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Muzafar Khan, Gerd Heilemann, Peter Kuess, Dietmar Georg, Andreas Berg
Recent developments in radiation therapy aimed at more precise dose delivery along with higher dose gradients (dose painting) and more efficient dose delivery with higher dose rates e.g. flattening filter free (FFF) irradiation. Magnetic-resonance-imaging based polymer gel dosimetry offers 3D information for precise dose delivery techniques. Many of the proposed polymer gels have been reported to exhibit a dose response, measured as relaxation rate ΔR2(D) , which is dose rate dependent. A lack of or a reduced dose-rate sensitivity is very important for dosimetric accuracy, especially with regard to the increasing clinical use of FFF irradiation protocols with LINACs at high dose rates...
March 12, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Edward H Reynolds
The word hysteria originated in the Corpus Hippocraticum (c420 BCE) as a natural explanation for a variety of diseases in women linked in the Greco-Roman mind to an animate or inanimate womb, but which in the last five centuries has evolved to describe an elusive disorder of brain ± mind in men and women, currently referred to by neurologists as "functional neurological disorder". The Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Babylonian and Assyrian descriptions of disease and behaviour include only rare examples suggestive of modern hysteria...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Jill White
This commentary reflects on the contribution of this editorial and its "Three Challenges That Global Health Networks Face" to the totality of the framework developed over the past decade by Shiffman and his collaborators. It reviews the earlier works to demonstrate that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts in providing a package of tools for analysis of network effectiveness.Additionally the assertion is made that the framework can be utilised in reverse to form a map for action planning for network activity around a potential health policy issue...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Anthony S Barnhart, Mandy J Ehlert, Stephen D Goldinger, Alison D Mackey
Recently, performance magic has become a source of insight into the processes underlying awareness. Magicians have highlighted a set of variables that can create moments of visual attentional suppression, which they call "off-beats." One of these variables is akin to the phenomenon psychologists know as attentional entrainment. The current experiments, inspired by performance magic, explore the extent to which entrainment can occur across sensory modalities. Across two experiments using a difficult dot probe detection task, we find that the mere presence of an auditory rhythm can bias when visual attention is deployed, speeding responses to stimuli appearing in phase with the rhythm...
March 8, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Yuan Cao, Valla Fatemi, Ahmet Demir, Shiang Fang, Spencer L Tomarken, Jason Y Luo, J D Sanchez-Yamagishi, K Watanabe, T Taniguchi, E Kaxiras, R C Ashoori, P Jarillo-Herrero
van der Waals heterostructures are an emergent class of metamaterials that consist of vertically stacked two-dimensional building blocks, which provide us with a vast tool set to engineer their properties on top of the already rich tunability of two-dimensional materials.1 One of the knobs, the twist angle between different layers, has a crucial role in the ultimate electronic properties of a van der Waals heterostructure and does not have a direct analogue in other systems such as MBE-grown semiconductor heterostructures...
March 5, 2018: Nature
Yuan Cao, Valla Fatemi, Shiang Fang, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Efthimios Kaxiras, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero
The behaviour of strongly correlated materials, and in particular unconventional superconductors, has puzzled physicists for decades. Such difficulties have stimulated new research paradigms, such as ultracold atom lattices for simulating quantum materials. Here we report on the realization of intrinsic unconventional superconductivity in a two-dimensional superlattice created by stacking two graphene sheets with a small twist angle. For angles near 1.1°, the first 'magic' angle, twisted bilayer graphene exhibits ultraflat bands near charge neutrality, which lead to correlated insulating states at half-filling...
March 5, 2018: Nature
Jeffrey S Bedwell, Christopher C Spencer, Chi C Chan, Pamela D Butler, Pejman Sehatpour, Joseph Schmidt
A reduced P1 visual-evoked potential amplitude has been reported across several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia-spectrum, bipolar, and depressive disorders. In addition, a difference in P1 amplitude change to a red background compared to its opponent color, green, has been found in schizophrenia-spectrum samples. The current study examined whether specific psychiatric symptoms that related to these P1 abnormalities in earlier studies would be replicated when using a broad transdiagnostic sample...
March 3, 2018: Brain Research
James Tolchard, Manoj Kumar Pandey, Mélanie Berbon, Abdelmajid Noubhani, Sven J Saupe, Yusuke Nishiyama, Birgit Habenstein, Antoine Loquet
We present a new solid-state NMR proton-detected three-dimensional experiment dedicated to the observation of protein proton side chain resonances in nano-liter volumes. The experiment takes advantage of very fast magic angle spinning and double quantum 13C-13C transfer to establish efficient (H)CCH correlations detected on side chain protons. Our approach is demonstrated on the HET-s prion domain in its functional amyloid fibrillar form, fully protonated, with a sample amount of less than 500 µg using a MAS frequency of 70 kHz...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
Kent R Thurber, Thanh-Ngoc Le, Victor Changcoco, David J R Brook
Solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) using the cross-effect relies on radical pairs whose electron spin resonance (ESR) frequencies differ by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) frequency. We measure the DNP provided by a new water-soluble verdazyl radical, verdazyl-ribose, under both magic-angle spinning (MAS) and static sample conditions at 9.4 T, and compare it to a nitroxide radical, 4-hydroxy-TEMPO. We find that verdazyl-ribose is an effective radical for cross-effect DNP, with the best relative results for a non-spinning sample...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Jodi Kraus, Rupal Gupta, Manman Lu, Jenna B Yehl, David A Case, Angela M Gronenborn, Mikael Akke, Tatyana Polenova
Magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy is uniquely suited to probe the structure and dynamics of insoluble proteins and protein assemblies at atomic resolution, with NMR chemical shifts containing rich information about biomolecular structure. Access to this information, however, is problematic since accurate quantum mechanical calculation of chemical shifts in proteins remains challenging, particularly for15 NH . Here we report on isotropic chemical shift predictions for the carbohydrate recognition domain of microcrystalline galectin-3, obtained from using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations, implemented using an automated fragmentation approach, and using very high resolution (0...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Michael Gatchell, Marcelo Goulart, Lorenz Kranabetter, Martin Kuhn, Paul Martini, Bilal Rasul, Paul Scheier
We have studied complexes of gold atoms and imidazole (C3 N2 H4 , abbreviated Im) produced in helium nanodroplets. Following the ionization of the doped droplets we detect a broad range of different Aum Imn + complexes, however we find that for specific values of m certain n are "magic" and thus particularly abundant. Our density functional theory calculations indicate that these abundant clusters sizes are partially the result of particularly stable complexes, e.g. AuIm2 + , and partially due to a transition in fragmentation patterns from the loss of neutral imidazole molecules for large systems to the loss of neutral gold atoms for smaller systems...
March 2, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Miriding Mutailipu, Min Zhang, Bingbing Zhang, Liying Wang, Zhihua Yang, Xin Zhou, Shilie Pan
Fluorooxoborates, benefiting from the large optical band gap, high anisotropy, and ever-greater possibility to form noncentrosymmetric structures activated by the large polarization of the [BOxF4-x](x+1)- building blocks, have been considered as the new fertile fields for searching the ultraviolet (UV) and deep-UV nonlinear optical (NLO) materials. Here, we report the first asymmetric alkaline-earth metal fluorooxoborate SrB5O7F3, which is rationally designed by taking the classic Sr2Be2B2O7 (SBBO) as a maternal structure...
March 2, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Sylvia Knapp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Qing Zhe Ni, Thach Van Can, Eugenio Daviso, Marina Belenky, Robert G Griffin, Judith Herzfeld
Despite much attention, the path of the highly consequential primary proton transfer in the light-driven ion pump bacteriorhodopsin (bR) remains mysterious. Here we use DNP-enhanced magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR to study critical elements of the active site just before the Schiff base (SB) deprotonates (in the L intermediate), immediately after the SB has deprotonated and Asp85 has become protonated (in the Mo intermediate), and just after the SB has reprotonated and Asp96 has deprotonated (in the N intermediate)...
February 28, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Anna L Garden, Andreas Pedersen, Hannes Jónsson
Calculations of low free energy structures of gold clusters with a few hundred to a few thousand atoms have been performed. For the study to be computationally feasible, a systematic scheme for generating low energy atomic structures with a given structural motif and a chosen size is used. Comparison of the relative stability of clusters with the decahedral and FCC motifs reveals periodic windows of stability for asymmetric, open-shell FCC clusters while the stability of the decahedral structural motif shows a smoother variation in stability with cluster size...
February 28, 2018: Nanoscale
T Fuchs-Buder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Rose-Marie Pernilla Karlsson, Per Tomas Larsson, Shun Yu, Samuel Allen Pendergraph, Torbjörn Pettersson, Johannes Hellwig, Lars Wågberg
Macroscopic beads of water-based gels consisting of uncharged and partially charged β-(1,4)-d-glucan polymers were developed to be used as a novel model material for studying the water induced swelling of the delignified plant fiber walls. The gel beads were prepared by drop-wise precipitation of solutions of dissolving grade fibers carboxymethylated to different degrees. The internal structure was analyzed using Solid State Cross-Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Small Angle X-ray Scattering showing that the internal structure could be considered a homogeneous, non-crystalline and molecularly dispersed polymer network...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Matthias Roos, Tuo Wang, Alexander A Shcherbakov, Mei Hong
Internuclear distances measured using NMR provide crucial constraints of three-dimensional structures, but are often restricted to about 5 Å due to the weakness of nuclear-spin dipolar couplings. For studying macromolecular assemblies in biology and materials science, distance constraints beyond 1 nm will be extremely valuable. Here we present an extensive and quantitative analysis of the feasibility of 19F spin exchange NMR for precise and robust measurements of inter-atomic distances to 1.6 nm at a magnetic field of 14...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
A Hines, A C Bundy, M Haertsch, M Wallen
AIM: To explore parent's perspective of their child's participation in a magic-themed intervention called Amazing Magic Club (AMC), and to further our understanding of motivated engagement and the impact of themed group-based interventions for children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Twenty-nine parents of children with unilateral CP completed semi-structured interviews. The child participants (n = 28) attended one of three AMCs; average age of the children was 10y 6mo (SD 2y 2mo)...
February 26, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
Katarina Zeljic, Ivan Jovanovic, Jasmina Jovanovic, Zvonko Magic, Aleksandra Stankovic, Gordana Supic
AIM: It was the aim of the study to identify commonly deregulated miRNAs in oral cancer patients by performing a meta-analysis of previously published miRNA expression profiles in cancer and matched normal non-cancerous tissue in such patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Meta-analysis included seven independent studies analyzed by a vote-counting method followed by bioinformatic enrichment analysis. RESULTS: Amongst seven independent studies included in the meta-analysis, 20 miRNAs were found to be deregulated in oral cancer when compared with non-cancerous tissue...
February 26, 2018: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
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