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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933276/acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-lebanese-patients-phenotypes-and-genotypes-of-resistance-clonality-and-determinants-of-pathogenicity
#1
Elias Dahdouh, Micheline Hajjar, Monica Suarez, Ziad Daoud
Introduction:Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen that usually affects critically ill patients. High mortality rates have been associated with MDR A. baumannii infections. Carbapenem resistance among these isolates is increasing worldwide and is associated with certain International Clones (ICs) and oxacillinases (OXAs). Moreover, this organism possesses a wide range of virulence factors, whose expression is not yet fully understood. In this study, clinical A. baumannii isolates are characterized in terms of antibiotic resistance, mechanisms of carbapenem resistance, clonality, and virulence...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933045/what-is-the-link-between-stringent-response-endoribonuclease-encoding-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-systems-and-persistence
#2
Bhaskar C M Ramisetty, Dimpy Ghosh, Maoumita Roy Chowdhury, Ramachandran S Santhosh
Persistence is a transient and non-inheritable tolerance to antibiotics by a small fraction of a bacterial population. One of the proposed determinants of bacterial persistence is toxin-antitoxin systems (TASs) which are also implicated in a wide range of stress-related phenomena. Maisonneuve E, Castro-Camargo M, Gerdes K. 2013. Cell 154:1140-1150 reported an interesting link between ppGpp mediated stringent response, TAS, and persistence. It is proposed that accumulation of ppGpp enhances the accumulation of inorganic polyphosphate which modulates Lon protease to degrade antitoxins...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931948/nonmissile-penetrating-head-injuries-nphis-surgical-management-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Xi-Sheng Li, Jun Yan, Chang Liu, Yu Luo, Xing-Sheng Liao, Liang Yu, Shao-Wen Xiao
BACKGROUND: Nonmissile penetrating head injuries (NPHIs) in the civilian population are rare but with potentially fatal features. While numerous cases have been reported in the literature, the surgical management of such injuries is still ambiguous, especially with surgical techniques updating. Here we will illustrate 5 cases of NPHIs managed with different surgical techniques and review the literature on surgical treatment of these injuries to outline the appropriate management for these patients from neurosurgical perspective...
December 5, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931680/reactivation-or-reinfection-in-adult-tuberculosis-is-that-the-question
#4
Pere-Joan Cardona
Looking at the chapter on "natural history" in any tuberculosis (TB) reference book, there is a kind of certainty regarding TB in adults. That is the concept of "post-primary" TB described as the reactivation of dormant bacilli hidden in an old lesion developed during infancy due to a type of local immunosuppression. Intriguingly, this concept involves at least two major uncertainties: how can dormant bacilli remain for such a long period, almost a lifetime, in an old lesion, taking into account granuloma dynamism; and what sort of local immunosuppression is the one that facilitates reactivation? The controversy between reactivation and exogenous reinfection as the cause of active TB started very soon in TB research...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930584/risk-of-infection-is-associated-more-with-drain-duration-than-daily-drainage-volume-in-prosthesis-based-breast-reconstruction-a-cohort-study
#5
Cheng-Feng Chen, Shou-Fong Lin, Chen-Fang Hung, Pesus Chou
In prosthesis-based breast reconstruction, drains are used to prevent seroma formation and to reduce the risk of infection. However, prolonged drainage increases the risk of ascending infection. Although the volume often accepted for drain removal is ≤30 mL per day, the optimal timing to remove the drain for best clinical outcome remains controversial.We did a retrospective cohort study of 569 patients of prosthesis-based breast reconstruction with infection rate as the outcome variable; drain duration and last daily drainage volume as the main independent variables...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928482/frequency-of-genes-encoding-erythromycin-ribosomal-methylases-among-staphylococcus-aureus-clinical-isolates-with-different-d-phenotypes-in-tehran-iran
#6
Sareh Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad Niakan, Horieh Saderi, Mitra Motallebi, Morovat Taherikalani, Khairollah Asadollahi, Mohammad Emaneini
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin type B (MLSB) antibiotics are important in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections and existence of isolates with ability to resist against MLSB antibiotics is worrisome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross sectional study, 101 S. aureus isolates were collected from patients of five selected hospitals in Tehran over a period of five months. Disk diffusion tests and differentiation between constitutive and inducible resistances were carried out by D-test...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926825/mycobacterium-malmesburyense-sp-nov-a-novel-non-tuberculous-mycobacterium-species-revealed-by-multiple-gene-sequence-characterization
#7
Nomakorinte Gcebe, Victor Rutten, Nicolaas Gey van Pittius, Brendon Naicker, Anita Michel
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in the environment and an increasing number of NTM species have been isolated and characterized from both humans and animals, highlighting the zoonotic potential of these bacteria. Host exposure to NTM may impact on cross-reactive immune responsiveness which may affect diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis and may also play a role in the variability of the efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination against tuberculosis. In this study we characterized 10 NTM isolates originating from water, soil, nasal swabs of cattle and African buffalo as well as bovine tissue samples...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925615/positive-selection-in-cathelicidin-host-defense-peptides-adaptation-to-exogenous-pathogens-or-endogenous-receptors
#8
S Zhu, B Gao
The cause of adaptive protein evolution includes internal (for example, co-evolution of ligand-receptor pairs) and external (for example, adaptation to different ecological niches) mechanisms. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are a class of vertebrate-specific cationic antimicrobial peptides evolving under positive selection. Besides their antibiotic activity, HDPs also exert an effect on multiple host immune cells, thus providing an ideal model to study selective agents driving their evolution. On the basis of a combination of computational and experimental approaches, we studied the evolution of LL-37-type HDPs in mammals, the mature peptide of cathelicidin CAP18 (herein termed CAP18-MP) and investigated the driving force behind the evolution...
December 7, 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924169/hospital-acquired-infections-after-cardiac-surgery-and-current-physician-practices-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Scott O'Keefe, Kenneth Williams, Jean-Francois Legare
BACKGROUND: The management of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) with respect to physician practices remains largely unexplored despite increasing efforts to standardize care. In the present study, we report findings from a 2-month audit of all patients that have undergone cardiac surgery at a large referral center in Atlantic Canada. METHODS: All patients who underwent cardiac surgical procedures during May and June 2013 at the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Center in Halifax, Nova Scotia were identified...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923922/mechanisms-of-evolution-in-high-consequence-drug-resistance-plasmids
#10
Susu He, Michael Chandler, Alessandro M Varani, Alison B Hickman, John P Dekker, Fred Dyda
: The dissemination of resistance among bacteria has been facilitated by the fact that resistance genes are usually located on a diverse and evolving set of transmissible plasmids. However, the mechanisms generating diversity and enabling adaptation within highly successful resistance plasmids have remained obscure, despite their profound clinical significance. To understand these mechanisms, we have performed a detailed analysis of the mobilome (the entire mobile genetic element content) of a set of previously sequenced carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923578/characterization-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-representative-organic-solid-wastes-food-waste-recycling-wastewater-manure-and-sewage-sludge
#11
Jangwoo Lee, Seung Gu Shin, Hyun Min Jang, Young Beom Kim, Joonyeob Lee, Young Mo Kim
In this research, the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was characterized in representative organic solid waste (OSW) in Korea: food waste-recycling wastewater (FRW), manure, and sewage sludge. The amounts of total ARG (gene copies/16S rRNA gene copies) was greatest in manure followed by sewage sludge and FRW. Interestingly, there were significantly different patterns in the diversity and mechanisms of ARGs. For example, a significant proportion of ARGs were tetracycline resistant genes in all the OSW (40...
December 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923215/timing-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-preventing-surgical-site-infections-in-foot-and-ankle-surgery
#12
Direk Tantigate, Eugene Jang, Mani Seetharaman, Peter C Noback, A M Heijne, Justin K Greisberg, J Turner Vosseller
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most troublesome complications after foot and ankle surgery. Previous literature has emphasized the significance of appropriate timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. However, the optimal timing of antibiotic prophylaxis for SSI prevention is still inconclusive. Our study aimed to investigate the optimal timing of antibiotic administration and to elucidate the risk factors for SSIs in foot and ankle surgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of 1933 foot and ankle procedures in 1632 patients from January 1, 2011, through August 31, 2015, was performed...
October 23, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922269/genomic-study-of-the-type-ivc-secretion-system-in-clostridium-difficile-understanding-c-difficile-evolution-via-horizontal-gene-transfer
#13
Wen Zhang, Ying Cheng, Pengcheng Du, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongbing Jia, Xianping Li, Jing Wang, Na Han, Yujun Qiang, Chen Chen, Jinxing Lu
Clostridium difficile, the etiological agent of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), is a gram-positive, spore-forming bacillus that is responsible for ∼20% of antibiotic-related cases of diarrhea and nearly all cases of pseudomembranous colitis. Previous data have shown that a substantial proportion (11%) of the C. difficile genome consists of mobile genetic elements, including seven conjugative transposons. However, the mechanism underlying the formation of a mosaic genome in C. difficile is unknown. The type-IV secretion system (T4SS) is the only secretion system known to transfer DNA segments among bacteria...
August 30, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919888/identification-of-a-novel-lincomycin-resistance-mutation-associated-with-activation-of-antibiotic-production-in-streptomyces-coelicolor-a3-2
#14
Guojun Wang, Masumi Izawa, Xiaoge Yang, Dongbo Xu, Yukinori Tanaka, Kozo Ochi
Comparative genome sequencing analysis of a lincomycin-resistant strain of Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2) and the wild type strain identified a novel mutation conferring a high level of lincomycin resistance. Surprisingly, the new mutation was an in-frame DNA deletion in the genes SCO4597-SCO4598, resulting in formation of the hybrid gene linR SCO4597 and SCO4598 encode two histidine kinases, which, together with SCO4596, encoding a response regulator, constitute a unique two-component system. Sequence analysis indicated that these three genes and their arrangement patterns are ubiquitous among all Streptomyces genomes sequenced to date, suggesting these genes play important regulatory roles...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919578/is-the-commercial-antibiotic-loaded-bone-cement-useful-in-prophylactic-and-cost-saving-after-knee-and-hip-joint-arthroplasty-the-transatlantic-paradox
#15
Pablo Sanz-Ruiz, Jose Antonio Matas-Diez, Mar Sanchez-Somolinos, Manuel Villanueva-Martinez, Javier Vaquero-Martín
BACKGROUND: The use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) has proven to be effective in preventing periprosthetic infection (PPI) after total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the economic benefit of using ALBC routinely remains controversial. METHODS: A total of 2518 patients subjected to THA, partial hip arthroplasty, and TKA between 2009 and 2012 were identified in our prospectively collected registry. Two groups were defined: before (2009-2010) and after the introduction of ALBC (2011-2012)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917170/isolation-and-characterization-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-recovered-from-campylobacter-selective-medium
#16
Dinesh M Fernando, Izhar U H Khan, Rakesh Patidar, David R Lapen, Guylaine Talbot, Edward Topp, Ayush Kumar
Acinetobacter baumannii, a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, is known to cause multidrug resistant infections. This organism has primarily been isolated from clinical environments and its environmental reservoirs remain largely unknown. In the present study, we recovered seven isolates of A. baumannii growing under conditions selective for Campylobacter spp. (microaerophilic at 42°C and in the presence of antibiotics) from dairy cattle manure storage tank or surface water impacted by livestock effluents...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916936/capsule-targeting-depolymerase-derived-from-klebsiella-kp36-phage-as-a-tool-for-the-development-of-anti-virulent-strategy
#17
Grażyna Majkowska-Skrobek, Agnieszka Łątka, Rita Berisio, Barbara Maciejewska, Flavia Squeglia, Maria Romano, Rob Lavigne, Carsten Struve, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
The rise of antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, a leading nosocomial pathogen, prompts the need for alternative therapies. We have identified and characterized a novel depolymerase enzyme encoded by Klebsiella phage KP36 (depoKP36), from the Siphoviridae family. To gain insights into the catalytic and structural features of depoKP36, we have recombinantly produced this protein of 93.4 kDa and showed that it is able to hydrolyze a crude exopolysaccharide of a K. pneumoniae host. Using in vitro and in vivo assays, we found that depoKP36 was also effective against a native capsule of clinical K...
December 1, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915018/design-and-surface-immobilization-of-short-anti-biofilm-peptides
#18
Biswajit Mishra, Tamara Lushnikova, Radha M Golla, Xiuqing Wang, Guangshun Wang
: Short antimicrobial peptides are essential to keep us healthy and their lasting potency can inspire the design of new types of antibiotics. This study reports the design of a family of eight-residue tryptophan-rich peptides (TetraF2W) obtained by converting the four phenylalanines in temporin-SHf to tryptophans. The temporin-SHf template was identified from the antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP). Remarkably, the double arginine variant (TetraF2W-RR) was more effective in killing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) USA300, but less cytotoxic to human skin HaCat and kidney HEK293 cells, than the lysine-containing dibasic combinations (KR, RK and KK)...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914962/efflux-mediated-colistin-resistance-in-diverse-clones-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-aquatic-environment
#19
Santosh Kumar Singh, Mitali Mishra, Minu Sahoo, Shashank Patole, Harapriya Mohapatra
The peptide drug colistin is commonly used to treat carbapenem resistant gram negative bacterial infections. In the present study, we report efflux mediated colistin resistance in multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates belonging to ST200 and ST1296, isolated from a fresh water environment. The isolates exhibited intermediate resistance to human serum, possessed Type 1 fimbriae and harbored blaSHV-34 and blaTEM-1 genes. Our results highlight the evolving nature of these clones in the country. These observations emphasize the need for judicious usage of antibiotics to prevent the imminent danger of losing out on currently available therapeutic options...
November 30, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914764/enhanced-recovery-pathway-in-patients-undergoing-distal-pancreatectomy-a-case-matched-study
#20
Nicolò Pecorelli, Giovanni Capretti, Gianpaolo Balzano, Renato Castoldi, Marianna Maspero, Luigi Beretta, Marco Braga
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery (ER) pathways have improved outcomes across multiple surgical specialties, but reports concerning their application in distal pancreatectomy (DP) are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess compliance with an ER protocol and its impact on short-term outcomes in patients undergoing DP. METHODS: Prospectively collected data were reviewed. One hundred consecutive patients undergoing DP were treated within an ER pathway comprising 18 care elements...
November 30, 2016: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
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