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Glycogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230018/a-pck1-directed-glycogen-metabolic-program-regulates-formation-and-maintenance-of-memory-cd8-t-cells
#1
Ruihua Ma, Tiantian Ji, Huafeng Zhang, Wenqian Dong, Xinfeng Chen, Pingwei Xu, Degao Chen, Xiaoyu Liang, Xiaonan Yin, Yuying Liu, Jingwei Ma, Ke Tang, Yi Zhang, Yue'e Peng, Jinzhi Lu, Yi Zhang, Xiaofeng Qin, Xuetao Cao, Yonghong Wan, Bo Huang
CD8+ memory T (Tm) cells are fundamental for protective immunity against infections and cancers 1-5 . Metabolic activities are crucial in controlling memory T-cell homeostasis, but mechanisms linking metabolic signals to memory formation and survival remain elusive. Here we show that CD8+ Tm cells markedly upregulate cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1), the hub molecule regulating glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis, to increase glycogenesis via gluconeogenesis. The resultant glycogen is then channelled to glycogenolysis to generate glucose-6-phosphate and the subsequent pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) that generates abundant NADPH, ensuring high levels of reduced glutathione in Tm cells...
December 11, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227833/vitamin-a-deficiency-in-mice-alters-host-and-gut-microbial-metabolism-leading-to-altered-energy-homeostasis
#2
Yuan Tian, Robert G Nichols, Jingwei Cai, Andrew D Patterson, Margherita T Cantorna
Vitamin A deficiency (A-) is a worldwide public health problem. To better understand how vitamin A status influences gut microbiota and host metabolism, we systematically analyzed urine, cecum, serum and liver samples from vitamin A sufficient (A+) and deficient (A-) mice using 1H NMR-based metabolomics, quantitative (q)PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing coupled with multivariate data analysis. The microbiota in the cecum of A- mice showed compositional as well as functional shifts compared to the microbiota from A+ mice...
November 5, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164422/efficient-production-and-secretion-of-oxaloacetate-from-halomonas-sp-km-1-under-aerobic-conditions
#3
Asuka Hannya, Taku Nishimura, Isao Matsushita, Jun Tsubota, Yoshikazu Kawata
The alkaliphilic, halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. KM-1 can utilize glucose for the intracellular storage of the bioplastic poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and extracellular secretion of pyruvate under aerobic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of sodium chloride concentration on PHB accumulation and pyruvate secretion in the KM-1 strain and, unexpectedly, observed that oxaloacetate, an important intermediate chemical in the TCA cycle, glycogenesis, and aspartic acid biosynthesis, was secreted...
November 21, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050587/hypoglycemic-effect-and-mechanism-of-a-pectic-polysaccharide-with-hexenuronic-acid-from-the-fruits-of-ficus-pumila-l-in-c57bl-ksj-db-db-mice
#4
Jianjun Wu, Miaomiao Chen, Songshan Shi, Huijun Wang, Ning Li, Juan Su, Ruimin Liu, Zhenlin Huang, Hong Jin, Xueqing Ji, Shunchun Wang
In this study, a particular pectic polysaccharide (FPLP) was extracted and purified from the fruits of Ficus pumila Linn. through boiling water extraction, alcohol precipitation, diethylaminoethyl-Sepharose Fast Flow chromatography and Superdex™ G-75 gel filtration chromatography. Analysis of high-performance gel permeation chromatography, FTIR, GC-MS, methylation and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy revealed that FPLP (Mw: 34.69kDa) is a linear (1,4)-α-d-galacturonic acid binding 1.30% branched chain hexenuronic acid with 23...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031588/swertisin-rich-fraction-from-enicostema-littorale-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-and-hyperlipidemia-in-high-fat-fed-diet-and-low-dose-streptozotacin-induced-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-rats
#5
Priyanka Mokashi, Lokesh Kumar Bhatt, Aparna Khanna, Nancy Pandita
INTRODUCTION: Enicostema littorale blume (A. Raynal) is a traditional Indian plant belongs to the Gentianaceae family. A lot of research has been done on this plant for its antidiabetic activity. However, there are no reports on flavonoids from E. littorale for its antidiabetic activity and their mechanism of action. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Swertisin rich flavonoid fraction (SRF) from Enicostema littorale blume and their mechanism of action...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986936/in-ovo-feeding-of-creatine-pyruvate-modulates-growth-performance-energy-reserves-and-mrna-expression-levels-of-gluconeogenesis-and-glycogenesis-enzymes-in-liver-of-embryos-and-neonatal-broilers
#6
M M Zhao, D Q Gong, T Gao, L Zhang, J L Li, P A Lv, L L Yu, F Gao, G H Zhou
The effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on the growth performance, energy reserves and mRNA expression levels of gluconeogenesis and glycogenesis enzymes in liver of late-term embryos and neonatal broilers were investigated. After candling on 16 day of incubation, a total of 960 eggs were randomly assigned to three treatments: (i) non-injected control, (ii) saline group injected with 0.6 ml of 0.75% physiological saline and (iii) Creatine pyruvate group injected with 0.6 ml of physiological saline containing 12 mg CrPyr/egg...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962526/from-the-cover-metabolism-modulation-in-different-organs-by-silver-nanoparticles-an-nmr-metabolomics-study-of-a-mouse-model
#7
Ivana Jarak, Joana Carrola, António S Barros, Ana M Gil, Maria de Lourdes Pereira, Maria Luisa Corvo, Iola F Duarte
Although silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely disseminated and show great potential in the biomedical field, there is a recognized need to better understand their action at the metabolic and functional levels. In this work, we have used NMR metabolomics, together with conventional clinical chemistry and histological examination, to characterize multi-organ and systemic metabolic responses to AgNPs intravenously administered to mice at 8 mg/kg body weight (a dose not eliciting overt toxicity). The major target organs of AgNPs accumulation, liver and spleen, showed the greatest metabolic changes, in a clear 2-stage response...
October 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892665/difference-in-glycogen-metabolism-glycogen-synthesis-and-glycolysis-between-normal-and-dysplastic-malignant-oral-epithelium
#8
Hitoshi Aizawa, Shin-Ichi Yamada, Tiepeng Xiao, Tetsu Shimane, Kiyonori Hayashi, Fangfang Qi, Hirokazu Tanaka, Hiroshi Kurita
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate a difference in glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthesis and glycolysis) between the iodine stained (normal non-keartinized) and the unstained (dysplasctic/malignant) oral epithelium. METHODS: Twenty-one frozen tissue samples of iodine-stained and unstained mucosal tissue were obtained from 21 OSCC patients. Serial frozen sections were cut and examined with the hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff methods and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for Ki67, P53, molecules associated with glycogenesis (i...
September 2, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793771/systemic-perturbations-of-key-metabolites-in-type-2-diabetic-rats-treated-by-polyphenol-extracts-from-litchi-chinensis-seeds
#9
Shuli Man, Jiang Ma, Jingwen Yao, Jingxia Cui, Chunxia Wang, Yu Li, Long Ma, Fuping Lu
Our previous research obtained Litchi chinensis Sonn. seeds extract (LSE) which showed hypoglycaemic effects on type 2 diabetes (T2D) rats. In order to understand the detailed pathogenesis of diabetes intervened by LSE, the metabonomics strategy was used. As a result, LSE decreased the insulin resistance index and the levels of glucose in urine through elevating the mRNA level of insulin, while decreasing the expression of glucagon to enhance the function of the pancreas. Meanwhile, LSE regulated the glucose and fatty acid metabolisms via increasing the expression of glucose transporter (Glu) 2, Glu4, insulin receptor (IR), and IR substrate-2 (IRS2)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619994/simultaneous-stimulation-of-glycolysis-and-gluconeogenesis-by-feeding-in-the-anterior-intestine-of-the-omnivorous-gift-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#10
Yong-Jun Chen, Ti-Yin Zhang, Hai-Yan Chen, Shi-Mei Lin, Li Luo, De-Shou Wang
The present study was performed to investigate the roles of anterior intestine in the postprandial glucose homeostasis of the omnivorous Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT). Sub-adult fish (about 173 g) were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 8 and 24 h post feeding (HPF) after 36 h of food deprivation, and the time course of changes in intestinal glucose transport, glycolysis, glycogenesis and gluconeogenesis at the transcription and enzyme activity level, as well as plasma glucose contents, were analyzed. Compared with 0 HPF (fasting for 36 h), the mRNA levels of both ATP-dependent sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 and facilitated glucose transporter 2 increased during 1-3 HPF, decreased at 8 HPF and then leveled off...
June 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604463/complete-neurologic-recovery-from-extreme-hypoglycemia-secondary-to-cardiogenic-liver-failure-a-case-report
#11
Yafen Liang, Jeremy M Bennett, Douglas B Coursin, Mark J Rice
Cardiogenic shock from acute severe mitral valve regurgitation can cause acute liver failure due to hypoperfusion. Impaired liver glycogenesis can then lead to profound hypoglycemia. The time frame for restoring normoglycemia without neurologic sequelae is not clearly established in humans. Thus, the clinical decision to provide further resuscitation in the setting of extreme hypoglycemia mainly depends on the patient's overall clinical condition, provider opinion, and/or institutional practice. Here, we report a case where the patient made complete neurologic recovery from extreme hypoglycemia (<5 mg/dL by central laboratory testing) secondary to acute cardiogenic shock and liver failure...
October 15, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602729/alpha-lipoic-acid-impairs-body-weight-gain-of-young-broiler-chicks-via-modulating-peripheral-ampk
#12
Yufeng Wang, Nadia Everaert, Zhigang Song, Eddy Decuypere, Daniel Vermeulen, Johan Buyse
In mammals, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways in the central and peripheral tissues coordinately integrate inputs from multiple sources to regulate energy balance. The present study was aimed to explore the potential role of hepatic AMPK in the energy homeostasis of broiler chickens. Diets with 0, 0.05% or 0.1% alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA), a known AMPK inhibitor were provided to broiler chicks for 7days. As a result, α-LA supplementation decreased the relative growth rate of broiler chicks. Hepatic AMPKα2 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated by dietary α-LA, in concert with the increased phosphorylated AMPKα protein levels...
September 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534956/effects-of-octreotide-on-hepatic-glycogenesis-in-rats-with-high-fat-diet%C3%A2-induced-obesity
#13
Xiao-Xia Wang, Ting Ye, Mao Li, Xian Li, Ou Qiang, Cheng-Wei Tang, Rui Liu
Reduced hepatic glycogenesis is one of the most important causes of metabolic abnormalities in non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease. Octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, has been demonstrated to promote weight loss and improve metabolic disorders in mice with high fat diet (HFD)‑induced obesity. However, whether octreotide affects hepatic glycogenesis is unknown. The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of octreotide on hepatic glycogenesis in rats with HFD‑induced obesity. Male Sprague‑Dawley rats were fed a standard diet or a HFD for 24 weeks...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467989/mir-338-3p-mediates-tnf-a-induced-hepatic-insulin-resistance-by-targeting-pp4r1-to-regulate-pp4-expression
#14
Lin Dou, Shuyue Wang, Libo Sun, Xiuqing Huang, Yang Zhang, Tao Shen, Jun Guo, Yong Man, Weiqing Tang, Jian Li
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is a critical factor contributing to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Recent studies have indicated that miR-338-3p plays an important role in cancer. Here, we investigated whether miR-338-3p mediates tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced hepatic insulin resistance. METHODS: The activation of the insulin signalling pathway and the level of glycogenesis were examined in the livers of the db/db and high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and in HEP1-6 cells transfected with miR-338-3p mimic or inhibitor...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450905/protective-effects-of-silymarin-against-bisphenol-a-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mouse-liver
#15
Mihaela Zaulet, Steliana Elvira Maria Kevorkian, Sorina Dinescu, Coralia Cotoraci, Maria Suciu, Hildegard Herman, Laura Buburuzan, Liliana Badulescu, Aurel Ardelean, Anca Hermenean
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical released into the environment, with severe consequences for human health, including metabolic syndrome and associated pathological conditions. Due to limited information on BPA-induced hepatotoxicity, the present study focused on investigating the association between BPA-induced toxicity and inflammatory markers in the liver, and how these injuries may be alleviated using the natural agent silymarin, a flavonoid with antioxidant properties obtained from Silybum marianum...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440735/nuclear-factor-e2-related-factor-2-knockdown-enhances-glucose-uptake-and-alters-glucose-metabolism-in-aml12-hepatocytes
#16
Xiaoyang Yuan, Huijing Huang, Yi Huang, Jinli Wang, Jinhua Yan, Ling Ding, Cuntai Zhang, Le Zhang
Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to induce the expression of a variety of antioxidant and detoxification genes. Recently, increasing evidence has revealed roles for Nrf2 in glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism; however, the exact functions of Nrf2 in hepatocyte biology are largely unclear. In the current study, the transient knockdown of Nrf2 via siRNA transfection enhanced the glucose uptake of fasting AML12 hepatocytes to 325.3 ± 11.1% ( P < 0.05) of that of untransfected control cells...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163956/ocimum-basilicum-extract-exhibits-antidiabetic-effects-via-inhibition-of-hepatic-glucose-mobilization-and-carbohydrate-metabolizing-enzymes
#17
Chinelo Ezeani, Ifeoma Ezenyi, Theophine Okoye, Charles Okoli
AIM: Ocimum basilicum L (Lamiaceae) is used as a traditional remedy for different ailments, including diabetes mellitus. This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of an extract of aerial parts of O. basilicum. METHODS: Antihyperglycemic effect of the extract was determined by its effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro, while antidiabetic properties were studied in alloxan induced diabetic rats treated for 28 days with extract and compared to those treated with oral metformin (150 mg/kg)...
January 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163025/structural-basis-for-the-transglycosylase-activity-of-a-gh57-type-glycogen-branching-enzyme-from-pyrococcus-horikoshii
#18
Soohui Na, Minjeong Park, Inseong Jo, Jaeho Cha, Nam-Chul Ha
Glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) catalyzes the formation of α-1,6-branching points during glycogenesis by cleaving α-1,4 bonds and making new α-1,6 bonds. Most GBEs belong to the glycoside hydrolase 13 family (GH13), but new GBEs in the GH57 family have been isolated from Archaea. Here, we determined the crystal structure of a GH57 GBE from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhGBE) at a resolution of 2.3 Å. PhGBE exhibits both α-1,6-branching activity and endo-α-1,4 hydrolytic activity...
March 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042874/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-glucose-lowering-effects-of-berberrubine-9-o-%C3%AE-d-glucuronide-an-active-metabolite-of-berberrubine
#19
Na Yang, Run-Bin Sun, Xing-Long Chen, Le Zhen, Chun Ge, Yu-Qing Zhao, Jun He, Jian-Liang Geng, Jia-Hua Guo, Xiao-Yi Yu, Fei Fei, Si-Qi Feng, Xuan-Xuan Zhu, Hong-Bo Wang, Feng-Hua Fu, Ji-Ye Aa, Guang-Ji Wang
Berberrubine (BRB) is the primary metabolite of berberine (BBR) that has shown a stronger glucose-lowering effect than BBR in vivo. On the other hand, BRB is quickly and extensively metabolized into berberrubine-9-O-β-D-glucuronide (BRBG) in rats after oral administration. In this study we compared the pharmacokinetic properties of BRB and BRBG in rats, and explored the mechanisms underlying their glucose-lowering activities. C57BL/6 mice with HFD-induced hyperglycemia were administered BRB (50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) for 6 weeks, which caused greater reduction in the plasma glucose levels than those caused by BBR (120 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) or BRB (25 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1))...
March 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861489/characterizing-transcriptional-networks-in-male-rainbow-darter-etheostoma-caeruleum-that-regulate-testis-development-over-a-complete-reproductive-cycle
#20
Paulina A Bahamonde, Mark E McMaster, Mark R Servos, Christopher J Martyniuk, Kelly R Munkittrick
Intersex is a condition that has been associated with exposure to sewage effluents in male rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum). To better understand changes in the transcriptome that are associated with intersex, we characterized annual changes in the testis transcriptome in wild, unexposed fish. Rainbow darter males were collected from the Grand River (Ontario, Canada) in May (spawning), August (post-spawning), October (recrudescence), January (developing) and March (pre-spawning). Histology was used to determine the proportion of spermatogenic cell types that were present during each period of testicular maturation...
2016: PloS One
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