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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149154/philosophical-issues-and-psychological-variables-that-influence-the-determination-of-opioid-effectiveness-a-narrative-review
#1
Daniel Michael Doleys
BACKGROUND: The prescribing of opioids in the chronic pain setting is often based on the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacogenetics of the drug obtained during development and clinical trials. However, the effectiveness of opioids varies widely and often appears to bear no relationship to the aforementioned variables. The impact of philosophical issues and psychological factors on determining how clinically effective opioid therapy is has often been over looked. OBJECTIVES: This manuscript provides a selective review and narrative summary of the philosophical issues and psychological factors which can influence opioid effectiveness...
November 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148082/insights-into-flood-coping-appraisals-of-protection-motivation-theory-empirical-evidence-from-germany-and-france
#2
Philip Bubeck, W J Wouter Botzen, Jonas Laudan, Jeroen C J H Aerts, Annegret H Thieken
Protection motivation theory (PMT) has become a popular theory to explain the risk-reducing behavior of residents against natural hazards. PMT captures the two main cognitive processes that individuals undergo when faced with a threat, namely, threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The latter describes the evaluation of possible response measures that may reduce or avert the perceived threat. Although the coping appraisal component of PMT was found to be a better predictor of protective intentions and behavior, little is known about the factors that influence individuals' coping appraisals of natural hazards...
November 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147518/machine-learning-molecular-dynamics-for-the-simulation-of-infrared-spectra
#3
Michael Gastegger, Jörg Behler, Philipp Marquetand
Machine learning has emerged as an invaluable tool in many research areas. In the present work, we harness this power to predict highly accurate molecular infrared spectra with unprecedented computational efficiency. To account for vibrational anharmonic and dynamical effects - typically neglected by conventional quantum chemistry approaches - we base our machine learning strategy on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. While these simulations are usually extremely time consuming even for small molecules, we overcome these limitations by leveraging the power of a variety of machine learning techniques, not only accelerating simulations by several orders of magnitude, but also greatly extending the size of systems that can be treated...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146667/building-better-bridges-into-stem-a-synthesis-of-25-years-of-literature-on-stem-summer-bridge-programs
#4
Michael Ashley, Katelyn M Cooper, Jacqueline M Cala, Sara E Brownell
Summer bridge programs are designed to help transition students into the college learning environment. Increasingly, bridge programs are being developed in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines because of the rigorous content and lower student persistence in college STEM compared with other disciplines. However, to our knowledge, a comprehensive review of STEM summer bridge programs does not exist. To provide a resource for bridge program developers, we conducted a systematic review of the literature on STEM summer bridge programs...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146464/language-control-mechanisms-differ-for-native-languages-neuromagnetic-evidence-from-trilingual-language-switching
#5
Suzanne C A Hut, Päivi Helenius, Alina Leminen, Jyrki P Mäkelä, Minna Lehtonen
How does the brain process and control languages that are learned at a different age, when proficiency in all these languages is high? Early acquired strong languages are likely to have higher baseline activation levels than later learned less-dominant languages. However, it is still largely unknown how the activation levels of these different languages are controlled, and how interference from an irrelevant language is prevented. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study on language switching during auditory perception, early Finnish-Swedish bilinguals (N=18) who mastered English with high proficiency after childhood were presented with spoken words in each of the three languages, while performing a simple semantic categorisation task...
November 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144787/lessons-learned-from-a-food-environment-intervention-study-recruitment-and-retention-of-participants-in-disadvantaged-urban-inner-city-neighborhoods
#6
Rachel Engler-Stringer, Joelle Schaefer, Tracy Ridalls, Nazeem Muhajarine
Growing health inequities have led to calls for population health intervention research that can contribute to improving the health of marginalized populations, but conducting research with these communities can be challenging. When research aims to examine and understand an aspect of health in a population characterized as hard-to-reach or marginalized, recruitment techniques appear to have a significant impact on participation and sample retention in longitudinal studies. We examine and comment on the recruitment and retention techniques used in the Good Food, Healthy Families study conducted in low-income, inner-city neighborhoods in a midsized Canadian city; we hope that this will inform recruitment and retention approaches for population health intervention studies in similar populations...
November 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144072/relapse-and-cytogenetic-evolution-in-myeloid-neoplasms
#7
Natalie Ertz-Archambault, Katalin Kelemen
Based on the current WHO Classification of Myeloid Neoplasms, cytogenetic findings play a central role in the diagnostic classification of the myeloid malignancies. Cytogenetic abnormalities detected at primary diagnosis may change over time. Karyotype changes can be characterized as cytogenetic evolution, cytogenetic regression or a combination of both. While the exact mechanism of cytogenetic evolution is not completely understood, the process of cytogenetic evolution is not random, but follows different, and often disease-specific patterns during progression and relapse of myeloid neoplasms...
December 2017: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143061/the-origins-of-verb-learning-preverbal-and-postverbal-infants-learning-of-word-action-relations
#8
Lakshmi Gogate, Madhavilatha Maganti
Purpose: This experiment examined English- or Spanish-learning preverbal (8-9 months, n = 32) and postverbal (12-14 months, n = 40) infants' learning of word-action pairings prior to and after the transition to verb comprehension and its relation to naturally learned vocabulary. Method: Infants of both verbal levels were first habituated to 2 dynamic video displays of novel word-action pairings, the words /wem/ or /bæf/, spoken synchronously with an adult shaking or looming an object, and tested with interchanged (switched) versus same word-action pairings...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142094/standardized-automated-training-of-rhesus-monkeys-for-neuroscience-research-in-their-housing-environment
#9
Michael Berger, Antonino Calapai, Valeska Stephan, Michael Niessing, Leonore Burchardt, Alexander Gail, Stefan Treue
Teaching non-human primates the complex cognitive behavioral tasks that are central to cognitive neuroscience research is an essential and challenging endeavor. It is crucial for the scientific success that the animals learn to interpret the often complex task rules, and reliably and enduringly act accordingly. To achieve consistent behavior and comparable learning histories across animals, it is desirable to standardize training protocols. Automatizing the training can significantly reduce the time invested by the person training the animal...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140274/an-efficient-approach-for-lipase-catalyzed-synthesis-of-retinyl-laurate-nutraceutical-by-combining-ultrasound-assistance-and-artificial-neural-network-optimization
#10
Shang-Ming Huang, Hsin-Ju Li, Yung-Chuan Liu, Chia-Hung Kuo, Chwen-Jen Shieh
Although retinol is an important nutrient, retinol is highly sensitive to oxidation. At present, some ester forms of retinol are generally used in nutritional supplements because of its stability and bioavailability. However, such esters are commonly synthesized by chemical procedures which are harmful to the environment. Thus, this study utilized a green method using lipase as a catalyst with sonication assistance to produce a retinol derivative named retinyl laurate. Moreover, the process was optimized by an artificial neural network (ANN)...
November 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137586/burnout-and-the-learning-environment-of-anaesthetic-trainees
#11
D J Castanelli, S A Wickramaarachchi, S Wallis
Burnout has a high prevalence among healthcare workers and is increasingly recognised as an environmental problem rather than reflecting a personal inability to cope with work stress. We distributed an electronic survey, which included the Maslach Burnout Inventory Health Services Survey and a previously validated learning environment instrument, to 281 Victorian anaesthetic trainees. The response rate was 50%. We found significantly raised rates of burnout in two of three subscales. Ninety-one respondents (67%) displayed evidence of burnout in at least one domain, with 67 (49%) reporting high emotional exhaustion and 57 (42%) reporting high depersonalisation...
November 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136556/industry-interests-in-gambling-research-lessons-learned-from-other-forms-of-hazardous-consumption
#12
S Cowlishaw, S L Thomas
Research indicates that the evidential bases for many harm reduction policies targeting hazardous consumptions (including tobacco, alcohol and gambling) have been distorted by commercial industries that derive revenue from such commodities. These distortions are best illustrated by research on tobacco and alcohol, which indicates similar tactics used by industries to determine favourable policy environments through engineering of evidence, among other approaches. Although there is concern that gambling research is similarly vulnerable to commercial interests, the relevant literature lags far behind other fields and the aim of this paper is to increase familiarity with tactics used by industries for influencing research...
November 6, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136539/an-examination-of-lower-limb-asymmetry-in-ankle-isometric-force-control
#13
Sheng-Che Yen, Laura C Olsavsky, Caitlin M Cloonan, Amelia R Llanos, Kara J Dwyer, Mohsen Nabian, Amir Bahador Farjadian
While asymmetries have been observed between the dominant and non-dominant legs, it is unclear whether they have different abilities in isometric force control (IFC). The purpose of this study was to compare ankle IFC between the legs. IFC is important for stabilization rather than object manipulation, and people typically use their non-dominant leg for stabilization tasks. Additionally, studies suggested that a limb can better acquire a motor task when the control mechanism of the task is related to what the limb is specialized for...
November 11, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135750/student-and-educator-experiences-of-maternal-child-simulation-based-learning-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#14
Karen MacKinnon, Lenora Marcellus, Julie Rivers, Carol Gordon, Maureen Ryan, Diane Butcher
BACKGROUND: Although maternal-child care is a pillar of primary health care, there is a global shortage of maternal-child health care providers. Nurse educators experience difficulties providing undergraduate students with maternal-child learning experiences for a number of reasons. Simulation has the potential to complement learning in clinical and classroom settings. Although systematic reviews of simulation are available, no systematic reviews of qualitative evidence related to maternal-child simulation-based learning (SBL) for undergraduate nursing students and/or educators have been located...
November 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133589/precision-oncology-beyond-targeted-therapy-combining-omics-data-with-machine-learning-matches-the-majority-of-cancer-cells-to-effective-therapeutics
#15
Michael Q Ding, Lujia Chen, Gregory F Cooper, Jonathan D Young, Xinghua Lu
Precision oncology involves identifying drugs that will effectively treat a tumor and then prescribing an optimal clinical treatment regimen. However, most first-line chemotherapy drugs do not have biomarkers to guide their application. For molecularly targeted drugs, using the genomic status of a drug target as a therapeutic indicator has limitations. In this study, machine learning methods (e.g., deep learning) were used to identify informative features from genome scale omics data and to train classifiers for predicting the effectiveness of drugs in cancer cell lines...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132076/kinematic-analysis-of-direct-pointing-in-projection-based-stereoscopic-environments
#16
Chiuhsiang Joe Lin, Bereket Haile Woldegiorgis
This work investigated the effects of visual information, parallax, and target positions on movement performances in projection-based stereoscopic displays (PSDs). Fifteen (26.5 ± 3.83 years) self-declared right-handed individuals, with normal or corrected to normal visual acuity, completed pointing tasks in stereoscopic and real environments (RE). Three-dimensional spatial data, recorded by a motion system composed of six infrared cameras, was used to compute kinematics of reaching a real/virtual object at a combination of three parallax and nine frontal planar positions...
November 10, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131704/impact-of-team-composition-on-student-perceptions-of-interprofessional-teamwork-a-6-year-cohort-study
#17
Chad Lairamore, Duston Morris, Rachel Schichtl, Lorrie George-Paschal, Heather Martens, Alexandros Maragakis, Mary Garnica, Barbara Jones, Myra Grantham, Adam Bruenger
Interprofessional education (IPE) provides students with opportunities to learn about the roles and responsibilities of other professions and develop communication and teamwork skills. As different health professions have recognised the importance of IPE, the number of disciplines participating in IPE events is increasing. Consequently, it is important to examine the effect group structure has on the learning environment and student knowledge acquisition during IPE events. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of group composition on student perceptions of interprofessional teamwork and collaboration when participating in a case-based IPE forum...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131590/environmental-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-an-overview-and-a-primer
#18
Andre J Simpson, Myrna J Simpson, Ronald Soong
NMR spectroscopy is a versatile tool for the study of structure and interactions in environmental media such as air, soil, and water as well as monitoring the metabolic responses of living organisms to an ever changing environment. Part review, part perspective and part tutorial, this feature is aimed at non-specialists who are interested in learning more about the potential and impact of NMR spectroscopy in environmental research.
November 13, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131512/the-role-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-prediction-error-and-signaling-surprise
#19
William H Alexander, Joshua W Brown
In the past two decades, reinforcement learning (RL) has become a popular framework for understanding brain function. A key component of RL models, prediction error, has been associated with neural signals throughout the brain, including subcortical nuclei, primary sensory cortices, and prefrontal cortex. Depending on the location in which activity is observed, the functional interpretation of prediction error may change: Prediction errors may reflect a discrepancy in the anticipated and actual value of reward, a signal indicating the salience or novelty of a stimulus, and many other interpretations...
November 13, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131388/saccharomyces-interspecies-hybrids-as-model-organisms-for-studying-yeast-adaptation-to-stressful-environments
#20
Ksenija Lopandic
The strong development of molecular biology techniques and next-generation sequencing technologies in the last two decades has significantly improved our understanding of the evolutionary history of Saccharomyces yeasts. It has been shown that many strains isolated from man-made environments are not pure genetic lines, but contain genetic materials from different species that substantially increase their genome complexity. A number of strains have been described as interspecies hybrids, implying different yeast species that under specific circumstances exchange and recombine their genomes...
November 13, 2017: Yeast
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