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types of antibiotics

Michael Wesbrook Staude, David A Leonard, Jeffrey W Peng
Gram-negative bacteria resist β-lactam antibiotics primarily by deploying β-lactamase proteins that hydrolytically destroy the antibiotics. In clinical settings, these bacteria are producing variant β-lactamases with "gain of activity" mutations that inactivate a broader range of β-lactams. Learning how these mutations broaden substrate activity is important for coping with β-lactam resistance. Here, we investigate a gain of activity mutation in OXA-24/40, a carbapenem-hydrolyzing Class D β-lactamase (CHDL) in Acinetobacter baumannii...
October 26, 2016: Biochemistry
Leslie E Cohen, Thomas A Imahiyerobo, Jeffrey R Scott, Jason A Spector
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial performance of a rifampin/minocycline-coated, non-cross-linked, acellular porcine dermal matrix (XenMatrix AB) compared to an uncoated, non-cross-linked, acellular porcine dermal matrix (Strattice) after implantation/inoculation with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli in a dorsal rabbit model. METHODS: Forty male New Zealand White rabbits were bilaterally implanted with XenMatrix AB or Strattice grafts and inoculated with clinically isolated methicillin-resistant S...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Si Guo, JingJing Xu, YanShuan Wei, JunHong Xu, Yi Li, Rui Xue
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a prominent nosocomial pathogen that accounts for up to 10 % of all hospital-acquired infections. It is a frequent cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of K. pneumoniae-associated VAP and the molecular characteristics of K. pneumoniae strains. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 70 mechanically ventilated patients with K. pneumoniae isolated...
October 26, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Alexandra E Livanos, Thomas U Greiner, Pajau Vangay, Wimal Pathmasiri, Delisha Stewart, Susan McRitchie, Huilin Li, Jennifer Chung, Jiho Sohn, Sara Kim, Zhan Gao, Cecily Barber, Joanne Kim, Sandy Ng, Arlin B Rogers, Susan Sumner, Xue-Song Zhang, Ken Cadwell, Dan Knights, Alexander Alekseyenko, Fredrik Bäckhed, Martin J Blaser
The early life microbiome plays important roles in host immunological and metabolic development. Because the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been increasing substantially in recent decades, we hypothesized that early-life antibiotic use alters gut microbiota, which predisposes to disease. Using non-obese diabetic mice that are genetically susceptible to T1D, we examined the effects of exposure to either continuous low-dose antibiotics or pulsed therapeutic antibiotics (PAT) early in life, mimicking childhood exposures...
August 22, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Ki-Young Lee, Bong-Jin Lee
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have received increasing attention for their diverse identities, structures, and functional implications in cell cycle arrest and survival against environmental stresses such as nutrient deficiency, antibiotic treatments, and immune system attacks. In this review, we describe the biological functions and the auto-regulatory mechanisms of six different types of TA systems, among which the type II TA system has been most extensively studied. The functions of type II toxins include mRNA/tRNA cleavage, gyrase/ribosome poison, and protein phosphorylation, which can be neutralized by their cognate antitoxins...
October 22, 2016: Toxins
Kathryn Geldart, Brittany Forkus, Evelyn McChesney, Madeline McCue, Yiannis N Kaznessis
Antimicrobial peptides are a promising alternative to traditional antibiotics, but their utility is limited by high production costs and poor bioavailability profiles. Bacterial production and delivery of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) directly at the site of infection may offer a path for effective therapeutic application. In this study, we have developed a vector that can be used for the production and secretion of seven antimicrobial peptides from both Escherichia coli MC1061 F' and probiotic E.coli Nissle 1917...
October 5, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
Ratilal Lalloo, Geetesh Solanki, Khabiso Ramphoma, Neil G Myburgh
AIM: In the present study, we assessed the patterns and types of antibiotics prescribed following tooth extractions, and the alignment of these practices with the evidence available. METHODS: The study used health insurance claim data from South African dental practitioners for 2013, analyzing the antibiotic prescribing patterns around tooth extractions, separately for four event types: exposed (simple) tooth extractions in: (a) healthy patients and (b) patients with chronic conditions; and impacted tooth extractions in (c) healthy patients and (d) patients with a chronic condition...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
Rebekah M Martin, Jie Cao, Sylvain Brisse, Virginie Passet, Weisheng Wu, Lili Zhao, Preeti N Malani, Krishna Rao, Michael A Bachman
Klebsiella pneumoniae is among the most common causes of hospital-acquired infections and has emerged as an urgent threat to public health due to carbapenem antimicrobial resistance. K. pneumoniae commonly colonizes hospitalized patients and causes extraintestinal infections such as urinary tract infection, bloodstream infection (septicemia), and pneumonia. If colonization is an intermediate step before infection, then detection and characterization of colonizing isolates could enable strategies to prevent or empirically treat K...
September 2016: MSphere
Zhuofeng Yu, Pinjing He, Liming Shao, Hua Zhang, Fan Lü
Since municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill harbours miscellaneous wastes, pollutants and microorganisms, it gradually becomes a huge potential reservoir for breeding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of ARGs associated with various mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in MSW landfill leachates. The relationship of ARGs with leachate characteristics was also studied to explore the influence of landfill age. Seven sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine and sulfaquinoxaline), three encoded ARGs (sul-I, sul-II and sul-III) and four types of MGEs (plasmids, transposons, integrons and insertion sequences) were quantified in leachates with landfill ages ranging from 3 months-6 years...
October 18, 2016: Water Research
Vera Pader, Sanika Hakim, Kimberley L Painter, Sivaramesh Wigneshweraraj, Thomas B Clarke, Andrew M Edwards
Daptomycin is a bactericidal antibiotic of last resort for serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)(1,2). Although resistance is rare, treatment failure can occur in more than 20% of cases(3,4) and so there is a pressing need to identify and mitigate factors that contribute to poor therapeutic outcomes. Here, we show that loss of the Agr quorum-sensing system, which frequently occurs in clinical isolates, enhances S. aureus survival during daptomycin treatment. Wild-type S...
October 24, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Alexander J Sweidan, Navneet K Singh, Natasha Dang, Vinh Lam, Jyoti Datta
INTRODUCTION: Amiodarone is often used in the suppression of tachyarrhythmias. One of the more serious adverse effects includes amiodarone pulmonary toxicity (APT). Several pulmonary diseases can manifest including interstitial pneumonitis, organizing pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, pulmonary nodules or masses, and pleural effusion. Incidence of APT varies from 5-15% and is correlated to dosage, age of the patient, and preexisting lung disease...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
V G Grigorenko, I P Andreeva, M Yu Rubtsova, I M Deygen, R L Antipin, A G Majouga, A M Egorov, D A Beshnova, J Kallio, C Hackenberg, V S Lamzin
The microbial resistance to antibiotics is a genuine global threat. Consequently, a search of new inhibitors remains of acute importance due to the increasing spread of multidrug resistance. Here we present a new type of non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor PA-34 based on natural phenoxyaniline, identified using computer-assisted screening of scaffolds related to those of known low-affinity inhibitors. The compound displays reversible competitive inhibition of bacterial β-lactamase TEM-171, with a Ki of 88 μM...
October 19, 2016: Biochimie
L García-López, S Grau-Cerrato, A de Frutos-Soto, F Bobillo-Delamo, R Cítores-Gónzalez, F Diez-Gutierrez, M F Muñoz-Moreno, T Sánchez-Sánchez, F Gandía-Martínez, D Andaluz-Ojeda
INTRODUCTION: A study is made of the impact of a Sepsis Code Hospital Protocol upon antibiotic use, hospital stay and mortality. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental, retrospective observational study was carried out. SETTING: A polyvalent ICU with 11 beds belonging to a tertiary hospital. PATIENTS: Patients admitted to the ICU with severe sepsis or septic shock. INTERVENTIONS: A post-intervention group (POST-SC) (September 2012-August 2013) was compared with a historical control group (PRE-SC) (January-December 2010)...
October 19, 2016: Medicina Intensiva
Aura Falco, Yusibeska Ramos, Esther Franco, Alegría Guzmán, Howard Takiff
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a bacterial pathogen that has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics and is a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae have been isolated in many hospitals in Venezuela, but they have not been well-studied. The aim of this study was to characterize carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from the pediatric service of a hospital located in Anzoategui State, in the eastern part of Venezuela...
October 22, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
T Koiava, D Gonçalves, J Palmeira, K Arobelidze, M Tediashvili, L Akhvlediani, H Ferreira
Research describing the epidemiology of antibiotic resistant microbes is vital to the proactive development of new antimicrobial agents. In the last years, CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have emerged worldwide and have replaced classical TEM and SHV-type ESBLs in many countries. CTX-M-15 is currently the most frequent, with a pandemic distribution, and its rapid spread is facilitated by incorporation of resistance genes in mobile genetic elements. The ESBL is efficacious in Gram-negative bacteria and thus closely associated with nosocomial environments, often colonizing the intestines, particularly in older and dependent patients...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
M Kochlamazashvili, Kh Khatiashvili, M Butsashvili, O Chubinishvili, Sh Khetsuriani, G Kamkamidze
In Georgia, causative agents among infants with systemic infections are generally not identified and "neonatal sepsis" is usually diagnosed and treated without determining the etiology. The objective of this study was to estimate the role of viral pathogens (Herpesviridae and Enteroviruses) among neonates with generalized infections. A cross-sectional study was performed among neonates younger than <8 weeks admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the two largest pediatric hospitals in Tbilisi, Georgia...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Shawn I Walsh, Arryn Craney, Floyd E Romesberg
The looming antibiotic crisis has prompted the development of new strategies towards fighting infection. Traditional antibiotics target bacterial processes essential for viability, whereas proposed antivirulence approaches rely on the inhibition of factors that are required only for the initiation and propagation of infection within a host. Although antivirulence compounds have yet to prove their efficacy in the clinic, bacterial signal peptidase I (SPase) represents an attractive target in that SPase inhibitors exhibit broad-spectrum antibiotic activity, but even at sub-MIC doses also impair the secretion of essential virulence factors...
September 21, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Qiaohui Luo, Neng Yu, Chunfei Shi, Xiaoping Wang, Jianmin Wu
A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor combined with nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film as recognition element was developed for selective detection of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP). The MIP film on SPR sensor chip was prepared by in situ photo-initiated polymerization method which has the advantages of short polymerization time, controllable thickness and good uniformity. The surface wettability and thickness of MIP film on SPR sensor chip were characterized by static contact angle measurement and stylus profiler...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Pierre Dehoux, Jean Christophe Marvaud, Amr Abouelleil, Ashlee M Earl, Thierry Lambert, Catherine Dauga
BACKGROUND: Clostridium bolteae and Clostridium clostridioforme, previously included in the complex C. clostridioforme in the group Clostridium XIVa, remain difficult to distinguish by phenotypic methods. These bacteria, prevailing in the human intestinal microbiota, are opportunistic pathogens with various drug susceptibility patterns. In order to better characterize the two species and to obtain information on their antibiotic resistance genes, we analyzed the genomes of six strains of C...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Eileen Hoskin, Analia Veitz-Keenan
Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Clinical and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. There were no language restrictions.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials which compared the relief of pain with systemic antibiotics and analgesics against placebo and analgesics in the preoperative phase of irreversible pulpitis. The primary interest was pain control with an antibiotic or without one in the presence of analgesics...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
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