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Calcium liver

Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Seong Lin Teoh
Acrylamide (AA) is a water soluble white crystalline solid commonly used in industries. It was listed as an industrial chemical with potential carcinogenic properties. However to date, AA was used to produce polyacrylamide polymer, which was widely used as a coagulant in water treatment; additives during papermaking; grouting material for dams, tunnels, and other underground building constructions. AA in food could be formed during high-temperature cooking via several mechanisms, i.e., formation via acrylic acid which may be derived from the degradation of lipid, carbohydrates, or free amino acids; formation via the dehydration/decarboxylation of organic acids (malic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid); and direct formation from amino acids...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Vandana Sekhar, Teresa Pollicino, Giacomo Diaz, Ronald E Engle, Farah Alayli, Marta Melis, Juraj Kabat, Ashley Tice, Anna Pomerenke, Nihal Altan-Bonnet, Fausto Zamboni, Paolo Lusso, Suzanne U Emerson, Patrizia Farci
Entry of hepatitis C virus (HCV) into hepatocytes is a complex process that involves numerous cellular factors, including the scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1), the tetraspanin CD81, and the tight junction (TJ) proteins claudin-1 (CLDN1) and occludin (OCLN). Despite expression of all known HCV-entry factors, in vitro models based on hepatoma cell lines do not fully reproduce the in vivo susceptibility of liver cells to primary HCV isolates, implying the existence of additional host factors which are critical for HCV entry and/or replication...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Palida Emmanoch, Nanthawat Kosa, Suksiri Vichasri-Grams, Smarn Tesana, Rudi Grams, Amornrat Geadkaew-Krenc
Four isoforms of calcium binding proteins containing 2 EF hand motifs and a dynein light chain-like domain in the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini , namely OvCaBP1, 2, 3, and 4, were characterized. They had molecular weights of 22.7, 21.6, 23.7, and 22.5 kDa, respectively and showed 37.2-42.1% sequence identity to CaBP22.8 of O. viverrini . All were detected in 2- and 4-week-old immature and mature parasites. Additionally, OvCaBP4 was found in newly excysted juveniles. Polyclonal antibodies against each isoform were generated to detect the native proteins in parasite extracts by Western blot analysis...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Espérance Moine, Nathalie Moiré, Isabelle Dimier-Poisson, Kévin Brunet, William Couet, Cyril Colas, Nathalie Van Langendonck, Cécile Enguehard-Gueiffier, Alain Gueiffier, Bruno Héraut, Caroline Denevault-Sabourin, Françoise Debierre-Grockiego
The current therapeutic arsenal for toxoplasmosis is restricted to drugs non-specific to the parasite which cause important side effects. Development of more efficient and specific anti-Toxoplasma compounds is urgently needed. Imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines (IPs) designed to inhibit the calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 of Toxoplasma gondii (TgCDPK1) and effective against tachyzoite growth in vitro at submicromolar ranges were modified into hydrochloride salts to be administered in vivo in a mouse model of acute toxoplasmosis...
March 7, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Jennifer Rieusset
The contact sites that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms with mitochondria, called mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), are a hot topic in biological research, and both their molecular determinants and their numerous roles in several signaling pathways are is continuously evolving. MAMs allow the exchange between both organelles of lipids, calcium (Ca2+ ), and likely reactive oxygen species, allowing adaptations of both cellular bioenergetics and cell fate depending of cellular needs or stresses. Therefore, it is not surprising that MAMs affect cellular metabolism...
March 9, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Mohammad R Ostovaneh, Bharath Ambale-Venkatesh, Tomoki Fuji, Hooman Bakhshi, Ravi Shah, Venkatesh L Murthy, Russell P Tracy, Eliseo Guallar, Colin O Wu, David A Bluemke, João A C Lima
BACKGROUND: The association of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with liver fibrosis is poorly understood. We aim to assess the association of liver fibrosis by T1-mapping magnetic resonance imaging and CVD in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). METHODS AND RESULTS: MESA enrolled 6814 participants free of clinical CVD at baseline (2000-2002). A subsample of participants underwent T1-mapping magnetic resonance imaging 10 years after the baseline (Y10 MESA exam, 2010-2012)...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Saurabh Dhanda, Smriti Gupta, Avishek Halder, Aditya Sunkaria, Rajat Sandhir
Chronic liver disease per se induces neuroinflammation that contributes to cognitive deficits in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, the processes by which pro-inflammatory molecules result in cognitive impairment still remain unclear. In the present study, a significant increase in the activity of liver function enzymes viz. alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was observed along with increase in plasma ammonia levels after four weeks of bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats suggesting hepatocellular damage...
March 5, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
José Teixeira, Catarina Oliveira, Fernando Cagide, Ricardo Amorim, Jorge Garrido, Fernanda Borges, Paulo J Oliveira
Pharmacological interventions targeting mitochondria present several barriers for a complete efficacy. Therefore, a new mitochondriotropic antioxidant (AntiOxBEN3 ) based on the dietary antioxidant gallic acid was developed. AntiOxBEN3 accumulated several thousand-fold inside isolated rat liver mitochondria, without causing disruption of the oxidative phosphorylation apparatus, as seen by the unchanged respiratory control ratio, phosphorylation efficiency, and transmembrane electric potential. AntiOxBEN3 showed also limited toxicity on human hepatocarcinoma cells...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Eugene Choi, Derek Alsop, Joanna Y Wilson
In this study, we examined if rainbow trout chronically exposed to acetaminophen (10 and 30 μgL-1 ) showed histological changes that coincided with functional changes in the kidney, gill and liver. Histological changes in the kidney included movement and loss of nuclei, non-uniform nuclei size, non-uniform cytoplasmic staining, and loss of tubule integrity. Histological effects were more severe at the higher concentration and coincided with concentration dependent increases in urine flow rate and increased urinary concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, urea, ammonia, glucose, and protein...
February 15, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Kathy S Xue, Guoqing Qian, Shuhan Lin, Jianjia Su, Lili Tang, Wentzel C A Gelderblom, Ronald T Riley, Timothy D Phillips, Jia-Sheng Wang
Populations consuming aflatoxin (AF) and fumonisin (FN)-contaminated foods may be at increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and developmental disorders; consequently, development of intervention strategies to reduce AF/FN-induced liver disease and adverse health effects in humans could be very useful. Calcium montmorillonite clay (NovaSil) has been shown to absorb AF in vitro, in multiple animal models, as well as in human studies. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether uniform particle size NovaSil (UPSN) possessed an ability to modulate the co-carcinogenic potentials of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) and fumonisin B1 (FB1 ) in F344 rats...
February 26, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Fang-Yuan Gong, Zheng Gong, Cui-Cui Duo, Jun Wang, Chao Hong, Xiao-Ming Gao
Calreticulin (CRT), a luminal resident calcium-binding glycoprotein of the cell, is a tumor-associated antigen involved in tumorigenesis and also an autoantigen targeted by autoantibodies found in patients with various autoimmune diseases. We have previously shown that prokaryotically expressed recombinant murine CRT (rCRT) exhibits strong stimulatory activities against monocytes/macrophages in vitro and potent immunogenicity in vivo, which is partially attributable to self-oligomerization of soluble rCRT. However, even in oligomerized form native CRT (nCRT) isolated from mouse liver is much less active than rCRT, arguing against the possibility that self-oligomerization alone would license potent pro-inflammatory properties to nCRT...
February 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yu-Hong Shi, Kai Chen, Wen-Jing Ma, Jiong Chen
The short-chain pentraxins (PTXs), including C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid P (SAP), are soluble pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) that exhibit calcium-dependent binding to bacterial surface molecules. They opsonize pathogens or other particles by phagocytic clearance. However, the detailed functions of short-chain PTXs in teleosts remained unclear. In this study, we identified a short-chain PTX gene from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, and tentatively named as PaCRP/SAP. Sequence analysis revealed that PaCRP/SAP has typical characteristics of fish CRP/SAP and is mostly closely related to rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) SAP...
February 23, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Anne Marie Uwitonze, Mohammed S Razzaque
Nutrients usually act in a coordinated manner in the body. Intestinal absorption and subsequent metabolism of a particular nutrient, to a certain extent, is dependent on the availability of other nutrients. Magnesium and vitamin D are 2 essential nutrients that are necessary for the physiologic functions of various organs. Magnesium assists in the activation of vitamin D, which helps regulate calcium and phosphate homeostasis to influence the growth and maintenance of bones. All of the enzymes that metabolize vitamin D seem to require magnesium, which acts as a cofactor in the enzymatic reactions in the liver and kidneys...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Ecaterina-Constanța Barbu, Cristina-Emilia Chițu-Tișu, Mihai Lazăr, Cristina Olariu, Mihai Bojincă, Răzvan Adrian Ionescu, Daniela Adriana Ion, Ioana Anca Bădărău
Hepatic osteodystrophy is a common and frequently untreated complication, manifested as osteoporosis or osteopenia, encountered in the evolution of chronic liver diseases. This article provides a narrative review of hepatic osteodystrophy. The aim is to revise the prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of hepatic osteodystrophy. We searched medical literature via PubMed, Google Scholar, Wiley, Science Direct, and Springer Link using respective keywords to obtain data on low bone mineral density connected to chronic liver diseases...
September 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
Caroline M Gorvin, Angela Rogers, Michelle Stewart, Anju Paudyal, Tertius A Hough, Lydia Teboul, Sara Wells, Steve Dm Brown, Roger D Cox, Rajesh V Thakker
The adaptor protein-2 sigma subunit (AP2σ), encoded by AP2S1 , forms a heterotetrameric complex, with AP2α, AP2β, and AP2μ subunits, that is pivotal for clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and AP2σ loss-of-function mutations impair internalization of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein-coupled receptor, and cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type-3 (FHH3). Mice with AP2σ mutations that would facilitate investigations of the in vivo role of AP2σ, are not available, and we therefore embarked on establishing such mice...
May 2, 2017: JBMR Plus
Matheus de Castro Fonseca, Andressa França, Rodrigo Machado Florentino, Roberta Cristelli Fonseca, Antônio Carlos Melo, Paula Teixeira Vieira Vidigal, André G Oliveira, Laurent Dubuquoy, Michael H Nathanson, M Fátima Leite
Hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration is a well-coordinated process regulated by the activation of several growth factor receptors, including the insulin receptor (IR). The IR can be localized in part to cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains, but the role of such domains in insulin-mediated events in hepatocytes is not known. We investigated whether partitioning of IRs into cholesterol-enriched membrane rafts is important for the mitogenic effects of insulin in the hepatic cells. IR and lipid rafts were labeled in HepG2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Chunying Gao, Michael Z Liao, Lyrialle W Han, Kenneth E Thummel, Qingcheng Mao
Vitamin D3 is an important prohormone critical for maintaining calcium and phosphate homeostasis in the body and regulating drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. 25OHD3 , the most abundant circulating metabolite of vitamin D3 , is further transformed to the biologically active metabolite 1α,25-(OH)2 D3 by CYP27B1 in the kidney and extra-renal tissues, and to non-active metabolites by other CYP enzymes. In addition, 25OHD3 undergoes sulfonation and glucuronidation in the liver, forming two major conjugative metabolites, 25OHD3 -3- O -sulfate (25OHD3 -S) and 25OHD3 -3- O -glucuronide (25OHD3 -G), both of which were detected in human blood and bile...
February 21, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
D Y Zou, T A Coudron, L S Zhang, X S Gu, W H Xu, X L Liu, H H Wu
An artificial diet formulated for continuous rearing of the predator Arma chinensis was inferior to natural prey when evaluated using life history parameters. A transcriptome analysis identified differentially expressed genes in diet-fed and prey-fed A. chinensis that were suggestive of molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet. Changes in the diet formulation were made based on the transcriptome analysis and tested using life history parameters. The quantity of pig liver, chicken egg, tuna fish, biotin, nicotinamide, vitamin B6, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, L-glutamine, and sucrose was reduced, and wheat germ oil, calcium pantothenate and folic acid were increased...
February 21, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Evangelos Oikonomou, Konstantinos Mourouzis, Petros Fountoulakis, Georgios Angelos Papamikroulis, Gerasimos Siasos, Alexis Antonopoulos, Georgia Vogiatzi, Sotiris Tsalamadris, Manolis Vavuranakis, Dimitris Tousoulis
Heart failure (HF) is a common cardiac syndrome, whose pathophysiology involves complex mechanisms, some of which remain unknown. Diabetes mellitus (DM) constitutes not only a glucose metabolic disorder accompanied by insulin resistance but also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and HF. During the last years though emerging data set up, a bidirectional interrelationship between these two entities. In the case of DM impaired calcium homeostasis, free fatty acid metabolism, redox state, and advance glycation end products may accelerate cardiac dysfunction...
February 17, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Mohamed F Zidan, Hany M Ibrahim, Mohsen I Afouna, Elsherbeny A Ibrahim
The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of complexing the poorly water-soluble drug atorvastatin calcium (AC) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based nanosponges (NS), which offer advantages of improving dissolution rate and eventually oral bioavailability. Blank NS were fabricated at first by reacting β-CD with the cross-linker carbonyldiimidazole at different molar ratios (1:2, 1:4 and 1:8), then NS of highest solubilization extent for AC were complexed with AC. AC loaded NS (AC-NS) were characterized for various physicochemical properties...
February 16, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
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