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Xiao-Xia Wang, Ting Ye, Mao Li, Xian Li, Ou Qiang, Cheng-Wei Tang, Rui Liu
Reduced hepatic glycogenesis is one of the most important causes of metabolic abnormalities in non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease. Octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, has been demonstrated to promote weight loss and improve metabolic disorders in mice with high fat diet (HFD)‑induced obesity. However, whether octreotide affects hepatic glycogenesis is unknown. The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of octreotide on hepatic glycogenesis in rats with HFD‑induced obesity. Male Sprague‑Dawley rats were fed a standard diet or a HFD for 24 weeks...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Lin Dou, Shuyue Wang, Libo Sun, Xiuqing Huang, Yang Zhang, Tao Shen, Jun Guo, Yong Man, Weiqing Tang, Jian Li
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is a critical factor contributing to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Recent studies have indicated that miR-338-3p plays an important role in cancer. Here, we investigated whether miR-338-3p mediates tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced hepatic insulin resistance. METHODS: The activation of the insulin signalling pathway and the level of glycogenesis were examined in the livers of the db/db and high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and in HEP1-6 cells transfected with miR-338-3p mimic or inhibitor...
May 3, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Mihaela Zaulet, Steliana Elvira Maria Kevorkian, Sorina Dinescu, Coralia Cotoraci, Maria Suciu, Hildegard Herman, Laura Buburuzan, Liliana Badulescu, Aurel Ardelean, Anca Hermenean
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical released into the environment, with severe consequences for human health, including metabolic syndrome and associated pathological conditions. Due to limited information on BPA-induced hepatotoxicity, the present study focused on investigating the association between BPA-induced toxicity and inflammatory markers in the liver, and how these injuries may be alleviated using the natural agent silymarin, a flavonoid with antioxidant properties obtained from Silybum marianum...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xiaoyang Yuan, Huijing Huang, Yi Huang, Jinli Wang, Jinhua Yan, Ling Ding, Cuntai Zhang, Le Zhang
Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to induce the expression of a variety of antioxidant and detoxification genes. Recently, increasing evidence has revealed roles for Nrf2 in glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism; however, the exact functions of Nrf2 in hepatocyte biology are largely unclear. In the current study, the transient knockdown of Nrf2 via siRNA transfection enhanced the glucose uptake of fasting AML12 hepatocytes to 325.3 ± 11.1% ( P < 0.05) of that of untransfected control cells...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Chinelo Ezeani, Ifeoma Ezenyi, Theophine Okoye, Charles Okoli
AIM: Ocimum basilicum L (Lamiaceae) is used as a traditional remedy for different ailments, including diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of an extract of aerial parts of O. basilicum. METHODS: Antihyperglycemic effect of the extract was determined by its effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro, while antidiabetic properties were studied in alloxan induced diabetic rats treated for 28 days with extract and compared to those treated with oral metformin (150 mg/kg)...
January 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Soohui Na, Minjeong Park, Inseong Jo, Jaeho Cha, Nam-Chul Ha
Glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) catalyzes the formation of α-1,6-branching points during glycogenesis by cleaving α-1,4 bonds and making new α-1,6 bonds. Most GBEs belong to the glycoside hydrolase 13 family (GH13), but new GBEs in the GH57 family have been isolated from Archaea. Here, we determined the crystal structure of a GH57 GBE from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhGBE) at a resolution of 2.3 Å. PhGBE exhibits both α-1,6-branching activity and endo-α-1,4 hydrolytic activity...
February 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Na Yang, Run-Bin Sun, Xing-Long Chen, Le Zhen, Chun Ge, Yu-Qing Zhao, Jun He, Jian-Liang Geng, Jia-Hua Guo, Xiao-Yi Yu, Fei Fei, Si-Qi Feng, Xuan-Xuan Zhu, Hong-Bo Wang, Feng-Hua Fu, Ji-Ye Aa, Guang-Ji Wang
Berberrubine (BRB) is the primary metabolite of berberine (BBR) that has shown a stronger glucose-lowering effect than BBR in vivo. On the other hand, BRB is quickly and extensively metabolized into berberrubine-9-O-β-D-glucuronide (BRBG) in rats after oral administration. In this study we compared the pharmacokinetic properties of BRB and BRBG in rats, and explored the mechanisms underlying their glucose-lowering activities. C57BL/6 mice with HFD-induced hyperglycemia were administered BRB (50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) for 6 weeks, which caused greater reduction in the plasma glucose levels than those caused by BBR (120 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) or BRB (25 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1))...
March 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Paulina A Bahamonde, Mark E McMaster, Mark R Servos, Christopher J Martyniuk, Kelly R Munkittrick
Intersex is a condition that has been associated with exposure to sewage effluents in male rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum). To better understand changes in the transcriptome that are associated with intersex, we characterized annual changes in the testis transcriptome in wild, unexposed fish. Rainbow darter males were collected from the Grand River (Ontario, Canada) in May (spawning), August (post-spawning), October (recrudescence), January (developing) and March (pre-spawning). Histology was used to determine the proportion of spermatogenic cell types that were present during each period of testicular maturation...
2016: PloS One
Guillermina María Luque, Felicitas Lopez-Vicchi, Ana María Ornstein, Belén Brie, Catalina De Winne, Esteban Fiore, Maria Inés Perez-Millan, Guillermo Mazzolini, Marcelo Rubinstein, Damasia Becu-Villalobos
We studied the impact of high prolactin titers on liver and adipocyte gene expression related to glucose and insulin homeostasis in correlation with obesity onset. To that end we used mutant female mice that selectively lack dopamine type 2 receptors (D2Rs) from pituitary lactotropes (lacDrd2KO), which have chronic high prolactin levels associated with increased body weight, marked increments in fat depots, adipocyte size, and serum lipids, and a metabolic phenotype that intensifies with age. LacDrd2KO mice of two developmental ages, 5 and 10 mo, were used...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Yasuhiro Matsuo, Makoto Kawamukai
The cAMP-dependent protein kinase Pka1 is known as a regulator of glycogenesis, meiosis, and stress responses in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We demonstrated that Pka1 is responsible for calcium tolerance. Loss of functional components of the PKA pathway such as Git3, Gpa2, Cyr1, and Pka1 yields a CaCl2-sensitive phenotype, while loss of Cgs1, a regulatory subunit of PKA, results in CaCl2 tolerance. Cytoplasmic distribution of Cgs1 and Pka1 is increased by the addition of CaCl2, suggesting that CaCl2 induces dissociation of Cgs1 and Pka1...
February 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
C E Geisler, C Hepler, M R Higgins, B J Renquist
BACKGROUND: The increased incidence of obesity and associated metabolic diseases has driven research focused on genetically or pharmacologically alleviating metabolic dysfunction. These studies employ a range of fasting-refeeding models including 4-24 h fasts, "overnight" fasts, or meal feeding. Still, we lack literature that describes the physiologically relevant adaptations that accompany changes in the duration of fasting and re-feeding. Since the liver is central to whole body metabolic homeostasis, we investigated the timing of the fast-induced shift toward glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis and the meal-induced switch toward glycogenesis and away from ketogenesis...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
Yi Zhang, Xing-Xing Wang, Jing-Yun Zhu, Zhan-Feng Zhang, Hong-Gang Tian, Tong-Xian Liu
Wingless forms of aphids are relatively sedentary, and have a limited ability to migrate or disperse. However, they can drop off hosts or walk away if disturbed, or their food quality or quantity become deteriorated. Earlier, we found that the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris, 1776), could use differed strategies to escape danger and locate new host plants. To determine the mechanisms behind the different strategies, we undertook a series of studies including the aphids' host location, energy reserves under starvation, glycogenesis, sugar assimilation, olfactory and probing behaviors...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
Pia V Röder, Xiuming Wong, Wanjin Hong, Weiping Han
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in early disease stages but a relative insulin insufficiency in later stages. Insulin, a peptide hormone, is produced in and secreted from pancreatic β-cells following elevated blood glucose levels. Upon its release, insulin induces the removal of excessive exogenous glucose from the bloodstream primarily by stimulating glucose uptake into insulin-dependent tissues as well as promoting hepatic glycogenesis...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
M Clara F do Amaral, Richard E Lee, Jon P Costanzo
Liver glycogen is an important energy store in vertebrates, and in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica, this carbohydrate also serves as a major source of the cryoprotectant glucose. We investigated how variation in the levels of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc), glycogen phosphorylase (GP), and glycogen synthase (GS) relates to seasonal glycogen cycling in a temperate (Ohioan) and subarctic (Alaskan) populations of this species. In spring, Ohioan frogs had reduced potential for glycogen synthesis, as evidenced by low GS activity and high PKAc protein levels...
July 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Yun-Soo Seo, Mi-Yae Shon, Ryong Kong, Ok-Hwa Kang, Tian Zhou, Do-Yeon Kim, Dong-Yeul Kwon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Araliaceae) has been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including diabetes. Processed ginseng named Black ginseng exhibits more potent biological activities than white and red ginseng. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of black ginseng extract (GBG05-FF) on hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Christopher M Carmean, Y Hanna Huang, Matthew J Brady
Glycogen storage in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is generally thought to take place through passive, substrate-driven activation of glycogenesis rather than programmatic shifts favoring or opposing the storage and/or retention of glycogen. This perception exists despite a growing body of evidence suggesting that BAT glycogen storage is actively regulated by covalent modification of key glycogen-metabolic enzymes, protein turnover, and endocrine hormone signaling. Members of one such class of covalent-modification regulators, glycogen-binding Phosphoprotein Phosphatase-1 (PP1)-regulatory subunits (PPP1Rs), targeting PP1 to glycogen-metabolic enzymes, were dynamically regulated in response to 24 hr of starvation and/or 24 hr of starvation followed by ad libitum refeeding...
2016: PloS One
Merav Catalogna, Sigal Fishman, Zamir Halpern, Shani Ben-Shlomo, Uri Nevo, Eshel Ben-Jacob
BACKGROUND: The epidemic nature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), along with the downsides of current treatments, has raised the need for therapeutic alternatives. METHODS: We studied normo-glycemic and high-fat diet (HFD), induced insulin-resistant Wistar Han rats for 2 to 3weeks. Rats received peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) treatment (2Hz/16Hz bursts, 10mA) in their hind limbs for 3min, 3 times per week. Glucose tolerance was evaluated by using a glucose tolerance test at the beginning and again at the end of the study...
June 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Celine Latouche, Alaina Natoli, Medini Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Sarah E Heywood, James A Armitage, Bronwyn A Kingwell
BACKGROUND: The regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) at different stages of the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and their role in glucose homeostasis was investigated. METHODS: Microarrays were used to assess miRNA expression in skeletal muscle biopsies taken from healthy individuals and patients with pre-diabetes or T2DM, and insulin resistant offspring of rat dams fed a high fat diet during pregnancy. RESULTS: Twenty-three miRNAs were differentially expressed in patients with T2DM, and 7 in the insulin resistant rat offspring compared to their controls...
2016: PloS One
Xuemei Zhang, Wei Duan, Wai-Nang Paul Lee, Yuewei Zhang, Fenfen Xiang, Qian Liu, Vay Liang W Go, Gary Guishan Xiao
OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to assess the physiological effects of p53 on glucose homeostasis in vivo. METHODS: A recombinant adenoviral p53 (rAd-p53) vector was administered to insulin-resistant diabetic mice. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed in all groups of mice. Changes in fasting blood glucose, serum triglycerides, C-peptide, and insulin concentrations in treated and untreated mice were measured. Analyses of the target genes related to glucose metabolism were performed...
August 2016: Pancreas
Weiwei Fang, Jun Guo, Yuan Cao, Shuyue Wang, Cheng Pang, Meng Li, Lin Dou, Yong Man, Xiuqing Huang, Tao Shen, Jian Li
Recently, it is implicated that aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRs) is associated with insulin resistance. However, the role of miR-17 family in hepatic insulin resistance and its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we provided mechanistic insight into the effects of miR-20a-5p, a member of miR-17 family, on the regulation of AKT/GSK pathway and glycogenesis in hepatocytes. MiR-20a-5p was down-regulated in the liver of db/db mice, and NCTC1469 cells and Hep1-6 cells treated with high glucose, accompanied by reduced glycogen content and impaired insulin signalling...
August 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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