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William Hall, Iestyn Williams, Neale Smith, Marthe Gold, Joanna Coast, Lydia Kapiriri, M Danis, Craig Mitton
Purpose Current conditions have intensified the need for health systems to engage in the difficult task of priority setting. As the search for a "magic bullet" is replaced by an appreciation for the interplay between evidence, interests, culture, and outcomes, progress in relation to these dimensions requires assessment of achievements to date and identification of areas where knowledge and practice require attention most urgently. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach An international survey was administered to experts in the area of priority setting...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
Pamela H Russell, Brian Vestal, Wen Shi, Pratyaydipta D Rudra, Robin Dowell, Richard Radcliffe, Laura Saba, Katerina Kechris
OBJECTIVE: Many tools have been developed to profile microRNA (miRNA) expression from small RNA-seq data. These tools must contend with several issues: the small size of miRNAs, the small number of unique miRNAs, the fact that similar miRNAs can be transcribed from multiple loci, and the presence of miRNA isoforms known as isomiRs. Methods failing to address these issues can return misleading information. We propose a novel quantification method designed to address these concerns. RESULTS: We present miR-MaGiC, a novel miRNA quantification method, implemented as a cross-platform tool in Java...
May 15, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Suresh K Vasa, Petra Rovó, Rasmus Linser
Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) is a spectroscopic technique that is used for characterization of molecular properties in the solid phase at atomic resolution. In particular, using the approach of magic-angle spinning (MAS), ssNMR has seen widespread applications for topics ranging from material sciences to catalysis, metabolomics, and structural biology, where both isotropic and anisotropic parameters can be exploited for a detailed assessment of molecular properties. High-resolution detection of protons long represented the holy grail of the field...
May 15, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Thomas Günter Mayerhöfer
Using linear polarized light, it is possible in case of ordered structures, such as stretched polymers or single crystals, to determine the orientation of the transition moments of electronic and vibrational transitions. This not only helps to resolve overlapping bands, but also assigning the symmetry species of the transitions and to elucidate the structure. To perform spectral evaluation quantitatively, a sometimes "Linear Dichroism Theory" called approach is very often used. This approach links the relative orientation of the transition moment and polarization direction to the quantity absorbance...
May 15, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Dikai Zhu, Juan Hui, Nelson Rowell, Yuanyuan Liu, Queena Y Chen, Tristan Steegemans, Hongsong Fan, Meng Zhang, Kui Yu
Colloidal semiconductor magic-size clusters (MSCs), a crucial link between molecular and bulk materials, have attracted attention in the past three decades. However, the identification of their nonbandgap electronic transitions via optical absorption has been challenging due to the possible presence of other-bandgap ensembles in synthetic batches. For CdSe MSC-415, referred to as the optical absorption (1S(e)-1S3/2 (h)) in nanometers of wavelength, we report our exploration on the origin of two commonly documented absorption peaks at 381 and 351 nm...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Barbara Willekens, Nathalie Cools
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and impaired repair mechanisms that lead to neurological disability. The crux of MS is the patient's own immune cells attacking self-antigens in the CNS, namely the myelin sheath that protects nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord. Restoring antigen-specific tolerance via therapeutic vaccination is an innovative and exciting approach in MS therapy. Indeed, leveraging the body's attempt to prevent autoimmunity, i...
May 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
T D Morris, J Simonis, S R Stroberg, C Stumpf, G Hagen, J D Holt, G R Jansen, T Papenbrock, R Roth, A Schwenk
We link the structure of nuclei around ^{100}Sn, the heaviest doubly magic nucleus with equal neutron and proton numbers (N=Z=50), to nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (NNN) forces constrained by data of few-nucleon systems. Our results indicate that ^{100}Sn is doubly magic, and we predict its quadrupole collectivity. We present precise computations of ^{101}Sn based on three-particle-two-hole excitations of ^{100}Sn, and we find that one interaction accurately reproduces the small splitting between the lowest J^{π}=7/2^{+} and 5/2^{+} states...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Manman Lu, Sucharita Sarkar, Mingzhang Wang, Jodi Kraus, Matthew Fritz, Caitlin M Quinn, Shi Bai, Sean Holmes, Cecil Dybowski, Glenn P A Yap, Jochem O Struppe, Ivan V Sergeyev, Werner E Maas, Angela M Gronenborn, Tatyana Polenova
The 19 F chemical shift is a sensitive NMR probe of structure and electronic environment in organic and biological molecules. In this report we examine chemical shift parameters of 4F-, 5F-, 6F-, and 7F-substituted crystalline tryptophan by magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT). Significant narrowing of the 19 F lines was observed under fast MAS conditions, at spinning frequencies above 50 kHz. The parameters characterizing the 19 F chemical shift tensor are sensitive to the position of the fluorine in the aromatic ring and, to a lesser extent, the chirality of the molecule...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Andrea J R Balthasar, Torre M Bydlon, Hans Ippel, Marjolein van der Voort, Benno H W Hendriks, Gerald W Lucassen, Geert-Jan van Geffen, Maarten van Kleef, Paul van Dijk, Arno Lataster
BACKGROUND: During several anesthesiological procedures, needles are inserted through the skin of a patient to target nerves. In most cases, the needle traverses several tissues-skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels-to reach the target nerve. A clear identification of the target nerve can improve the success of the nerve block and reduce the rate of complications. This may be accomplished with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) which can provide a quantitative measure of the tissue composition...
May 14, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Sebastian Haas, Dirk de Beer, Judith M Klatt, Artur Fink, Rebecca McCauley Rench, Trinity L Hamilton, Volker Meyer, Brian Kakuk, Jennifer L Macalady
We report extremely low-light-adapted anoxygenic photosynthesis in a thick microbial mat in Magical Blue Hole, Abaco Island, The Bahamas. Sulfur cycling was reduced by iron oxides and organic carbon limitation. The mat grows below the halocline/oxycline at 30 m depth on the walls of the flooded sinkhole. In situ irradiance at the mat surface on a sunny December day was between 0.021 and 0.084 μmol photons m-2 s-1 , and UV light (<400 nm) was the most abundant part of the spectrum followed by green wavelengths (475-530 nm)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marc J Weintraub, Caitlin A Brown, Kiara R Timpano
BACKGROUND: Hoarding disorder presents significant individual and interpersonal consequences. Because hoarding has only recently been added to the DSM, relatively little is known about associated comorbidity patterns. Several researchers have postulated a relationship between hoarding and schizotypy. To date, however, no investigations have considered which specific types of schizotypal traits relate to hoarding symptoms. METHODS: We examined the association between hoarding and schizotypal symptoms using multivariate analyses in two samples-a sample of 120 young adults and a community sample of 291 individuals recruited from Mechanical Turk's online crowdsourcing system...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Sebastian M Waszak, Paul A Northcott, Ivo Buchhalter, Giles W Robinson, Christian Sutter, Susanne Groebner, Kerstin B Grund, Laurence Brugières, David T W Jones, Kristian W Pajtler, A Sorana Morrissy, Marcel Kool, Dominik Sturm, Lukas Chavez, Aurelie Ernst, Sebastian Brabetz, Michael Hain, Thomas Zichner, Maia Segura-Wang, Joachim Weischenfeldt, Tobias Rausch, Balca R Mardin, Xin Zhou, Cristina Baciu, Christian Lawerenz, Jennifer A Chan, Pascale Varlet, Lea Guerrini-Rousseau, Daniel W Fults, Wiesława Grajkowska, Peter Hauser, Nada Jabado, Young-Shin Ra, Karel Zitterbart, Suyash S Shringarpure, Francisco M De La Vega, Carlos D Bustamante, Ho-Keung Ng, Arie Perry, Tobey J MacDonald, Pablo Hernáiz Driever, Anne E Bendel, Daniel C Bowers, Geoffrey McCowage, Murali M Chintagumpala, Richard Cohn, Timothy Hassall, Gudrun Fleischhack, Tone Eggen, Finn Wesenberg, Maria Feychting, Birgitta Lannering, Joachim Schüz, Christoffer Johansen, Tina V Andersen, Martin Röösli, Claudia E Kuehni, Michael Grotzer, Kristina Kjaerheim, Camelia M Monoranu, Tenley C Archer, Elizabeth Duke, Scott L Pomeroy, Redmond Shelagh, Stephan Frank, David Sumerauer, Wolfram Scheurlen, Marina V Ryzhova, Till Milde, Christian P Kratz, David Samuel, Jinghui Zhang, David A Solomon, Marco Marra, Roland Eils, Claus R Bartram, Katja von Hoff, Stefan Rutkowski, Vijay Ramaswamy, Richard J Gilbertson, Andrey Korshunov, Michael D Taylor, Peter Lichter, David Malkin, Amar Gajjar, Jan O Korbel, Stefan M Pfister
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is associated with rare hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes; however, consensus medulloblastoma predisposition genes have not been defined and screening guidelines for genetic counselling and testing for paediatric patients are not available. We aimed to assess and define these genes to provide evidence for future screening guidelines. METHODS: In this international, multicentre study, we analysed patients with medulloblastoma from retrospective cohorts (International Cancer Genome Consortium [ICGC] PedBrain, Medulloblastoma Advanced Genomics International Consortium [MAGIC], and the CEFALO series) and from prospective cohorts from four clinical studies (SJMB03, SJMB12, SJYC07, and I-HIT-MED)...
May 9, 2018: Lancet Oncology
R Noordam, C H Oudt, M M Bos, R A J Smit, D van Heemst
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The role of inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) remains unclear. We investigated the associations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration with T2D and glycemic traits using two-sample Mendelian Randomization. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used publically available summary-statistics data from genome-wide association studies on T2D (DIAGRAM: 12 171 cases; 56 862 controls) and glycemic traits (MAGIC: 46 186 participants without diabetes mellitus)...
March 26, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Giovanni Paganelli, Ugo De Giorgi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Lancet Oncology
M Makrinich, E Nimerovsky, A Goldbourt
Dipolar recoupling under magic-angle spinning allows to measure accurate inter-nuclear distances provided that the two interacting spins can be efficiently and uniformly excited. Alexander (Lex) Vega has shown that adiabatic transfers of populations in quadrupolar spins during the application of constant-wave (cw) radio-frequency pulses lead to efficient and quantifiable dipolar recoupling curves. Accurate distance determination within and beyond the adiabatic regime using cw pulses is limited by the size of the quadrupolar coupling constant...
April 14, 2018: Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Felix Blei, Florian Baldeweg, Janis Fricke, Dirk Hoffmeister
Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is the main alkaloid of the fungal genus Psilocybe, the so-called "magic mushrooms". The pharmaceutical interest in this psychotropic natural product as a future medication to treat depression and anxiety is strongly re-emerging. Here, we present an enhanced enzymatic route of psilocybin production by adding TrpB, the tryptophan synthase of the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis, to the reaction. We capitalized on its substrate flexibility and show psilocybin formation from 4-hydroxyindole and L-serine, which are less cost-intensive substrates, compared to the previous method...
May 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Kerstin Wissel, Jonas Heldt, Pedro B Groszewicz, Supratik Dasgupta, Hergen Breitzke, Manuel Donzelli, Aamir I Waidha, Andrew Dominic Fortes, Jochen Rohrer, Peter R Slater, Gerd Buntkowsky, Oliver Clemens
The Ruddlesden-Popper (K2 NiF4 ) type phase La2 NiO3 F2 was prepared via a polymer-based fluorination of La2 NiO4+ d . The compound was found to crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Cccm ( a = 12.8350(4) Å, b = 5.7935(2) Å, c = 5.4864(2) Å). This structural distortion results from an ordered half occupation of the interstitial anion layers and has not been observed previously for K2 NiF4 -type oxyfluoride compounds. From a combination of neutron and X-ray powder diffraction and 19 F magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy, it was found that the fluoride ions are only located on the apical anion sites, whereas the oxide ions are located on the interstitial sites...
May 11, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Jantina Toxopeus, Brent J Sinclair
Freeze tolerance - the ability to survive internal ice formation - has evolved repeatedly in insects, facilitating survival in environments with low temperatures and/or high risk of freezing. Surviving internal ice formation poses several challenges because freezing can cause cellular dehydration and mechanical damage, and restricts the opportunity to metabolise and respond to environmental challenges. While freeze-tolerant insects accumulate many potentially protective molecules, there is no apparent 'magic bullet' - a molecule or class of molecules that appears to be necessary or sufficient to support this cold-tolerance strategy...
May 10, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Barbara Kiser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Nature
Kenneth Wengler, Takeshi Fukuda, Dharmesh Tank, Mingqian Huang, Elaine S Gould, Mark E Schweitzer, Xiang He
BACKGROUND: Limited microcirculation has been implicated in Achilles tendinopathy and may affect healing and disease progression. Existing invasive and noninvasive approaches to evaluate tendon microcirculation lack sensitivity and spatial coverage. PURPOSE: To develop a novel Achilles tendon intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MRI protocol to overcome the limitations from low tendon T2 /T2 * value and low intratendinous blood volume and blood velocity to evaluate tendon microcirculation...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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