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brown adipogenesis

Tiange Li, Jing Gao, Min Du, Jiajia Song, Xueying Mao
Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk, has many health benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether MFGM could prevent obesity through inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting brown remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT) in mice fed with high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD plus MFGM at 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW or 400 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks. Results showed that MFGM suppressed body weight gain induced by HFD, reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass accompanied with the decrease in adipocyte sizes...
March 9, 2018: Nutrients
Kinyui Alice Lo, Shiqi Huang, Arcinas Camille Esther Walet, Zhi-Chun Zhang, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow, Meihui Liu, Lei Sun
Obesity induces profound transcriptome changes in adipocytes; recent evidence suggests that lncRNAs play key roles in this process. Here, we performed a comprehensive transcriptome study by RNA-Seq in adipocytes isolated from interscapular brown, inguinal and epididymal white adipose tissues in diet-induced obese mice. Our analysis reveals a set of obesity-dysregulated lncRNAs, many of which exhibit dynamic changes in fed vs. fasted state, potentially serving as novel molecular markers reflecting adipose energy status...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes
Hisashi Kato, Shinya Masuda, Tomotaka Ohira, Luna Ohira, Hisashi Takakura, Yoshinobu Ohira, Tetsuya Izawa
β-Guanidinopropionic acid (β-GPA) feeding inhibits growth-associated gain of body mass. It remains unknown, however, whether and how β-GPA feeding affects growth-associated increase in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. We examined the effects of 4- and 8-week β-GPA feeding on serum myostatin levels and expression of genes and proteins related to adipogenesis, lipolysis, and liposynthesis in epididymal WAT (eWAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in 3-week-old, juvenile male mice. Body, eWAT, and muscle weights were significantly lower in β-GPA-fed mice than in controls after feeding...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Nadeeja N Wijayatunga, Mandana Pahlavani, Nishan S Kalupahana, Kameswara Rao Kottapalli, Preethi H Gunaratne, Cristian Coarfa, Latha Ramalingam, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
Obesity contributes to metabolic disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Characterization of differences between the main adipose tissue depots, white (WAT) [including subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and brown adipose tissue (BAT) helps to identify their roles in obesity. Thus, we studied depot-specific differences in whole transcriptome and miRNA profiles of SAT, VAT and BAT from high fat diet (HFD/45% of calories from fat) fed mice using RNA sequencing and small RNA-Seq...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Jung-Chun Lin
Alternative splicing has been widely demonstrated to function as pivotal regulation in specifying cellular fates and biological functions. The relative expression or cellular localization of a splicing factor constitutes an important mechanism in spatiotemporal programming of cell- and stage-specific splicing profiles. In this study, results of deep RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) analyses first revealed the reprogrammed splicing profile and reduced expression of serine/arginine-rich splicing factor protein kinase 1 (SRPK1) throughout the development of brown adipose tissue (BAT)...
February 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jonathan D Brown, Zachary B Feldman, Sean P Doherty, Jaime M Reyes, Peter B Rahl, Charles Y Lin, Quanhu Sheng, Qiong Duan, Alexander J Federation, Andrew L Kung, Saptarsi M Haldar, Richard A Young, Jorge Plutzky, James E Bradner
Developmental transitions are guided by master regulatory transcription factors. During adipogenesis, a transcriptional cascade culminates in the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα, which orchestrate activation of the adipocyte gene expression program. However, the coactivators controlling PPARγ and C/EBPα expression are less well characterized. Here, we show the bromodomain-containing protein, BRD4, regulates transcription of PPARγ and C/EBPα. Analysis of BRD4 chromatin occupancy reveals that induction of adipogenesis in 3T3L1 fibroblasts provokes dynamic redistribution of BRD4 to de novo super-enhancers proximal to genes controlling adipocyte differentiation...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rui Cai, Yunmei Sun, Naren Qimuge, Guoqiang Wang, Yingqian Wang, Guiyan Chu, Taiyong Yu, Gongshe Yang, Weijun Pang
Adiponectin (AdipoQ) is an adipocyte-derived hormone with positive function on systemic glucose and lipid metabolism. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is emerging as a vital regulator of adipogenesis. However, AdipoQ-related lncRNAs in lipid metabolism have not been explored. Here, AdipoQ antisense (AS) lncRNA was first identified, and we further found that it inhibited adipogenesis. The half-life of AdipoQ AS lncRNA was 10 h, whereas that of AdipoQ mRNA was 4 h. During adipogenic differentiation, AdipoQ AS lncRNA translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm...
January 29, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Tatiane Gorski, Sebastian Mathes, Jan Krützfeldt
BACKGROUND: Intramuscular fatty infiltration is generally associated with the accumulation of white adipocytes in skeletal muscle and unfavourable metabolic outcomes. It is, however, still unclear whether intramuscular adipocytes could also acquire a brown-like phenotype. Here, we detected intramuscular expression of brown adipocyte markers during fatty infiltration in an obesity-resistant mouse strain and extensively compared the potential of two different stem cell populations residing in skeletal muscle to differentiate into brown-like adipocytes...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Khanh-Van Tran, Timothy Fitzgibbons, So Yun Min, Tiffany DeSouza, Silvia Corvera
OBJECTIVE: Perivascular adipose tissue depots around the aorta are regionally distinct and have specific functional properties. Thoracic aorta perivascular adipose tissue (tPVAT) expresses higher levels of thermogenic genes and lower levels of inflammatory genes than abdominal aorta perivascular adipose tissue (aPVAT). It is not known whether this distinction is due to the in-vivo functional environment or to cell-autonomous traits that persist outside the in-vivo setting. In this study, we asked whether the progenitor cells in tPVAT and aPVAT have cell-autonomous traits that lead to formation of regionally distinct PVAT...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Linjie Wang, Ke Xue, Yan Wang, Lili Niu, Li Li, Tao Zhong, Jiazhong Guo, Jing Feng, Tianzeng Song, Hongping Zhang
Objective: It is commonly accepted that adiponectin binds to its two receptors to regulate fatty acid metabolism in adipocytes. To better understand their functions in the regulation of intramuscular adipogenesis in goats, we cloned the three genes (AdipoQ, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) encoding these proteins and detected their mRNA distribution in different tissues. We also determined the role of AdipoQ in the adipogenic differentiation of goat skeletal muscle satellite cells (SMSCs). Methods: SMSCs were isolated using 1 mg/ml Pronase E from the longissimus dorsi muscles of 3-day-old female Nanjiang brown goats...
January 30, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Wenjing Wu, Jin Zhang, Chen Zhao, Yunmei Sun, Yajun Yin, Yongjia Peng, Weijun Pang, Gongshe Yang
The C1q/TNF-related protein 6 (CTRP6) is an adipokine involved in diverse biolgical processes. Formerly, we identified that CTRP6 regulates adipocyte differentiation, fatty acid oxidation and triglyceride accumulation in vitro. However, the effects of CTRP6 on adiposity in vivo have not yet been defined. This study aimed to confirm the involvement of CTRP6 in adipose accumulation and brown adipogenesis by intraperitoneal injection of the CTRP6-shRNA lentivirus into mice (CL mice). CL mice were significantly thinner than the control mice after feeding with a high fat diet (HFD), independent of food intake quantity...
January 20, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
P Subash-Babu, Ali A Alshatwi
Ononitol monohydrate (OMH), a glycoside was originally isolated from Cassia tora (Linn.). Glycosides regulate lipid metabolism but scientific validation desired. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the effect of OMH on enhancing mitochondrial potential, mitochondrial biogenesis, upregulate the expression of brown adipogenesis specific genes in maturing adipocytes. In addition, we observed the inter-relation between adipocyte and T-lymphocyte; whether, OMH treated adipocyte-condition medium stimulate T-cell chemokine linked with insulin resistance...
January 19, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Francisco José Albuquerque de Paula, Clifford J Rosen
Adipocytes are heterogeneous cells strongly linked to energy storage and disposal. In parallel, adipocytes are endowed with an extensive portfolio of endocrine molecules, whose secretion varies depending on nutritional status. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) has specific characteristics that are not shared by white (WAT) or brown (BAT) adipose tissue. First, marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts are terminally differentiated cells that originate from the same bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell. Differently from WAT adipocytes, marrow adipocytes expand under conditions of energy restriction and seem to be not influenced by energy surplus, at least in humans...
December 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
Yan Xiong, Feng Yue, Zhihao Jia, Yun Gao, Wen Jin, Keping Hu, Yong Zhang, Dahai Zhu, Gongshe Yang, Shihuan Kuang
The thermogenic activities of brown and beige adipocytes can be exploited to reduce energy surplus and counteract obesity. Recent RNA sequencing studies have uncovered a number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) uniquely expressed in white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT), but whether and how these lncRNAs function in adipogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of a novel brown adipocyte-enriched LncRNA (AK079912), and its nuclear localization, function and regulation. The expression of AK079912 increases during brown preadipocyte differentiation and in response to cold-stimulated browning of white adipocytes...
January 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ryosuke Kida, Taiki Noguchi, Masaru Murakami, Osamu Hashimoto, Teruo Kawada, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
We previously showed that brown (pre)adipocytes express Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, and that capsaicin stimulates differentiation of brown preadipocytes in the late stages of brown adipogenesis. The present study revealed that treatment with 100 μM capsaicin stimulates brown adipogenesis by inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Treatment with capsaicin (100 μM) during brown adipogenesis enhanced lipid accumulation and the expression of Ucp1, a gene selectively expressed in brown adipocytes. Capsaicin treatment also caused an increase in the cytosolic calcium concentration even when extracellular calcium was removed...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tong Xing, Yifei Kang, Xinglian Xu, Bo Wang, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
SCOPE: Excessive lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to chronic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Raspberry (RB) contains high amount of polyphenols and dietary fibers. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of RB supplementation on WAT morphology, inflammation, and insulin signaling in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice are fed with a control diet or a HFD supplemented with 0 or 5% freeze dried RB for 12 weeks...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Olivier Goupille, Tipparat Penglong, Zahra Kadri, Marine Granger-Locatelli, Raphaël Denis, Serge Luquet, Cécile Badoual, Suthat Fucharoen, Leila Maouche-Chrétien, Philippe Leboulch, Stany Chrétien
GATA transcription factors and their FOG cofactors play a key role in tissue-specific development and differentiation, from worms to humans. Mammals have six GATA and two FOG factors. We recently demonstrated that interactions between retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and GATA-1 are crucial for erythroid proliferation and differentiation. We show here that the LXCXE pRb-binding site of FOG-2 is involved in adipogenesis. Unlike GATA-1, which inhibits cell division, FOG-2 promotes proliferation. Mice with a knockin of a Fog2 gene bearing a mutated LXCXE pRb-binding site are resistant to obesity and display higher rates of white-to-brown fat conversion...
December 19, 2017: Cell Reports
Marco Tozzi, Ivana Novak
Extracellular nucleosides and nucleotides, such as adenosine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), are involved in many physiological and pathological processes in adipose tissue (AT). It is becoming accepted that, in addition to the well-established sympathetic and hormonal system, purinergic receptors contribute significantly to regulation of adipocyte functions. Several receptor subtypes for both adenosine (P1) and ATP (P2X and P2Y) have been characterized in white adipocytes (WA) and brown adipocytes (BA). The effects mediated by adenosine and ATP on adipocytes are multiple and often differing, depending on specific receptors activated...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Liang Ding, Lifang Zhang, Sudipta Biswas, Rebecca C Schugar, J Mark Brown, Tatiana Byzova, Eugene Podrez
Three Akt isoforms, encoded by 3 separate genes, are expressed in mammals. While the roles of Akt1 and Akt2 in metabolism are well established, it is not yet known whether Akt3 plays a role in metabolic diseases. We now report that Akt3 protects mice from high-fat diet-induced obesity by suppressing an alternative pathway of adipogenesis via with no lysine protein kinase-1 (WNK1) and serum/glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). We demonstrate that Akt3 specifically phosphorylates WNK1 at T58 and promotes its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway...
November 16, 2017: JCI Insight
T Tsiloulis, A L Carey, J Bayliss, B Canny, R C R Meex, M J Watt
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The phenomenon of adipocyte 'beiging' involves the conversion of non-classic brown adipocytes to brown-like adipose tissue with thermogenic, fat-burning properties, and this phenomenon has been shown in rodents to slow the progression of obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Rodent studies consistently report adipocyte beiging after endurance exercise training, indicating that increased thermogenic capacity in these adipocytes may underpin the improved health benefits of exercise training...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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