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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437065/a-macrocyclic-peptide-ligand-binds-the-oncogenic-microrna-21-precursor-and-suppresses-dicer-processing
#1
Matthew D Shortridge, Matthew J Walker, Tom Pavelitz, Yu Chen, Gabriele Varani
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) help orchestrate cellular growth and survival through post-transcriptional mechanisms. The dysregulation of miRNA biogenesis can lead to cellular growth defects, chemotherapeutic resistance and plays a direct role in the development of many chronic diseases. Among these RNAs, miR-21 is consistently overexpressed in most human cancers leading to the down regulation of key tumor suppressing and pro-apoptotic factors; suggesting that inhibition of miR-21 biogenesis could reverse these negative effects...
April 24, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427365/association-between-fc%C3%AE-receptor-iia-iiia-and-iiib-genetic-polymorphisms-and-susceptibility-to-severe-malaria-anemia-in-children-in-western-kenya
#2
Elly O Munde, Winnie A Okeyo, Evans Raballah, Samuel B Anyona, Tom Were, John M Ong'echa, Douglas J Perkins, Collins Ouma
BACKGROUND: Naturally-acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria develops after several episodes of infection. Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) bind to immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and mediate phagocytosis of opsonized microbes, thereby, linking humoral and cellular immunity. FcγR polymorphisms influence binding affinity to IgGs and consequently, can influence clinical malaria outcomes. Specifically, variations in FcγRIIA -131Arg/His, FcγRIIIA-176F/V and FcγRIIIB-NA1/NA2 modulate immune responses through altered binding preferences to IgGs and immune complexes...
April 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420692/an-improved-assembly-and-annotation-of-the-allohexaploid-wheat-genome-identifies-complete-families-of-agronomic-genes-and-provides-genomic-evidence-for-chromosomal-translocations
#3
Bernardo J Clavijo, Luca Venturini, Christian Schudoma, Gonzalo Garcia Accinelli, Gemy Kaithakottil, Jonathan Wright, Philippa Borrill, George Kettleborough, Darren Heavens, Helen Chapman, James Lipscombe, Tom Barker, Fu-Hao Lu, Neil McKenzie, Dina Raats, Ricardo H Ramirez-Gonzalez, Aurore Coince, Ned Peel, Lawrence Percival-Alwyn, Owen Duncan, Josua Trösch, Guotai Yu, Dan M Bolser, Guy Namaati, Arnaud Kerhornou, Manuel Spannagl, Heidrun Gundlach, Georg Haberer, Robert P Davey, Christine Fosker, Federica Di Palma, Andrew Phillips, A Harvey Millar, Paul J Kersey, Cristobal Uauy, Ksenia V Krasileva, David Swarbreck, Michael W Bevan, Matthew D Clark
Advances in genome sequencing and assembly technologies are generating many high-quality genome sequences, but assemblies of large, repeat-rich polyploid genomes, such as that of bread wheat, remain fragmented and incomplete. We have generated a new wheat whole-genome shotgun sequence assembly using a combination of optimized data types and an assembly algorithm designed to deal with large and complex genomes. The new assembly represents >78% of the genome with a scaffold N50 of 88.8 kb that has a high fidelity to the input data...
April 18, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420556/can-paddock-scale-data-integration-achieve-more-cost-effective-outcomes-in-the-great-barrier-reef-a-case-study-in-the-fitzroy-basin
#4
Megan Star, John Rolfe, Miriam East, Terry Beutel, Kevin McCosker, Robin Ellis, Shaun Darr, Tom Coughlin
The decline in health of the Great Barrier Reef and the pressure on allocating funds efficiently has increased efforts to prioritise where public funds are invested. The Fitzroy basin and coastal catchments is 152,000 square kilometres and geographically diverse. Past work has identified that sediment loads leaving the catchment are posing a high risk to the ongoing health of the Reef and that there is a need to prioritise funds to achieve cost effective outcomes. In this paper we aim to present an alternative approach to effective prioritisation of sediment reductions...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414656/prevalence-and-outcomes-of-coronary-artery-perforation-cap-during-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-pci
#5
Oliver Guttmann, Daniel Jones, Ankur Gulati, Tushar Kotecha, Hossam Fayed, Deven Patel, Tom Crake, Mick Ozkor, Andrew Wragg, Elliot Smith, Roshan Weerackody, Charles Knight, Anthony Mathur, Constantinos O'Mahony
AIMS: To examine the prevalence, clinical outcomes and procedural characteristics of PCI complicated by CAP in a contemporary patient population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Procedural records of 39,115 patients undergoing PCI between 2005- 2016 were reviewed. CAP affected 149 cases (0.37%). The prevalence of CAP increased from 0.31% in 2005 to 0.45% in 2016 (p=0.03) reflecting an increase in more complex PCI (from 14% in 2005 to 21% in 2016; p<0.0001). CAP was associated with increased all-cause mortality (23...
April 18, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412946/big-data-and-data-repurposing-using-existing-data-to-answer-new-questions-in-vascular-dementia-research
#6
Fergus N Doubal, Myzoon Ali, G David Batty, Andreas Charidimou, Maria Eriksdotter, Martin Hofmann-Apitius, Yun-Hee Kim, Deborah A Levine, Gillian Mead, Hermann A M Mucke, Craig W Ritchie, Charlotte J Roberts, Tom C Russ, Robert Stewart, William Whiteley, Terence J Quinn
INTRODUCTION: Traditional approaches to clinical research have, as yet, failed to provide effective treatments for vascular dementia (VaD). Novel approaches to collation and synthesis of data may allow for time and cost efficient hypothesis generating and testing. These approaches may have particular utility in helping us understand and treat a complex condition such as VaD. METHODS: We present an overview of new uses for existing data to progress VaD research. The overview is the result of consultation with various stakeholders, focused literature review and learning from the group's experience of successful approaches to data repurposing...
April 17, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412593/bootstrapping-language-acquisition
#7
Omri Abend, Tom Kwiatkowski, Nathaniel J Smith, Sharon Goldwater, Mark Steedman
The semantic bootstrapping hypothesis proposes that children acquire their native language through exposure to sentences of the language paired with structured representations of their meaning, whose component substructures can be associated with words and syntactic structures used to express these concepts. The child's task is then to learn a language-specific grammar and lexicon based on (probably contextually ambiguous, possibly somewhat noisy) pairs of sentences and their meaning representations (logical forms)...
April 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405508/antigen-receptor-redirected-t-cells-derived-from-hematopoietic-precursor-cells-lack-expression-of-the-endogenous-tcr-cd3-receptor-and-exhibit-specific-antitumor-capacities
#8
Yasmine Van Caeneghem, Stijn De Munter, Paola Tieppo, Glenn Goetgeluk, Karin Weening, Greet Verstichel, Sarah Bonte, Tom Taghon, Georges Leclercq, Tessa Kerre, Reno Debets, David Vermijlen, Hinrich Abken, Bart Vandekerckhove
Recent clinical studies indicate that adoptive T-cell therapy and especially chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is a very potent and potentially curative treatment for B-lineage hematologic malignancies. Currently, autologous peripheral blood T cells are used for adoptive T-cell therapy. Adoptive T cells derived from healthy allogeneic donors may have several advantages; however, the expected occurrence of graft versus host disease (GvHD) as a consequence of the diverse allogeneic T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire expressed by these cells compromises this approach...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399692/the-interrelationship-between-phagocytosis-autophagy-and-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-following-infection-of-human-neutrophils-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#9
Ihsan Ullah, Neil D Ritchie, Tom J Evans
Neutrophils play an important role in the innate immune response to infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus. Pneumococci are phagocytosed by neutrophils and undergo killing after ingestion. Other cellular processes may also be induced, including autophagy and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which may play a role in bacterial eradication. We set out to determine how these different processes interacted following pneumococcal infection of neutrophils, and the role of the major pneumococcal toxin pneumolysin in these various pathways...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392234/selection-of-the-highly-replicative-and-partially-multidrug-resistant-rts78t-polymerase-mutation-in-two-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-during-tenofovir-entecavir-combination-therapy
#10
Elham Shirvani-Dastgerdi, Benjamin Y Winer, Antoni Celia-Terrassa, Yibin Kang, David Tabernero, Eray Yagmur, Francisco Rodríguez-Frías, Josep Gregori, Tom Luedde, Christian Trautwein, Alexander Ploss, Frank Tacke
Patients chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that are on long-term treatment with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues are at risk of selecting HBV strains with complex mutational patterns. We herein report two cases of HBV-infected patients with insufficient viral suppression despite dual antiviral therapy with entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir (TDF), of which one patient died from aggressive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ultra-deep pyrosequencing analyses revealed the selection of the rtS78T polymerase mutation in both cases that creates a premature stop codon at sC69 and thereby deletes almost the entire small HBV surface protein...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381264/hiv-policy-implementation-in-two-health-and-demographic-surveillance-sites-in-uganda-findings-from-a-national-policy-review-health-facility-surveys-and-key-informant-interviews
#11
Ellen McRobie, Alison Wringe, Jessica Nakiyingi-Miiro, Francis Kiweewa, Tom Lutalo, Gertrude Nakigozi, Jim Todd, Jeffrey William Eaton, Basia Zaba, Kathryn Church
BACKGROUND: Successful HIV testing, care and treatment policy implementation is essential for realising the reductions in morbidity and mortality those policies are designed to target. While adoption of new HIV policies is rapid, less is known about the facility-level implementation of new policies and the factors influencing this. METHODS: We assessed implementation of national policies about HIV testing, treatment and retention at health facilities serving two health and demographic surveillance sites (HDSS) (10 in Kyamulibwa, 14 in Rakai)...
April 5, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373386/on-the-buckling-of-elastic-rings-by-external-confinement
#12
Andrew L Hazel, Tom Mullin
We report the results of an experimental and numerical investigation into the buckling of thin elastic rings confined within containers of circular or regular polygonal cross section. The rings float on the surface of water held in the container and controlled removal of the fluid increases the confinement of the ring. The increased compressive forces can cause the ring to buckle into a variety of shapes. For the circular container, finite perturbations are required to induce buckling, whereas in polygonal containers the buckling occurs through a linear instability that is closely related to the canonical Euler column buckling...
May 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369657/origin-and-evolutionary-alteration-of-the-mitochondrial-import-system-in-eukaryotic-lineages
#13
Yoshinori Fukasawa, Toshiyuki Oda, Kentaro Tomii, Kenichiro Imai
Protein transport systems are fundamentally important for maintaining mitochondrial function. Nevertheless, mitochondrial protein translocases such as the kinetoplastid ATOM complex have recently been shown to vary in eukaryotic lineages. Various evolutionary hypotheses have been formulated to explain this diversity. To resolve any contradiction, estimating the primitive state and clarifying changes from that state are necessary. Here, we present more likely primitive models of mitochondrial translocases, specifically the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) and translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) complexes, using scrutinized phylogenetic profiles...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362874/plasma-complement-and-vascular-complement-deposition-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-with-and-without-inflammatory-rheumatic-diseases
#14
Kelly J Shields, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Jon Roger Eidet, Knut Mikkelsen, Sven M Almdahl, Barbara Bottazzi, Torstein Lyberg, Susan Manzi, Joseph M Ahearn, Ivana Hollan
PURPOSE: Inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) are associated with accelerated coronary artery disease (CAD), which may result from both systemic and vascular wall inflammation. There are indications that complement may be involved in the pathogenesis of CAD in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). This study aimed to evaluate the associations between circulating complement and complement activation products with mononuclear cell infiltrates (MCI, surrogate marker of vascular inflammation) in the aortic media and adventitia in IRDCAD and non-IRDCAD patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359572/forests-and-their-canopies-achievements-and-horizons-in-canopy-science
#15
REVIEW
Akihiro Nakamura, Roger L Kitching, Min Cao, Thomas J Creedy, Tom M Fayle, Martin Freiberg, C N Hewitt, Takao Itioka, Lian Pin Koh, Keping Ma, Yadvinder Malhi, Andrew Mitchell, Vojtech Novotny, Claire M P Ozanne, Liang Song, Han Wang, Louise A Ashton
Forest canopies are dynamic interfaces between organisms and atmosphere, providing buffered microclimates and complex microhabitats. Canopies form vertically stratified ecosystems interconnected with other strata. Some forest biodiversity patterns and food webs have been documented and measurements of ecophysiology and biogeochemical cycling have allowed analyses of large-scale transfer of CO2, water, and trace gases between forests and the atmosphere. However, many knowledge gaps remain. With global research networks and databases, and new technologies and infrastructure, we envisage rapid advances in our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the spatial and temporal dynamics of forests and their canopies...
March 27, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349143/non-equilibrium-supramolecular-polymerization
#16
Alessandro Sorrenti, Jorge Leira-Iglesias, Albert J Markvoort, Tom F A de Greef, Thomas M Hermans
Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance...
March 28, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345877/direct-analysis-of-metal-ions-in-solutions-with-high-salt-concentrations-by-total-reflection-x-ray-fluorescence
#17
Mercedes Regadío, Sofía Riaño, Koen Binnemans, Tom Vander Hoogerstraete
Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is becoming more and more popular for elemental analysis in academia and industry. However, simplification of the procedures for analyzing samples with complex compositions and residual matrix effects is still needed. In this work, the effect of an inorganic (CaCl2) and an organic (tetraalkylphosphonium chloride) matrix on metals quantification by TXRF was investigated for liquid samples. The samples were spiked with up to 20 metals at concentrations ranging from 3 to 50 mg L(-1) per element, including elements with spectral peaks near the peaks of the matrix elements or near the Raleigh and Compton scattering peaks of the X-ray source (molybdenum anode)...
April 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339601/characterization-and-consistency-of-interactions-of-triggers-and-substrate-at-the-onset-of-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation
#18
David G Jones, Vias Markides, Anthony W C Chow, Richard J Schilling, Prapa Kanagaratnam, Tom Wong, D Wyn Davies, Nicholas S Peters
Aims: Initiating mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF) remain poorly understood, involving complex interaction between triggers and the atrial substrate. This study sought to classify the transitional phenomena, hypothesizing that there is consistency within and between patients in trigger-substrate interaction during transition to AF. Methods and results: Non-contact left atrial (LA) mapping was performed in 17 patients undergoing ablation for paroxysmal AF. All had spontaneous ectopy...
January 25, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336073/visualization-of-the-genomic-loci-that-are-bound-by-specific-multiprotein-complexes-by-bimolecular-fluorescence-complementation-analysis-on-drosophila-polytene-chromosomes
#19
Huai Deng, Tom K Kerppola
We have developed a procedure that enables visualization of the genomic loci that are bound by complexes formed by a specific combination of chromatin-binding proteins. This procedure is based on imaging bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) complexes on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. BiFC complexes are formed by the facilitated association of two fluorescent protein fragments that are fused to proteins that interact with, or are in close proximity to, each other. The intensity of BiFC complex fluorescence at individual genomic loci is greatly enhanced by the parallel alignment of hundreds of chromatids within the polytene chromosomes...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335428/an-updated-review-of-ciguatera-fish-poisoning-clinical-epidemiological-environmental-and-public-health-management
#20
REVIEW
Melissa A Friedman, Mercedes Fernandez, Lorraine C Backer, Robert W Dickey, Jeffrey Bernstein, Kathleen Schrank, Steven Kibler, Wendy Stephan, Matthew O Gribble, Paul Bienfang, Robert E Bowen, Stacey Degrasse, Harold A Flores Quintana, Christopher R Loeffler, Richard Weisman, Donna Blythe, Elisa Berdalet, Ram Ayyar, Danielle Clarkson-Townsend, Karen Swajian, Ronald Benner, Tom Brewer, Lora E Fleming
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients...
March 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
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