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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046418/escaping-blood-fed-malaria-mosquitoes-minimize-tactile-detection-without-compromising-on-take-off-speed
#1
F T Muijres, S W Chang, W G van Veen, J Spitzen, B T Biemans, M A R Koehl, R Dudley
To escape after taking a blood meal, a mosquito must exert forces sufficiently high to take off when carrying a load roughly equal to its body weight, while simultaneously avoiding detection by minimizing tactile signals exerted on the host's skin. We studied this trade-off between escape speed and stealth in the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii using 3D motion analysis of high-speed stereoscopic videos of mosquito take-offs and aerodynamic modeling. We found that during the push-off phase, mosquitoes enhanced take-off speed using aerodynamic forces generated by the beating wings in addition to leg-based push-off forces, whereby wing forces contributed 61% of the total push-off force...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045769/placebo-effects-in-the-treatment-of-noncognitive-symptoms-of-alzheimer-s-disease-analysis-of-the-catie-ad-data
#2
Chisa Ozawa, Rachel Roberts, Kazunari Yoshida, Takefumi Suzuki, Barry Lebowitz, Suzanne Reeves, Robert Howard, Takayuki Abe, Masaru Mimura, Hiroyuki Uchida
OBJECTIVE: To compare symptom trajectories between placebo and active drug responders and to examine whether early placebo improvement would be associated with subsequent placebo response in the treatment of patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of data from 371 patients with DSM-IV Alzheimer's disease in Phase 1 of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness for Alzheimer's disease (CATIE-AD) (April 2001 to November 2004) was conducted...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045710/radiation-induced-cognitive-toxicity-pathophysiology-and-interventions-to-reduce-toxicity-in-adults
#3
Christopher Wilke, David Grosshans, Joseph Duman, Paul Brown, Jing Li
Radiotherapy is ubiquitous in the treatment of patients with both primary brain tumors as well as disease which is metastatic to the brain. This therapy is not without cost, however, as cognitive decline is frequently associated with cranial radiation, particularly with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). The precise mechanisms responsible for radiation-induced morbidity remain incompletely understood and continue to be an active area of ongoing research. In this article, we review the hypothetical means by which cranial radiation induces cognitive decline as well as potential therapeutic approaches to prevent, minimize or reverse treatment-induced cognitive deterioration...
October 14, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043487/the-differences-in-spirometry-predictive-equations-in-classifying-presence-and-degree-of-lung-function-impairment-which-suit-fits-the-best
#4
Marija Vukoja, Aleksandar Bokan, Gordana Vujasinovic, Ivan Kopitovic
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the differences between three most commonly used predictive equations (PE): ECCS (European Community of Coal and Steel), the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), and GLI (Global Lung Initiative) in healthy individuals and when grading severity of lung function impairment in patients with obstructive lung diseases. METHODS: The study included 200 healthy volunteers and 200 patients with obstructive lung diseases at the Institute for Pulmonary Diseases of Vojvodina...
October 17, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042239/microbiota-of-field-collected-ixodes-scapularis-and-dermacentor-variabilis-from-eastern-and-southern-ontario-canada
#5
Katie M Clow, J Scott Weese, Joyce Rousseau, Claire M Jardine
The microbiota of hard ticks has been an area of growing interest due to the potential role that the broader microbial community may play in pathogen carriage and transmission. In the last two decades, Ontario, Canada has experienced rapid changes in the risk of tick-borne disease, primarily due to the range expansion of Ixodes scapularis. Another human-biter, Dermacentor variabilis, is a longstanding resident of the province, but currently poses minimal risk of pathogen transmission. To examine the microbiota of these two species, we collected adult and nymphal I...
September 20, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042133/determination-of-mitochondrial-metabolic-phenotype-through-investigation-of-the-intrinsic-inhibition-of-succinate-dehydrogenase
#6
Alexander Panov, Zulfiya Orynbayeva
Many diseases are accompanied by systemic or organ metabolic abnormalities. Therefore, investigation of the roles of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of major diseases requires a methodology that reflects the characteristics of mitochondrial metabolism particular for the organ of origin. We provide evidence that for brain and heart mitochondria the intrinsic inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a key mechanism for attenuation of mitochondrial respiration and energy production in response to the organ's energy needs...
October 14, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041828/urine-protein-biomarkers-for-detection-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-their-use-for-the-clinic
#7
Sarah Röthlisberger, Johanna Pedroza-Diaz
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading noncommunicable disease and main cause of death worldwide. Traditionally, blood has been the sample of choice for biomarker discovery, however, urine has roused great interest in recent years as a source of biomarkers. Sample collection is simple, non-invasive, and there is the possibility of implementing minimal cost tests in primary care settings. Areas covered: In this review, we systematically searched PubMed for proteomic studies of CVD, with the criteria that urine was included as a biological sample...
October 18, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040476/national-responses-to-global-health-targets-exploring-policy-transfer-in-the-context-of-the-unaids-90-90-90-treatment-targets-in-ghana-and-uganda
#8
Ellen McRobie, Fred Matovu, Aisha Nanyiti, Justice Nonvignon, Daniel Nana Yaw Abankwah, Kelsey K Case, Timothy B Hallett, Johanna Hanefeld, Lesong Conteh
Global health organizations frequently set disease-specific targets with the goal of eliciting adoption at the national-level; consideration of the influence of target setting on national policies, programme and health budgets is of benefit to those setting targets and those intended to respond. In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS set 'ambitious' treatment targets for country adoption: 90% of HIV-positive persons should know their status; 90% of those on treatment; 90% of those achieving viral suppression...
October 11, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039373/disepi-compact-visualization-as-a-tool-for-applied-epidemiological-research
#9
Arriel Benis, Moshe Hoshen
Outcomes research and evidence-based medical practice is being positively impacted by proliferation of healthcare databases. Modern epidemiologic studies require complex data comprehension. A new tool, DisEpi, facilitates visual exploration of epidemiological data supporting Public Health Knowledge Discovery. It provides domain-experts a compact visualization of information at the population level. In this study, DisEpi is applied to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) patients within Clalit Health Services, analyzing the socio-demographic and ADHD filled prescription data between 2006 and 2016 of 1,605,800 children aged 6 to 17 years...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038896/inducible-atf3-nfat-axis-aggravates-podocyte-injury
#10
Hong Zhang, Shun Liang, Yue Du, Ruizhao Li, Chaosheng He, Wenjian Wang, Shuangxin Liu, Zhiming Ye, Xinling Liang, Wei Shi, Bin Zhang
Podocyte injury and loss contribute to proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, and eventually kidney failure. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress inducible transcription factor that is transiently expressed following stimulation. However, we show for the first time an induction of ATF3 in podocytes from patients with chronic kidney disease, including minimal change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and diabetic nephropathy. The role of ATF3 induction in podocytes under chronic conditions is currently unknown...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038887/mutations-in-inf2-may-be-associated-with-renal-histology-other-than-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#11
Anja K Büscher, Nora Celebi, Peter F Hoyer, Hanns-Georg Klein, Stefanie Weber, Julia Hoefele
BACKGROUND: In 2010, INF2 mutations were associated with autosomal-dominant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), clinically presenting with moderate proteinuria in adolescence. However, in the meantime, cases with more severe clinical courses have been described, including progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) during childhood. INF2 mutations in patients with isolated FSGS are clustered in exons 2 to 4, encoding the diaphanous inhibitory domain, involved in the regulation of the podocyte actin cytoskeleton...
October 6, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038298/subversion-of-nk-cell-and-tnf-alpha-immune-surveillance-drives-tumor-recurrence
#12
Timothy Kottke, Laura Evgin, Kevin G Shim, Diana Rommelfanger, Nicolas Boisgerault, Shane Zaidi, Rosa Maria Diaz, Jill Thompson, Elizabeth Ilett, Matt Coffey, Peter Selby, Hardev Pandha, Kevin Harrington, Alan Melcher, Richard Vile
Understanding how incompletely cleared primary tumors transition from minimal residual disease (MRD) into treatment resistant, immune-invisible recurrences has major clinical significance. We show here that this transition is mediated through the subversion of two key elements of innate immune surveillance. In the first, the role of TNFalpha changes from an antitumor effector against primary tumors into a growth promoter for MRD. Second, whereas primary tumors induced a natural killer (NK)-mediated cytokine response characterized by low IL6 and elevated IFNgamma, PD-L1hi MRD cells promoted the secretion of IL6 but minimal IFNgamma, inhibiting both NK cell and T-cell surveillance...
October 15, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036897/inhibition-of-starvation-triggered-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-arpe-19-cells-by-taurine-through-modulating-the-expression-of-calpain-1-and-calpain-2
#13
Yuanyuan Zhang, Shu Ren, Yuci Liu, Kun Gao, Zheng Liu, Zhou Zhang
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease with multiple initiators and pathways that converge on death for retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In this study, effects of taurine on calpains, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells (a human RPE cell line) were investigated. We first confirmed that autophagy, ER stress and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells were induced by Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS) through starvation to induce RPE metabolic stress...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034453/avp-825-sumatriptan-nasal-powder-reduces-nausea-compared-to-sumatriptan-tablets-results-of-the-compass-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Richard B Lipton, James S McGinley, Kenneth J Shulman, Stephen D Silberstein, R J Wirth, Dawn C Buse
BACKGROUND: Migraine-related nausea is associated with significant disability, increased burden of disease, and personal distress. Nausea can lead to delays or avoidance of initiating oral migraine treatment, sometimes resulting in treatment failures and poor outcomes. Nausea is often a symptom of migraine, but nausea may also be a consequence of treatment (ie, treatment emergent nausea [TEN]). Relieving nausea and minimizing TEN are important goals in acute migraine therapy. METHODS: We analyzed data from the COMPASS study, a randomized, double blind, double-dummy, comparative efficacy study that contrasted two active treatments, AVP-825 (breath-powered intranasal delivery of powdered sumatriptan 22 mg) and oral sumatriptan tablets (100 mg)...
October 16, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032762/a-review-of-evolutionary-and-cyclical-changes-in-the-surgical-approach-to-aortic-valve-disease
#15
Marco Piciche, Guglielmo Actis Dato, Roberto Lorusso, Francesco Musumeci
INTRODUCTION: Aortic valve surgery is no exception to the general rule that history is a cycle in many fields. This manuscript aims to assist readers in transitioning from past to present and on into the future within the field of aortic valve surgery. METHODS: The existing literature has been examined, including old and modern articles published on pubmed, old articles non visible on pubmed, old and recent books on the history of medicine, looking for similarities and repetitions in techniques and surgical approaches to the aortic valve in the past and the current times...
October 9, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031520/executive-function-responses-to-aerobic-exercise-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Fang Yu, David M Vock, Terry R Barclay
Executive dysfunction occurs early and is prevalent in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study tested the ability of different measures for identifying changes in executive function and the effect of 6-months of aerobic exercise on executive function in older adults with mild to moderate AD, using a single-group, repeated-measures design (n = 28, age 78.1 ± 8.37). Factor analysis and linear mixed-effects model analyses showed that individually the Exit Interview-25 (EXIT-25), Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale (BDS), and Golden Stroop test were the preferred instruments for measuring changes in executive function in the sample...
October 11, 2017: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029390/extracellular-truncated-tau-causes-early-presynaptic-dysfunction-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-tauopathies
#17
Fulvio Florenzano, Corsetti Veronica, Gabriele Ciasca, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Anna Pittaluga, Gunedalina Olivero, Marco Feligioni, Filomena Iannuzzi, Valentina Latina, Michele Francesco Maria Sciacca, Alessandro Sinopoli, Danilo Milardi, Giuseppe Pappalardo, De Spirito Marco, Massimiliano Papi, Anna Atlante, Antonella Bobba, Antonella Borreca, Pietro Calissano, Giuseppina Amadoro
The largest part of tau secreted from AD nerve terminals and released in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is C-terminally truncated, soluble and unaggregated supporting potential extracellular role(s) of NH2 -derived fragments of protein on synaptic dysfunction underlying neurodegenerative tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we show that sub-toxic doses of extracellular-applied human NH2 tau 26-44 (aka NH 2 htau) -which is the minimal active moiety of neurotoxic 20-22kDa peptide accumulating in vivo at AD synapses and secreted into parenchyma- acutely provokes presynaptic deficit in K(+) -evoked glutamate release on hippocampal synaptosomes along with alteration in local Ca(2+) dynamics...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027319/pregnancy-in-immunoglobulin-m-nephropathy
#18
Meryem Hocaoğlu, Sabahat Alışır Ecder, Abdulkadir Turgut, Ateş Karateke
Immunoglobulin nephropathy is an uncommon glomerular disease and a relatively less recognized clinico-immunopathological entity in the domain of glomerulonephritis, often thought to be a bridge between minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. It is characterized by asymptomatic hematuria, episodes of macroscopic hematuria and proteinuria. Corticosteroids remain the mainstay of therapeutic strategies for such patients. We present what we believe to be the first known case of successful pregnancy in a 40-year-old woman with a 12-year history of underlying immunoglobulin nephropathy...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025072/declining-exposures-to-lead-and-cadmium-contribute-to-explain-the-reduction-of-cardiovascular-mortality-in-the-us-population-1988-2004
#19
Adrian Ruiz-Hernandez, Ana Navas-Acien, Roberto Pastor-Barriuso, Ciprian M Crainiceanu, Josep Redon, Eliseo Guallar, Maria Tellez-Plaza
Background: Lead and cadmium exposures have markedly declined in the USA following the implementation of large-scale public health policies and could have contributed to the unexplained decline in cardiovascular mortality in US adults. We evaluated the potential contribution of lead and cadmium exposure reductions to explain decreasing cardiovascular mortality trends occurring in the USA from 1988-94 to 1999-2004. Methods: Prospective study in 15 421 adults ≥40 years old who had participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-94 or 1999-2004...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025039/rehabilitative-post-acute-care-for-stroke-patients-delivered-by-per-diem-payment-system-in-different-hospitalization-paths-a-taiwan-pilot-study
#20
Chung-Yuan Wang, Yu-Ren Chen, Jia-Pei Hong, Chih-Chun Chan, Long-Chung Chang, Hon-Yi Shi
Objective: To explore how post-acute care (PAC) for stroke patients delivered by per-diem payment system in varying hospitalization paths affects medical care utilization and functional status. Design, setting and patients: A longitudinal prospective cohort study of 181 acute stroke patients in a southern Taiwan hospital and patients were separated into two groups: patients transferred from regional hospitals (group 1) and patients referred from medical centers (group 2)...
August 14, 2017: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
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