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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647425/use-of-antibiotics-and-the-prevalence-of-antibiotic-associated-diarrhoea-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injuries-an-international-multicentre-centre-study
#1
Samford Wong, Piera Santullo, Shashivadan P Hirani, Naven Kumar, Joy R Chowdhury, Angel García-Forcada, Marta Recio, Fátima Paz, Ineta Zobina, Sreedhar Kolli, Carlotte Kiekens, Nathalie Draulans, Ellen Roels, Janneke Martens-Bijlsma, Jean O'Driscoll, Ali Jamous, Mofid Saif
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the use of antibiotics and the extent of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. AIMS: To (1) record the use of antibiotics; (2) establish the prevalence of AAD and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and (3) assess whether there was any seasonal variation in antibiotic use and incidence of AAD. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in six European SCI centres during October 2014 to June 2015...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647339/the-effects-of-amoxicillin-and-vancomycin-on-parameters-reflecting-cholesterol-metabolism
#2
S Baumgartner, D Reijnders, M C J M Konings, A K Groen, D Lütjohann, G H Goossens, E E Blaak, J Plat
BACKGROUND: Changes in the microbiota composition have been implicated in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, not much is known on the involvement of gut microbiota in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. In addition, the gut microbiota might also be a potential source of plasma oxyphytosterol and oxycholesterol concentrations (oxidation products of plant sterols and cholesterol). Therefore, the aim of this study was to modulate the gut microbiota by antibiotic therapy to investigate effects on parameters reflecting cholesterol metabolism and oxyphytosterol concentrations...
June 21, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646815/integrative-treatment-of-chronic-abdominal-bloating-and-pain-associated-with-overgrowth-of-small-intestinal-bacteria-a-case-report
#3
Laura Kwiatkowski, Elizabeth Rice, Jeffrey Langland
Context • Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is commonly defined as an increased number of bacteria and/or an abnormal type of bacteria in the small intestine. Conventional treatment for SIBO is typically focused on antibiotics to eradicate the bacterial overgrowth. Numerous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of herbs, and a diet low in fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) has been shown to enhance antibiotic therapy. Objective • The current case study intended to evaluate the benefits of an alternative, multifaceted approach-including botanical and homeopathic therapies in conjunction with a low-FODMAP diet-in the treatment of SIBO and its associated symptoms...
July 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646112/crispr-cas12a-assisted-recombineering-in-bacteria
#4
Mei-Yi Yan, Hai-Qin Yan, Gai-Xian Ren, Ju-Ping Zhao, Xiao-Peng Guo, Yi-Cheng Sun
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas12a (Cpf1) has emerged as an effective genome editing tool in many organisms. Here, we developed and optimized a CRISPR-Cas12a assisted recombineering system to facilitate genetic manipulation in bacteria. Using this system, point mutations, deletions, insertions, and gene replacements can be easily generated on the chromosome or native plasmids in Escherichia coli, Yersinia pestis, and Mycobacterium smegmatis Because CRISPR-Cas12a-assisted recombineering does not require introduction of an antibiotic resistance gene into the chromosome to select for recombinants, it is an efficient approach for generating markerless and scarless mutations in bacteria...
June 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645002/synthesis-of-s-linked-trisaccharide-glycal-of-derhodinosylurdamycin-a-discovery-of-alkyl-thiocyanate-as-an-efficient-electrophile-for-stereoselective-sulfenylation-of-2-deoxy-glycosyl-lithium
#5
Padam P Acharya, Kedar N Baryal, Cristin E Reno, Jianglong Zhu
Stereoselective synthesis of S-linked trisaccharide glycal of angucycline antitumor antibiotic derhodinosylurdamycin A is described. The synthesis has been accomplished employing our previously reported umpolung S-glycosylation strategy - stereoselective sulfenylation of 2-deoxy glycosyl lithium. It was found that sugar-derived thiocyanate was a better electrophile than corresponding asymmetric disulfide in this type of stereoselective sulfenylation.
June 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644573/characteristics-of-integrons-and-associated-gene-cassettes-in-antibiotic-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-free-ranging-food-animals-in-china
#6
Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Hui Zhang, Shucheng Huang, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Khalid Mehmood, Houqiang Luo, Jiakui Li
We investigated the occurrence of integrons in antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli strains isolated from free-ranging food animals, including yaks, piglets, and chickens, in China, and characterized the gene cassettes harbored within the integrons. We examined 432 E. coli strains that exhibited resistance to at least one class of antibiotics. Integrase genes and associated gene cassettes were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, restriction fragment-length polymorphism, DNA sequencing, conjugation experiments, and plasmid analysis...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644312/early-infections-and-the-risk-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-case-control-study
#7
Edward J Krajicek, Ann E Almazar, Joseph J Larson, Elizabeth J Atkinson, Nicholas J Talley, Yuri A Saito
GOALS: The goal of this study is to evaluate the association between early life infections and subsequent adult onset irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). BACKGROUND: Infections during adulthood are a known risk factor for adult-onset IBS. This investigation examined the role of childhood infections and infection risk factors in the development of IBS symptoms. STUDY: In total, 1010 subjects (509 outpatients with IBS, 501 matched controls) were mailed questionnaires regarding early-life infections during infancy (0 to 12 mo), toddler years (1 to 3 y), and child years (4 to 18 y)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643488/multidrug-resistance-mechanisms-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-in-chongqing-china
#8
Jinrong Yan, Shuli Pu, Xiaojiong Jia, Xiuyu Xu, Shuangshuang Yang, Jing Shi, Shan Sun, Liping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is considered a serious global threat. However, little is known regarding the multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms of CRKP. This study investigated the phenotypes and MDR mechanisms of CRKP and identified their clonal characteristics. METHODS: PCR and sequencing were utilized to identify antibiotic resistance determinants. Integron gene cassette arrays were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis...
September 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643026/predictive-model-of-urinary-tract-infection-after-surgical-treatment-for-women-with-endometrial-cancer
#9
Hiroko Machida, Marianne S Hom, Anastasiya Shabalova, Brendan H Grubbs, Koji Matsuo
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to identify risk factors associated with postoperative urinary tract infections (UTIs) following hysterectomy-based surgical staging in women with endometrial cancer. METHODS: This is a retrospective study utilizing an institutional database (2008-2016) of stage I-IV endometrial cancer cases that underwent hysterectomy-based surgery. UTIs occurring within a 30-day time period after surgery were examined and correlated to patient clinico-pathological demographics...
June 22, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642756/high-prevalence-of-macrolide-resistance-and-molecular-characterization-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-isolates-circulating-in-china-from-2009-to-2016
#10
Binghuai Lu, Yujie Fang, Yanyan Fan, Xingchun Chen, Junrui Wang, Ji Zeng, Yi Li, Zhijun Zhang, Lei Huang, Hongxia Li, Dong Li, Fengxia Zhu, Yanchao Cui, Duochun Wang
Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A Streptococcus, is a pathogen responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, from mild skin and soft tissue infections and pharyngitis to severe diseases. Its epidemiological characteristics should be comprehensively under surveillance for regulating the national prevention and treatment practice. Herein, a total of 140 S. pyogenes, including 38 invasive and 102 noninvasive isolates, were collected from infected patients in 10 tertiary general hospitals from 7 cities/provinces in China during the years 2009-2016...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642736/identification-of-an-efflux-transporter-lmrb-regulating-stress-response-and-extracellular-polysaccharide-synthesis-in-streptococcus-mutans
#11
Jia Liu, Lihong Guo, Jianwei Liu, Jianying Zhang, Huihui Zeng, Yang Ning, Xi Wei
Efflux transporters have been implicated in regulating bacterial virulence properties such as resistance to antibiotics, biofilm formation and colonization. The pathogenicity of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of human dental caries, relies on the bacterium's ability to form biofilms on tooth surface. However, the studies on efflux transporters in S. mutans are scare and the function of these transporters remained to be clarified. In this study, we identified an efflux transporter (LmrB) in S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642141/added-diagnostic-value-and-impact-on-antimicrobial-therapy-of-16s-rrna-pcr-and-amplicon-sequencing-on-resected-heart-valves-in-infective-endocarditis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Bart Peeters, Paul Herijgers, Kurt Beuselinck, Jan Verhaegen, Willy E Peetermans, Marie-Christine Herregods, Stefanie Desmet, Katrien Lagrou
OBJECTIVES: For adequate management and therapy of infective endocarditis (IE), identification of the causative pathogen is crucial but currently molecular testing results are not included in diagnostic criteria. The added diagnostic value and impact on antimicrobial therapy of 16S rRNA PCR and Amplicon Sequencing (16S rRNA PCR) performed on excised heart valves from IE patients was evaluated alongside with the effect of pre-operative antibiotics on the performance of blood culture (BC), valve culture (VC) and 16S rRNA PCR...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641596/types-and-prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-poultry
#13
Eva-Maria Saliu, Wilfried Vahjen, Jürgen Zentek
For several billion years, bacteria have developed mechanisms to resist antibacterial substances. In modern time, antibiotics are frequently used in veterinary and human medicine for prevention and treatment of diseases, globally still also for their growth promoting effects as feed additives. This complex situation has evolved in accelerating development and prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria in livestock and people. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria are resistant to a wide range of ß-lactam antibiotics...
June 23, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640662/using-probiotics-in-clinical-practice-where-are-we-now-a-review-of-existing-meta-analyses
#14
Mariangela Rondanelli, Milena Anna Faliva, Simone Perna, Attilio Giacosa, Gabriella Peroni, Anna Maria Castellazzi
The scientific literature has demonstrated that probiotics have a broad spectrum of activity, although often the results are contradictory. This study provides a critical overview of the current meta-analyses that have evaluated the efficacy of probiotics in physiological and pathological conditions, such as metabolic disease, antibiotic-associated and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, IBS, constipation, IBD, chemotherapy-associated diarrhea, respiratory tract infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, NAFLD, liver encephalopathy, periodontitis, depression, vaginosis, urinary tract infections, pancreatitis, incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, hospital infection and stay in ICU, mortality of post-trauma patients, necrotising enterocolitis in premature infants...
June 22, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639163/agr-functionality-affects-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-persistent-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia
#15
C K Kang, Y K Kim, S-I Jung, W B Park, K-H Song, K-H Park, P G Choe, H-C Jang, S Lee, Y-S Kim, Y G Kwak, K T Kwon, S Kiem, C-J Kim, E S Kim, H B Kim
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (MRSAB) often persists despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. It is unclear what microbiological factors contribute to poor clinical outcomes in persistent MRSAB (pMRSAB). We aimed to identify clinical and microbiological risk factors for in-hospital mortality in pMRSAB. We analysed MRSAB cases prospectively collected between 2009 and 2016 at 11 hospitals in Korea, defining cases of pMRSAB as MRSAB lasting ≥5 days despite administration of effective antibiotics...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639162/bacterial-genome-sequencing-in-clinical-microbiology-a-pathogen-oriented-review
#16
REVIEW
F Tagini, G Greub
In recent years, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been perceived as a technology with the potential to revolutionise clinical microbiology. Herein, we reviewed the literature on the use of WGS for the most commonly encountered pathogens in clinical microbiology laboratories: Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci, mycobacteria and Chlamydia trachomatis. For each pathogen group, we focused on five different aspects: the genome characteristics, the most common genomic approaches and the clinical uses of WGS for (i) typing and outbreak analysis, (ii) virulence investigation and (iii) in silico antimicrobial susceptibility testing...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637330/occurrence-of-aminoglycoside-modifying-enzymes-ames-among-isolates-of-escherichia-coli-exhibiting-high-levels-of-aminoglycoside-resistance-isolated-from-korean-cattle-farms
#17
Kuastros Mekonnen Belaynehe, Seung Won Shin, Park Hong-Tae, Han Sang Yoo
This study investigated 247 Escherichia coli isolates collected from four cattle farms to characterize aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) genes, their plasmid replicons and transferability. Out of 247 isolates a high number of isolates (total 202; 81.78%) were found resistant to various antibiotics by disc-diffusion. Of the 247 strains 139 (56.3%) were resistant to streptomycin and other antibiotics resistance followed as tetracycline (12.15%), ampicillin (7%), chloramphenicol (5.7%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (0...
June 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637081/molecular-characterization-of-gluten-hydrolyzing-bacillus-spp-and-their-efficacy-and-biotherapeutic-potential-as-probiotics-using-caco-2-cell-line
#18
B S Rashmi, Gayathri Devaraja
AIM: To isolate and characterize indigenous gluten hydrolyzing bacteria from wheat sourdough and curd samples and further evaluation of their probiotic potentiality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Indigenous gluten hydrolyzing isolates GS 33, GS 143, GS 181 and GS 188 were identified as Bacillus spp. by molecular-typing methods and studied extensively for their functional and probiotic attributes. All the tested isolates could survive at pH 2 and toxicity of 0.3% bile and also exhibited cell-surface hydrophobicity and autoaggregation phenotype...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636739/a-comparison-of-tonsillar-surface-swabbing-fine-needle-aspiration-core-sampling-and-dissected-tonsillar-core-biopsy-culture-in-children-with-recurrent-tonsillitis
#19
Saurav Sarkar, Abheek Sil, Soma Sarkar, Biswajit Sikder
In recurrent tonsillitis, the pathogenic bacteria are harbored in the tonsil core, and therefore cultures of superficial swab samples are not particularly accurate in identifying specific types of core bacteria. On the other hand, the results of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cultures of core samples have been closely correlated with the findings of core cultures in excised tonsils, and both methods are far superior to surface swabbing. We conducted a prospective study to compare the accuracy of culture findings from tonsillar tissue obtained by surface swabbing, FNA sampling of the tonsil core in situ, and core sampling of the excised tonsil in children with recurrent tonsillitis...
June 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635201/hamman-rich-syndrome-a-forgotten-entity
#20
William Newmarch, Angelica Puopolo, Madina Weiler, Brian Casserly
The following report outlines the case of a 76-year-old gentleman who presented to the hospital with acute interstitial pneumonitis, a rare and rapidly progressive type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. The patient initially presented with a three-week history of progressive shortness of breath and cough which was diagnosed as community acquired pneumonia. Treatment with oral antibiotics was unsuccessful resulting in re-presentation the following week with type one respiratory failure. Investigations revealed widespread inflammatory changes consistent with an acute inflammatory process...
May 18, 2017: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
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