soluble insulin receptor (sIR), the ectodomain of the insulin receptor (IR), has been detected in human plasma and its concentration paralleled that of blood glucose. We have previously developed an in vitro model using HepG2 liver-derived cells, which mimics changes in sIR levels in plasma from diabetic patients and shows that calcium-dependent proteases cleave IR extracellularly (a process known as shedding). The present study aimed to reveal the mechanisms of IR cleavage...
September 30, 2016: Diabetologia
Sarah Cheung, Charlotte M Thomas, David J Timson
FH22 has been previously identified as a calcium-binding protein from the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica. It is part of a family of at least four proteins in this organism which combine an EF-hand containing N-terminal domain with a C-terminal dynein light chain-like domain. Here we report further biochemical properties of FH22, which we propose should be renamed FhCaBP1 for consistency with other family members. Molecular modelling predicted that the two domains are linked by a flexible region and that the second EF-hand in the N-terminal domain is most likely the calcium ion binding site...
September 28, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Janina Stauffer, Bineet Panda, Tapio Eeva, Miia Rainio, Petteri Ilmonen
Telomere length may reflect the expected life span and possibly individual quality. Environmental stressors are known to increase oxidative stress and accelerate telomere attrition: however the interactions between redox status and telomere dynamics are not fully understood. We investigated whether exposure to heavy metal pollution is associated with oxidative stress and telomere damage in two insectivorous passerines, the Great tit (Parus major) and the Pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). We were also interested to know whether within-brood competition could influence the nestling redox status or telomere length...
September 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Fumio Goto, Sei Kakinuma, Masato Miyoshi, Tomoyuki Tsunoda, Shun Kaneko, Ayako Sato, Yu Asano, Satoshi Otani, Seishin Azuma, Hiroko Nagata, Fukiko Kawai-Kitahata, Miyako Murakawa, Sayuri Nitta, Yasuhiro Itsui, Mina Nakagawa, Yasuhiro Asahina, Mamoru Watanabe
AIM: Fetal hepatic stem/progenitor cells, called hepatoblasts, play central roles in liver organogenesis; however, molecular mechanisms regulating proliferation and terminal differentiation of such cells have not been completely elucidated. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) is essential for the development of stem cells in various tissues, but its function in regulating the phenotype of hepatoblasts after mid-gestational fetal stage remains unclear. The aim of this study is to clarify a functional role for BMP-4 in proliferation and terminal differentiation of murine hepatoblasts in mid-gestational fetal livers...
September 27, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
S Cheng, W Y So, D Zhang, Q Cheng, B J Boucher, P S Leung
OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of calcitriol (the active hormonal metabolite of vitamin D) on hepatic metabolic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Type 2 diabetic db/db mice were used to investigate the effects of calcitriol on hepatic and systemic metabolic disorders. HepG2 cells cultured in insulin-resistant conditions were used to examine the potential mechanisms for calcitriol-induced changes in hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism...
September 20, 2016: Current Molecular Medicine
Jiancheng Zhao, Xingshun Qi, Feifei Hou, Zheng Ning, Xintong Zhang, Han Deng, Ying Peng, Jing Li, Xiaoxi Wang, Hongyu Li, Xiaozhong Guo
BACKGROUND: QTc interval prolongation is an electrocardiographic abnormality in liver cirrhosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and in-hospital outcomes of QTc interval prolongation in Chinese patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of a total of 1,268 patients with liver cirrhosis who were consecutively admitted to our hospital between January 2011 and June 2014. QTc interval data were collected from the medical records...
September 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Steve Malangone, Christopher J Campen
A 60-year-old man initially presented with pain in the right upper quadrant in October 2010. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen pelvis completed at that time showed a mass at the junction of the body and tail of the pancreas and multiple large liver lesions. A CT-guided liver biopsy revealed low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. The patient was initially started on systemic treatment with sunitinib (Sutent) and octreotide. He developed intolerable side effects, including nausea and migraine. Therapy was discontinued in October 2011, when a CT scan revealed evidence of disease progression...
November 2015: Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology
Deborah Naon, Marta Zaninello, Marta Giacomello, Tatiana Varanita, Francesca Grespi, Sowmya Lakshminaranayan, Annalisa Serafini, Martina Semenzato, Stephanie Herkenne, Maria Isabel Hernández-Alvarez, Antonio Zorzano, Diego De Stefani, Gerald W Dorn, Luca Scorrano
The discovery of the multiple roles of mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) juxtaposition in cell biology often relied upon the exploitation of Mitofusin (Mfn) 2 as an ER-mitochondria tether. However, this established Mfn2 function was recently questioned, calling for a critical re-evaluation of Mfn2's role in ER-mitochondria cross-talk. Electron microscopy and fluorescence-based probes of organelle proximity confirmed that ER-mitochondria juxtaposition was reduced by constitutive or acute Mfn2 deletion...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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