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Thyroid hormone replacement

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222413/a-new-tr%C3%AE-mutation-in-resistance-to-thyroid-hormone-syndrome
#1
Corina Neamţu, Claudiu Ţupea, Diana Păun, Anca Hoisescu, Adina Ghemigian, Samuel Refetoff, Chutintorn Sriphrapradang
Thyroid hormones (TH) exert their actions by binding nuclear receptors alpha (TRα1) and beta (TRß1 and TRß2). Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a clinical syndrome with various clinical manifestations, its hallmark being decreased tissue sensitivity to the action of thyroid hormones. We report the case of a family harbouring a novel TRß mutation. Sequencing of the TRβ gene revealed a single nucleotide substitution-C to G in codon 340: glutamine was replaced by glutamic acid. The clinical picture and biochemical and hormonal panel showed significant differences within the family, despite their sharing the same mutation...
October 2016: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208903/nephrotic-syndrome-increases-the-need-for-levothyroxine-replacement-in-patients-with-hypothyroidism
#2
Hareeshababu Karethimmaiah, Vijaya Sarathi
INTRODUCTION: Nephrotic syndrome is a known cause of hypothyroidism; however, its effect on replacement doses of L-thyroxine in patients with primary hypothyroidism is not systematically studied. AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of newly diagnosed nephrotic syndrome on the dose of L-thyroxine replacement in previously diagnosed patients with primary hypothyroidism who were on full, stable dose of L-thyroxine replacement for at least one year...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207545/primary-hypothyroidism-in-the-community-lower-daily-dosages-of-levothyroxine-replacement-therapy-for-asian-patients
#3
Ngiap Chuan Tan, Rong Quan Chew, Yi Ling Eileen Koh, Reena Chandini Subramanian, Usha Sankari, Meykkumar Meyappan, Li Wei Cho
The goal of treatment in patients with primary hypothyroidism is to attain euthyroidism guided by the stipulated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels range so as to minimize any potential long-term adverse effects. However, various factors may result in their Levothyroxine (T4) under and over-replacement.Our study aimed to evaluate the mean daily dose of L-T4 replacement for Asian patients with primary hypothyroidism. The secondary aims were to determine the proportion of those who were either over or under-replaced, and the factors associated with their thyroid function status and replacement adherence...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193557/birds-and-flame-retardants-a-review-of-the-toxic-effects-on-birds-of-historical-and-novel-flame-retardants
#4
REVIEW
Mélanie F Guigueno, Kim J Fernie
Flame retardants (FRs) are a diverse group of chemicals, many of which persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in biota. Although some FRs have been withdrawn from manufacturing and commerce (e.g., legacy FRs), many continue to be detected in the environment; moreover, their replacements and/or other novel FRs are also detected in biota. Here, we review and summarize the literature on the toxic effects of various FRs on birds. Birds integrate chemical information (exposure, effects) across space and time, making them ideal sentinels of environmental contamination...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177382/effect-of-expeller-extracted-canola-meal-on-growth-performance-organ-weights-and-blood-parameters-of-growing-pigs
#5
D E Velayudhan, K Schuh, T A Woyengo, J S Sands, C M Nyachoti
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of increasing levels of expeller extracted canola meal (EECM) in diets for growing pigs on performance, gastrointestinal tract weight, thyroid gland weights, blood plasma concentration of triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine, red blood cell count, hemoglobin content in blood, and hematocrit. Four diets were fed to 48 pigs (19.9 ± 1.60 kg initial BW) in 24 pens (6 pens per diet) for 4 wk in a completely randomized design. The diets were a control corn-soybean meal basal diet and 3 additional diets produced by replacing 33, 66, or 100% of soybean meal with EECM to achieve inclusion levels of 0, 10, 20, and 30%...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176633/hypothyroidism-and-nephrotic-syndrome-why-when-and-how-to-treat
#6
Francesca Di Mario, Riccardo Pofi, Antonietta Gigante, Laura Rivoli, Edoardo Rosato, Andrea Maria Isidori, Rosario Cianci, Biagio Barbano
Hypothyroidism, characterised by low/normal free thyroxine (FT4) and free tri-iodothyronine (FT3) with elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is a well-known complication of nephrotic syndrome (NS). This is a common feature of primary and secondary glomerular diseases and comprises loss of protein in the urine and increased urinary excretion of thyroid hormones and thyroxine-binding globulin. With a normal thyroid reserve, this scenario is associated with the development of subclinical hypothyroidism, with a slight increase in TSH and normal free fractions...
February 7, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176629/congenital-hypothyroidism-facts-facets-therapy
#7
Yedukondalu Kollati, Ranga Rao Ambati, Prakash Narayana Reddy, N Satya Sampath Kumar, Rajesh K Patel, Vijaya R Dirisala
: Back ground: Thyroid hormone (T3) is essential for normal development of children enabling brain development and somatic growth. However, certain individuals are genetically predisposed with insufficient or no thyroid hormones. Such a condition is termed congenital hypothyroidism (CH). OBJECTIVE: In the present review, a brief back ground about congenital hypothyroidism, factors associated with CH leading to thyroid dysgenesis and thyroid dyshormonogenesis is elaborated...
February 6, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158982/study-protocol-thyroid-hormone-replacement-for-untreated-older-adults-with-subclinical-hypothyroidism-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial-trust
#8
David J Stott, Jacobijn Gussekloo, Patricia M Kearney, Nicolas Rodondi, Rudi G J Westendorp, Simon Mooijaart, Sharon Kean, Terence J Quinn, Naveed Sattar, Kirsty Hendry, Robert Du Puy, Wendy P J Den Elzen, Rosalinde K E Poortvliet, Jan W A Smit, J Wouter Jukema, Olaf M Dekkers, Manuel Blum, Tinh-Hai Collet, Vera McCarthy, Caroline Hurley, Stephen Byrne, John Browne, Torquil Watt, Douglas Bauer, Ian Ford
BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a common condition in elderly people, defined as elevated serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with normal circulating free thyroxine (fT4). Evidence is lacking about the effect of thyroid hormone treatment. We describe the protocol of a large randomised controlled trial (RCT) of Levothyroxine treatment for SCH. METHODS: Participants are community-dwelling subjects aged ≥65 years with SCH, diagnosed by elevated TSH levels (≥4...
February 3, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142035/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-myxedema-coma-analysis-of-a-national-inpatient-database-in-japan
#9
Yosuke Ono, Sachiko Ono, Hideo Yasunaga, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Yuji Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Myxedema coma is a life-threatening and emergency presentation of hypothyroidism. However, the clinical features and outcomes of this condition have been poorly defined because of its rarity. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients diagnosed with myxedema coma from July 2010 through March 2013 using a national inpatient database in Japan. We investigated characteristics, comorbidities, treatments, and in-hospital mortality of patients with myxedema coma...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132097/membrane-traversing-mechanism-of-thyroid-hormone-transport-by-monocarboxylate-transporter-8
#10
Jonas Protze, Doreen Braun, Katrin Manuela Hinz, Dorothea Bayer-Kusch, Ulrich Schweizer, Gerd Krause
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) mediates thyroid hormone (TH) transport across the plasma membrane in many cell types. In order to better understand its mechanism, we have generated three new MCT8 homology models based on sugar transporters XylE in the intracellular opened (PDB ID: 4aj4) and the extracellular partly occluded (PDB ID: 4gby) conformations as well as FucP (PDB ID: 3o7q) and GLUT3 (PDB ID: 4zwc) in the fully extracellular opened conformation. T3-docking studies from both sides revealed interactions with His192, His415, Arg445 and Asp498 as previously identified...
January 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124394/treatment-decision-making-in-early-stage-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#11
Thomas A D'Agostino, Elyse Shuk, Erin K Maloney, Rebecca Zeuren, R Michael Tuttle, Carma L Bylund
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) patients' decision-making process when offered options of surgery and active surveillance. METHODS: 15 PMC patients and six caregivers participated in either a focus group or individual interview. Focus groups were segmented by patients' treatment choice. Primary themes were identified in transcripts using thematic text analysis. RESULTS: Four themes emerged from the surgery subsample: (1) Decision to undergo thyroidectomy quickly and with a sense of urgency; (2) Perception of PMC as a potentially life-threatening disease; (3) Fear of disease progression and unremitting uncertainty with active surveillance; and (4) Surgery as a means of control and potential cure...
January 26, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114247/neuroendocrine-dysfunction-in-a-young-athlete-with-concussion-a-case-report
#12
David M Langelier, Gregory A Kline, Chantel T Debert
An 18-year-old female ringette and basketball player presented to our sport concussion clinic 27 months after concussion with fatigue, headache, exercise intolerance, polyuria, nocturia, and difficulties concentrating. Her history was remarkable for 4 previous concussions. Her neurologic examination was normal. Neuroendocrine screen including thyroid function, morning cortisol, glucose, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (screening test for growth hormone deficiency) were normal. Further testing for growth hormone deficiency with an insulin hypoglycemia test revealed severe growth hormone deficiency...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105137/applicability-of-rapid-intraoperative-parathyroid-hormone-assay-through-fine-needle-aspiration-to-identify-parathyroid-tissue-in-thyroid-surgery
#13
Xue-Hai Bian, Shi-Jie Li, Le Zhou, Chun-Hai Zhang, Guang Zhang, Yan-Tao Fu, Hui Sun
Hypoparathyroidism is a frequent and serious complication of thyroid surgery. Identification and preservation of the parathyroid glands are key factors in managing hypoparathyroidism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of rapid intraoperative parathyroid hormone (rIO-PTH) assay levels through fine needle aspiration (FNA) in identifying parathyroids as a parameter in thyroid surgery. rIO-PTH assay through FNA and frozen section examination were performed on 194 suspected parathyroids anatomical structures from 50 consecutive patients undergoing thyroidectomy (rIO-PTH group)...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095748/myocardial-inactivation-of-thyroid-hormones-in-patients-with-aortic-stenosis
#14
Bruno Paolino, Pablo Maria Pomerantzeff, Luiz Alberto O Dallan, Fabio Antonio Gaiotto, Nailliw Zanini Preite, Ana Claudia Latronico, Jose Carlos Nicolau, Antonio Carlos Bianco, Roberto Giraldez
OBJECTIVE: To study myocardial thyroid hormone metabolism in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS) undergoing aortic valve replacement and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. CONTEXT: The human heart expresses the type 2 deiodinase (D2) that activates T4 to T3. At the same time, the inactivating type 3 deiodinase (D3) has been found in a rat model of right ventricular hypertrophy. It is not known whether the human myocardium metabolizes thyroid hormone...
January 17, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095042/gauging-the-extent-of-thyroidectomy-for-indeterminate-thyroid-nodules-an-oncologic-perspective
#15
David F Schneider, Linda M Cherney Stafford, Nicole Brys, Caprice C Greenberg, Courtney J Balentine, Dawn M Elfenbein, Susan C Pitt
INTRODUCTION: Increasing emphasis is being placed on appropriateness of care and avoidance of over- and under-treatment. Indeterminate thyroid nodules (ITN), present a particular risk for this problem because cancer found via diagnostic lobectomy (DL) often requires a completion thyroidectomy (CT). However, initial total thyroidectomy (TT) for benign ITN results in lifelong thyroid hormone replacement. We sought to measure the accuracy and factors associated with the extent of initial thyroidectomy for ITN...
January 17, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081173/effect-of-rifampin-on-thyroid-function-test-in-patients-on-levothyroxine-medication
#16
Hye In Kim, Tae Hyuk Kim, Hosu Kim, Young Nam Kim, Hye Won Jang, Jae Hoon Chung, Seong Mi Moon, Byung Woo Jhun, Hyun Lee, Won-Jung Koh, Sun Wook Kim
BACKGROUND: Levothyroxine (LT4) and rifampin (RIF) are sometimes used together; however, no clinical studies have assessed the effects of these drugs on thyroid function or the need to adjust LT4 dose. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 71 Korean patients who started RIF during LT4 treatment. Clinically relevant cases that required dose adjustment according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA)/American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) guidelines were identified, and risk factors of increased LT4 dose were analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078216/testosterone-replacement-therapy-role-of-pituitary-and-thyroid-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Megan Crawford, Laurence Kennedy
Crosstalk among hormones characterizes endocrine function, and assessment of the hypogonadal man should take that into consideration. In men for whom testosterone deficiency is a concern, initial evaluation should include a thorough history and physical exam in which other endocrinopathies are being considered. Hypogonadism can be associated with both pituitary and thyroid dysfunction, for which appropriate biochemical evaluation should be undertaken in certain clinical scenarios. If low serum testosterone is confirmed measurement of luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones (LH and FSH respectively) is essential to establish whether the hypogonadism is primary or secondary...
December 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058547/effect-of-thyroid-remnant-volume-on-the-risk-of-hypothyroidism-after-hemithyroidectomy-a-prospective-study
#18
Brian Hung-Hin Lang, Carlos K H Wong, Kai Pun Wong, Kelvin Ka-Wan Chu, Tony W H Shek
BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is a common sequel after a hemithyroidectomy. Although various risk factors leading to hypothyroidism have been reported, the effect of the contralateral lobe's volume has been understudied. This study aimed to examine the association between the preoperative contralateral lobe's volume and the risk of postoperative hypothyroidism. METHODS: During a 2-year period, 150 eligible patients undergoing a hemithyroidectomy were evaluated. The volume of the contralateral nonexcised lobe was estimated preoperatively by independent assessors on ultrasonography using the following formula: width (in cm) × depth (in cm) × length (in cm) × (π/6), adjusted for the body surface area (BSA)...
January 5, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043744/thyroid-stimulating-hormone-suppression-in-the-long-term-follow-up-of-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#19
B Freudenthal, G R Williams
Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common form of thyroid cancer and its prognosis is favourable in most cases. Suppression of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) by supra-physiological thyroid hormone replacement has been the mainstay of long-term management for over 60 years. However, evidence for a beneficial outcome of TSH suppression is conflicting and intervention must be balanced against adverse effects, particularly affecting the cardiovascular system and skeleton. Here we discuss the role of TSH suppression in the long-term management of differentiated thyroid cancer in the context of risk stratification for disease recurrence and the latest clinical guidelines...
December 30, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043728/acute-compartment-syndrome-caused-by-uncontrolled-hypothyroidism
#20
Anar Modi, Hari Amin, Matthew Salzman, Farah Morgan
Acute compartment syndrome is increased tissue pressure exceeding perfusion pressure in a closed compartment resulting in nerve and muscle ischemia. Common precipitating causes are crush injuries, burns, substance abuse, osseous or vascular limb trauma. This is a case of 42year old female with history of hypothyroidism who presented to emergency room with acute onset of severe pain and swelling in right lower extremity. Physical examination was concerning for acute compartment syndrome of right leg which was confirmed by demonstration of elevated compartmental pressures...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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