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Elena Zaikova, Kathleen C Benison, Melanie R Mormile, Sarah Stewart Johnson
The waters of Lake Magic in Western Australia are among the most geochemically extreme on Earth. This ephemeral saline lake is characterized by pH as low as 1.6 salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, and unusually complex geochemistry, including extremely high concentrations of aluminum, silica, and iron. We examined the microbial composition and putative function in this extreme acid brine environment by analyzing lake water, groundwater, and sediment samples collected during the austral summer near peak evapoconcentration...
January 19, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Amory H Danek, Joshua Williams, Jennifer Wiley
Two hallmarks of insightful problem solving are thought to be suddenness in the emergence of solution due to changes in problem representation, and the subjective Aha! EXPERIENCE: Although a number of studies have explored the Aha! experience, few studies have attempted to measure representational change. Following the lead of Durso et al. (Psychol Sci 5(2):94-97, 1994) and Cushen and Wiley (Conscious Cognit 21(3):1166-1175, 2012), in this study, participants made importance-to-solution ratings throughout their solution attempts as a way to assess representational change...
January 18, 2018: Psychological Research
H M Frazão, J G Peixoto de Faria, G Q Pellegrino, M C Nemes
In this work we study an effective three-mode model describing interacting bosons. These bosons can be considered as exciton-polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity at the magic angle. This model exhibits quantum phase transition (QPT) when the parameters of the corresponding Hamiltonian are continuously varied. The properties of the Hamiltonian spectrum (e.g., the distance between two adjacent energy levels) and the phase space structure of the thermodynamic limit of the model are used to indicate QPT. The relation between spectral properties of the Hamiltonian and the corresponding classical frame of the thermodynamic limit of the model is established as indicative of QPT...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Haiping Zhao, Ziping Han, Guangwen Li, Sijia Zhang, Yumin Luo
Owing to a dramatic increase in average life expectancy, most countries in the world are rapidly entering an aging society. Therefore, extending health span with pharmacological agents targeting aging-related pathological changes, are now in the spotlight of gerosciences. Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen, a species of the genus Panax, has been called the "Miracle Root for the Preservation of Life," and has long been used as a Chinese herb with magical medicinal value. Panax notoginseng has been extensively employed in China to treat microcirculatory disturbances, inflammation, trauma, internal and external bleeding due to injury, and as a tonic...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
Juan Bermejo-Vega, Nicolas Delfosse, Dan E Browne, Cihan Okay, Robert Raussendorf
A central question in quantum computation is to identify the resources that are responsible for quantum speed-up. Quantum contextuality has been recently shown to be a resource for quantum computation with magic states for odd-prime dimensional qudits and two-dimensional systems with real wave functions. The phenomenon of state-independent contextuality poses a priori an obstruction to characterizing the case of regular qubits, the fundamental building block of quantum computation. Here, we establish contextuality of magic states as a necessary resource for a large class of quantum computation schemes on qubits...
September 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Julien Detour, Caroline Bund, Charles Behr, Hélène Cebula, Ercument A Cicek, Maria-Paola Valenti-Hirsch, Béatrice Lannes, Benoît Lhermitte, Astrid Nehlig, Pierre Kehrli, François Proust, Edouard Hirsch, Izzie-Jacques Namer
OBJECTIVE: Within a complex systems biology perspective, we wished to assess whether hippocampi with established neuropathological features have distinct metabolome. Apparently normal hippocampi with no signs of sclerosis (noHS), were compared to hippocampal sclerosis (HS) type 1 (HS1) and/or type 2 (HS2). Hippocampus metabolome from patients with epilepsy-associated neuroepithelial tumors (EANTs), namely, gangliogliomas (GGs) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs), was also compared to noHS epileptiform tissue...
January 17, 2018: Epilepsia
Bailey C E Peck, Randy J Seeley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic surgery is recommended for the treatment of type 2 diabetes for its potent ability to improve glycemic control. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of metabolic surgery are still under investigation. We provide an updated review of recent studies into the molecular underpinnings of metabolic surgery, focusing in on what is known about the role of gut microbiota. Over the last 7 years several reports have been published on the topic, however the field is expanding rapidly...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Jiadong Zhou, Wenqiang Zhang, Xiao-Fang Jiang, Cong Wang, Xuehong Zhou, Biao Xu, Linlin Liu, Zengqi Xie, Yuguang Ma
A single crystal of perylene bisimide possesses novel magic-angle stacking and strong intermolecular π-π interaction is achieved by physical vapor transport (PVT), which shows attractive optoelectronic functions such as efficient NIR emission and high electron mobility. In this special M-type staking, the elimination of long-distance Förster energy transfer enables the minimization of the possible fluorescence quenching, which ensures the highly efficient emission. Moreover, the strong π-π interaction elongates the "supramolecular conjugation" to reduce the energy gap and also benefit the electron mobility of the crystal...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Tao Liu, Alexander A Penin
We study the high-energy fixed-angle Sudakov limit of the scattering amplitudes suppressed by the leading power of the quark mass in perturbative quantum chromodynamics. We prove the factorization and perform all-order resummation of the double-logarithmic radiative corrections which determine the asymptotic behavior of the amplitudes. In contrast to the Sudakov logarithms, the mass-suppressed double-logarithmic corrections are induced by soft quark exchange. The structure of the corrections and the asymptotic behavior of the amplitudes in this case crucially depend on the color flow in a given process and are determined by the eikonal color charge nonconservation...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Steven J Staffa, David Zurakowski
In clinical research, the gold standard level of evidence is the randomized controlled trial (RCT). The availability of nonrandomized retrospective data is growing; however, a primary concern of analyzing such data is comparability of the treatment groups with respect to confounding variables. Propensity score matching (PSM) aims to equate treatment groups with respect to measured baseline covariates to achieve a comparison with reduced selection bias. It is a valuable statistical methodology that mimics the RCT, and it may create an "apples to apples" comparison while reducing bias due to confounding...
January 9, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Pierluigi Mazzei, Vincenza Cozzolino, Alessandro Piccolo
Both High-Resolution Magic-Angle-Spinning (HRMAS) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) NMR spectroscopies were applied here to identify the changes of metabolome, morphology and structural properties induced in seeds (caryopses) of maize plants grown at field level under either mineral or compost fertilization in combination with the inoculation by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF). The metabolome of intact caryopses was examined by HRMAS-NMR, while the morphological aspects, endosperm properties and seed water distribution were investigated by MRI...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Arpine Hovasapian, Linda J Levine
Social sharing of positive life experiences has been linked to increased intensity of positive emotion. Less is known about the relations among sharing, the perceived response of the listener, and the duration of positive emotion. We hypothesised that sharing an experience would sustain positive emotion when listeners responded in a manner that highlighted the appraised importance and remarkability of the experience, thereby slowing hedonic adaptation. College students who received a desirable exam grade (N = 165) reported their emotional response, appraisals, and sharing on the day they received their grade and again the following evening...
January 10, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Thomas Wittmann, Arobendo Mondal, Carsten B L Tschense, Johannes J Wittmann, Ottokar Klimm, Renée Siegel, Björn Corzilius, Birgit Weber, Martin Kaupp, Jürgen Senker
Understanding host-guest interactions is one of the key-requirements for adjusting properties in metal-organic frameworks. In particular, systems with coordinatively unsaturated Lewis acidic metal sites feature highly selective adsorption processes. This is attributed to strong interactions with Lewis basic guest molecules. Here we show, that a combination of 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy with state-of-the-art DFT calculations allows to unravel the interactions of water, 2‑aminopyridine, 3-aminopyridine and diethylamine with the open metal sites in Cr-MIL-101...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Andrew Ritchhart, Brandi Cossairt
We have synthesized InP nanocrystals of an unprecedented crystal phase at low temperature (35 - 100 °C) by templated growth of InP magic-sized clusters. With the addition of stoichiometric equivalents of P(SiMe3)3 to the starting cluster, we demonstrate nanocrystal growth mediated through a partial dissolution and recrystallization pathway. This growth process was monitored using a combination of in situ UV-Vis and 31P NMR spectroscopy, revealing the intermediacy of smaller cluster species of higher symmetry...
January 5, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
R C Brown, N B Phillips, K Beloy, W F McGrew, M Schioppo, R J Fasano, G Milani, X Zhang, N Hinkley, H Leopardi, T H Yoon, D Nicolodi, T M Fortier, A D Ludlow
Optical clocks benefit from tight atomic confinement enabling extended interrogation times as well as Doppler- and recoil-free operation. However, these benefits come at the cost of frequency shifts that, if not properly controlled, may degrade clock accuracy. Numerous theoretical studies have predicted optical lattice clock frequency shifts that scale nonlinearly with trap depth. To experimentally observe and constrain these shifts in an ^{171}Yb optical lattice clock, we construct a lattice enhancement cavity that exaggerates the light shifts...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Marko Förstel, Bertram K A Jaeger, Wolfgang Schewe, Philipp H A Sporkhorst, Otto Dopfer
We describe two improvements to an existing tandem mass spectrometer coupled to a laser vaporization cluster ion source suitable for photodissociation spectroscopy: (i) cooling of the cluster source nozzle and (ii) mass selection prior to the photodissociation region via replacing an octupole ion guide by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The improved sensitivity and transmission enable the production of larger heteroatomic clusters as well as rare gas solvated clusters. We present two examples demonstrating the new capabilities of the improved setup...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Ben Field
The hyperphosphorylated nucleotides guanosine pentaphosphate and tetraphosphate (together referred to as (p)ppGpp, or magic spot) orchestrate a signalling cascade in bacteria that controls growth under optimal conditions and in response to environmental stress. (p)ppGpp is also found in the chloroplasts of plants and algae where it is has also been shown to accumulate in response to abiotic stress. Recent studies suggest that (p)ppGpp is a potent inhibitor of chloroplast gene expression in vivo, and is a significant regulator of chloroplast function that can influence both the growth and the development of plants...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Kadri Haljas, Azmeraw T Amare, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, Thomas Mosley, Anne Newman, Joanne Murabito, Henning Tiemeier, Toshiko Tanaka, Cornelia van Duijn, Jingzhong Ding, David J Llewellyn, David A Bennett, Antonio Terracciano, Lenore Launer, Karl-Heinz Ladwig, Marylin C Cornelis, Alexander Teumer, Hans Grabe, Sharon L R Kardia, Erin B Ware, Jennifer A Smith, Harold Snieder, Johan G Eriksson, Leif Groop, Katri Räikkönen, Jari Lahti
OBJECTIVE: Shared genetic background may explain phenotypic associations between depression and Type-2-Diabetes (T2D). We aimed to study, on a genome-wide level, if genetic correlation and pleiotropic loci exist between depressive symptoms and T2D or glycemic traits. METHODS: We estimated SNP-based heritability and analyzed genetic correlation between depressive symptoms and T2D and glycemic traits with the LD Score Regression (LDSC) by combining summary statistics of previously conducted meta-analyses for depressive symptoms by CHARGE consortium (N = 51,258), T2D by Diagram consortium (N = 34,840 patients and 114,981 controls), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-β, and HOMA-IR by MAGIC consortium (N = 58,074)...
December 27, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
Benedict H M Kent
Scholars of Luke-Acts have struggled to define the apostles' proclamations of judgment on those who threatened the early Christian community. Ananias and Sapphira (Acts 4.32-5.11), Simon magus (8.4-25) and Bar-Jesus (13.4-12) all fall victim to the apostles' words of power, yet scholars have typically shied away from categorizing their speeches as curses. Close analysis of the structure, style, phonaesthetic and dramatic aspects of the Greek texts suggests, however, that Luke indeed intends the apostles' speeches to be heard as curses whilst simultaneously presenting them as legitimate acts of power...
June 2017: J Study New Testam
Yufei Yang, Shenlin Wang
The structures of RNAs, which play critical roles in various biological processes, provide important clues and insights into the biological functions of these molecules. However, RNA structure determination remains a challenging topic. In recent years, magic-angle-spinning solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS SSNMR) has emerged as an alternative technique for structural and dynamic characterization of RNA. MAS SSNMR has been successfully applied to provide atomic-level structural information about several RNA molecules and RNA-protein complexes...
December 25, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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