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Glycogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861489/characterizing-transcriptional-networks-in-male-rainbow-darter-etheostoma-caeruleum-that-regulate-testis-development-over-a-complete-reproductive-cycle
#1
Paulina A Bahamonde, Mark E McMaster, Mark R Servos, Christopher J Martyniuk, Kelly R Munkittrick
Intersex is a condition that has been associated with exposure to sewage effluents in male rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum). To better understand changes in the transcriptome that are associated with intersex, we characterized annual changes in the testis transcriptome in wild, unexposed fish. Rainbow darter males were collected from the Grand River (Ontario, Canada) in May (spawning), August (post-spawning), October (recrudescence), January (developing) and March (pre-spawning). Histology was used to determine the proportion of spermatogenic cell types that were present during each period of testicular maturation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802964/chronic-hyperprolactinemia-evoked-by-disruption-of-lactotrope-dopamine-d2-receptors-impacts-on-liver-and-adipocyte-genes-related-to-glucose-and-insulin-balance
#2
Guillermina Maria Luque, Felicitas Lopez-Vicchi, Ana Maria Ornstein, Belen Brie, Catalina De Winne, Esteban Fiore, Maria Ines Perez Millan, Guillermo Mazzolini, Marcelo Rubinstein, Damasia Becu-Villalobos
We studied the impact of high prolactin titers on liver and adipocyte gene expression related to glucose and insulin homeostasis, in correlation with obesity onset. To that end we used mutant female mice that selectively lack dopamine type 2 receptors (D2Rs) from pituitary lactotropes (lacDrd2KO) which have chronic high prolactin levels associated with increased body weight, marked increments in fat depots, adipocyte size, and serum lipids, a metabolic phenotype which intensifies with age. LacDrd2KO mice of two developmental ages, 5 and 10 months were used...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756188/camp-dependent-protein-kinase-involves-calcium-tolerance-through-the-regulation-of-prz1-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#3
Yasuhiro Matsuo, Makoto Kawamukai
The cAMP-dependent protein kinase Pka1 is known as a regulator of glycogenesis, meiosis, and stress responses in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We demonstrated that Pka1 is responsible for calcium tolerance. Loss of functional components of the PKA pathway such as Git3, Gpa2, Cyr1, and Pka1 yields a CaCl2-sensitive phenotype, while loss of Cgs1, a regulatory subunit of PKA, results in CaCl2 tolerance. Cytoplasmic distribution of Cgs1 and Pka1 is increased by the addition of CaCl2, suggesting that CaCl2 induces dissociation of Cgs1 and Pka1...
October 19, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708682/hepatic-adaptations-to-maintain-metabolic-homeostasis-in-response-to-fasting-and-refeeding-in-mice
#4
C E Geisler, C Hepler, M R Higgins, B J Renquist
BACKGROUND: The increased incidence of obesity and associated metabolic diseases has driven research focused on genetically or pharmacologically alleviating metabolic dysfunction. These studies employ a range of fasting-refeeding models including 4-24 h fasts, "overnight" fasts, or meal feeding. Still, we lack literature that describes the physiologically relevant adaptations that accompany changes in the duration of fasting and re-feeding. Since the liver is central to whole body metabolic homeostasis, we investigated the timing of the fast-induced shift toward glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis and the meal-induced switch toward glycogenesis and away from ketogenesis...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628035/strategies-used-by-two-apterous-strains-of-the-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum-for-passive-dispersal
#5
Yi Zhang, Xing-Xing Wang, Jing-Yun Zhu, Zhan-Feng Zhang, Hong-Gang Tian, Tong-Xian Liu
Wingless forms of aphids are relatively sedentary, and have a limited ability to migrate or disperse. However, they can drop off hosts or walk away if disturbed, or their food quality or quantity become deteriorated. Earlier, we found that the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris, 1776), could use differed strategies to escape danger and locate new host plants. To determine the mechanisms behind the different strategies, we undertook a series of studies including the aphids' host location, energy reserves under starvation, glycogenesis, sugar assimilation, olfactory and probing behaviors...
October 15, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621482/molecular-regulation-of-insulin-granule-biogenesis-and-exocytosis
#6
REVIEW
Pia V Röder, Xiuming Wong, Wanjin Hong, Weiping Han
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in early disease stages but a relative insulin insufficiency in later stages. Insulin, a peptide hormone, is produced in and secreted from pancreatic β-cells following elevated blood glucose levels. Upon its release, insulin induces the removal of excessive exogenous glucose from the bloodstream primarily by stimulating glucose uptake into insulin-dependent tissues as well as promoting hepatic glycogenesis...
September 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424164/enzymatic-regulation-of-seasonal-glycogen-cycling-in-the-freeze-tolerant-wood-frog-rana-sylvatica
#7
M Clara F do Amaral, Richard E Lee, Jon P Costanzo
Liver glycogen is an important energy store in vertebrates, and in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica, this carbohydrate also serves as a major source of the cryoprotectant glucose. We investigated how variation in the levels of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc), glycogen phosphorylase (GP), and glycogen synthase (GS) relates to seasonal glycogen cycling in a temperate (Ohioan) and subarctic (Alaskan) populations of this species. In spring, Ohioan frogs had reduced potential for glycogen synthesis, as evidenced by low GS activity and high PKAc protein levels...
July 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260409/black-ginseng-extract-exerts-anti-hyperglycemic-effect-via-modulation-of-glucose-metabolism-in-liver-and-muscle
#8
Yun-Soo Seo, Mi-Yae Shon, Ryong Kong, Ok-Hwa Kang, Tian Zhou, Do-Yeon Kim, Dong-Yeul Kwon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Araliaceae) has been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including diabetes. Processed ginseng named Black ginseng exhibits more potent biological activities than white and red ginseng. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of black ginseng extract (GBG05-FF) on hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213961/glycogen-repletion-in-brown-adipose-tissue-upon-refeeding-is-primarily-driven-by-phosphorylation-independent-mechanisms
#9
Christopher M Carmean, Y Hanna Huang, Matthew J Brady
Glycogen storage in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is generally thought to take place through passive, substrate-driven activation of glycogenesis rather than programmatic shifts favoring or opposing the storage and/or retention of glycogen. This perception exists despite a growing body of evidence suggesting that BAT glycogen storage is actively regulated by covalent modification of key glycogen-metabolic enzymes, protein turnover, and endocrine hormone signaling. Members of one such class of covalent-modification regulators, glycogen-binding Phosphoprotein Phosphatase-1 (PP1)-regulatory subunits (PPP1Rs), targeting PP1 to glycogen-metabolic enzymes, were dynamically regulated in response to 24 hr of starvation and/or 24 hr of starvation followed by ad libitum refeeding...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173465/regulation-of-glucose-dynamics-by-noninvasive-peripheral-electrical-stimulation-in-normal-and-insulin-resistant-rats
#10
Merav Catalogna, Sigal Fishman, Zamir Halpern, Shani Ben-Shlomo, Uri Nevo, Eshel Ben-Jacob
BACKGROUND: The epidemic nature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), along with the downsides of current treatments, has raised the need for therapeutic alternatives. METHODS: We studied normo-glycemic and high-fat diet (HFD), induced insulin-resistant Wistar Han rats for 2 to 3weeks. Rats received peripheral electrical stimulation (PES) treatment (2Hz/16Hz bursts, 10mA) in their hind limbs for 3min, 3 times per week. Glucose tolerance was evaluated by using a glucose tolerance test at the beginning and again at the end of the study...
June 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27163678/microrna-194-modulates-glucose-metabolism-and-its-skeletal-muscle-expression-is-reduced-in-diabetes
#11
Celine Latouche, Alaina Natoli, Medini Reddy-Luthmoodoo, Sarah E Heywood, James A Armitage, Bronwyn A Kingwell
BACKGROUND: The regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) at different stages of the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and their role in glucose homeostasis was investigated. METHODS: Microarrays were used to assess miRNA expression in skeletal muscle biopsies taken from healthy individuals and patients with pre-diabetes or T2DM, and insulin resistant offspring of rat dams fed a high fat diet during pregnancy. RESULTS: Twenty-three miRNAs were differentially expressed in patients with T2DM, and 7 in the insulin resistant rat offspring compared to their controls...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27101570/overexpression-of-p53-improves-blood-glucose-control-in-an-insulin-resistant-diabetic-mouse-model
#12
Xuemei Zhang, Wei Duan, Wai-Nang Paul Lee, Yuewei Zhang, Fenfen Xiang, Qian Liu, Vay Liang W Go, Gary Guishan Xiao
OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed to assess the physiological effects of p53 on glucose homeostasis in vivo. METHODS: A recombinant adenoviral p53 (rAd-p53) vector was administered to insulin-resistant diabetic mice. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed in all groups of mice. Changes in fasting blood glucose, serum triglycerides, C-peptide, and insulin concentrations in treated and untreated mice were measured. Analyses of the target genes related to glucose metabolism were performed...
August 2016: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27019188/microrna-20a-5p-contributes-to-hepatic-glycogen-synthesis-through-targeting-p63-to-regulate-p53-and-pten-expression
#13
Weiwei Fang, Jun Guo, Yuan Cao, Shuyue Wang, Cheng Pang, Meng Li, Lin Dou, Yong Man, Xiuqing Huang, Tao Shen, Jian Li
Recently, it is implicated that aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRs) is associated with insulin resistance. However, the role of miR-17 family in hepatic insulin resistance and its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we provided mechanistic insight into the effects of miR-20a-5p, a member of miR-17 family, on the regulation of AKT/GSK pathway and glycogenesis in hepatocytes. MiR-20a-5p was down-regulated in the liver of db/db mice, and NCTC1469 cells and Hep1-6 cells treated with high glucose, accompanied by reduced glycogen content and impaired insulin signalling...
August 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27017955/glycogen-synthase-in-sertoli-cells-more-than-glycogenesis
#14
Rodrigo Maldonado, Héctor Mancilla, Franz Villarroel-Espíndola, Felipe Slebe, Juan Carlos Slebe, Raúl Méndez, Joan J Guinovart, Ilona I Concha
Sertoli cell metabolism actively maintains the nutritional needs of germ cells. It has been described that after glucose incorporation in Sertoli cells, less than 1% is converted to glycogen suggesting low levels of glycogen synthase activity. Phosphorylation of muscle glycogen synthase (MGS) at serine 640 (pS640MGS) decreases its activity, and this form of the enzyme was discovered as a non-ribosomal protein that modulates the translation of a subset of transcripts in HeLa cells. The aim of our study was to functionally characterize MGS in cultured Sertoli cells, as well as to explore this new feature related to RNA molecules...
November 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26996529/microrna-152-regulates-hepatic-glycogenesis-by-targeting-pten
#15
Shuyue Wang, Lilin Wang, Lin Dou, Jun Guo, Weiwei Fang, Meng Li, Xiangyu Meng, Yong Man, Tao Shen, Xiuqing Huang, Jian Li
Hepatic insulin resistance, defined as a diminished ability of hepatocytes to respond to the action of insulin, plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Aberrant expression of mmu-miR-152-3p (miR-152) is related to the pathogenesis of tumors such as hepatitis B virus related hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the role of miR-152 in hepatic insulin resistance remains unknown. In the present study, we identified the potential role of miR-152 in regulating hepatic glycogenesis...
May 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973812/positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-tumor-cell-metabolism-and-application-to-therapy-response-monitoring
#16
REVIEW
Amarnath Challapalli, Eric O Aboagye
Cancer cells do reprogram their energy metabolism to enable several functions, such as generation of biomass including membrane biosynthesis, and overcoming bioenergetic and redox stress. In this article, we review both established and evolving radioprobes developed in association with positron emission tomography (PET) to detect tumor cell metabolism and effect of treatment. Measurement of enhanced tumor cell glycolysis using 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose is well established in the clinic. Analogs of choline, including [(11)C]choline and various fluorinated derivatives are being tested in several cancer types clinically with PET...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26964834/regulation-of-glucose-metabolism-from-a-liver-centric-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Hye-Sook Han, Geon Kang, Jun Seok Kim, Byeong Hoon Choi, Seung-Hoi Koo
Glucose homeostasis is tightly regulated to meet the energy requirements of the vital organs and maintain an individual's health. The liver has a major role in the control of glucose homeostasis by controlling various pathways of glucose metabolism, including glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Both the acute and chronic regulation of the enzymes involved in the pathways are required for the proper functioning of these complex interwoven systems. Allosteric control by various metabolic intermediates, as well as post-translational modifications of these metabolic enzymes constitute the acute control of these pathways, and the controlled expression of the genes encoding these enzymes is critical in mediating the longer-term regulation of these metabolic pathways...
2016: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26902078/intermittent-hypoxia-maintains-glycemia-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#18
Xiaofei Chen, Tong Zhao, Xin Huang, Liying Wu, Kuiwu Wu, Ming Fan, Lingling Zhu
Increasing studies have shown protective effects of intermittent hypoxia on brain injury and heart ischemia. However, the effect of intermittent hypoxia on blood glucose metabolism, especially in diabetic conditions, is rarely observed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intermittent hypoxia influences blood glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic adult rats and age-matched control rats were treated with intermittent hypoxia (at an altitude of 3 km, 4 h per day for 3 weeks) or normoxia as control...
May 2016: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26844203/adipose-tissue-glycogen-accumulation-is-associated-with-obesity-linked-inflammation-in-humans
#19
Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Miriam Ejarque, Carolina Serena, Xavier Duran, Marta Montori-Grau, Miguel Angel Rodríguez, Oscar Yanes, Catalina Núñez-Roa, Kelly Roche, Prasanth Puthanveetil, Lourdes Garrido-Sánchez, Enrique Saez, Francisco J Tinahones, Pablo M Garcia-Roves, Anna Ma Gómez-Foix, Alan R Saltiel, Joan Vendrell, Sonia Fernández-Veledo
OBJECTIVE: Glycogen metabolism has emerged as a mediator in the control of energy homeostasis and studies in murine models reveal that adipose tissue might contain glycogen stores. Here we investigated the physio(patho)logical role of glycogen in human adipose tissue in the context of obesity and insulin resistance. METHODS: We studied glucose metabolic flux of hypoxic human adipoctyes by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry-based metabolic approaches...
January 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26607040/a-short-term-transition-from-a-high-fat-diet-to-a-normal-fat-diet-before-pregnancy-exacerbates-female-mouse-offspring-obesity
#20
Q Fu, P Olson, D Rasmussen, B Keith, M Williamson, K K Zhang, L Xie
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Recent findings have highlighted the detrimental influence of maternal overnutrition and obesity on fetal development and early life development. However, there are no evidence-based guidelines regarding the optimal strategy for dietary intervention before pregnancy. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used a murine model to study whether switching from a high-fat (HF) diet to a normal-fat (NF) diet (H1N group) 1 week before pregnancy could lead to in utero reprogramming of female offspring obesity; comparator groups were offspring given a consistent maternal HF group or NF group until weaning...
April 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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