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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283014/-fungemia-and-septic-arthritis-caused-by-saprochaete-capitata-in-a-patient-with-fanconi-aplastic-anemia-a-case-report
#1
Ömür Mustafa Parkan, Mustafa Altay Atalay, Ayşe Nedret Koç, Çiğdem Pala, Gonca Aydemir, Leylagül Kaynar
Saprochaete capitata (formerly known as Blastoschizomyces capitatus, Trichosporon capitatum, Geotrichum capitatum) is a rare but emerging yeast-like fungus. It is commonly found in environmental sources and can be isolated from skin, gastrointestinal system and respiratory tract of healthy individuals as well. It mainly infects patients with hematological malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), especially in the presence of neutropenia; and mortality rates are high in those patients. Although the data about the in vitro antifungal susceptibility are limited, it is being reported that amphotericin B and voriconazole are more effective on S...
January 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271644/a-case-of-disseminated-infection-with-skin-manifestation-due-to-non-neoformans-and-non-gattii-cryptococcus-in-a-patient-with-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#2
Sun Seob Park, Hyewon Lee, Weon Seo Park, Sang Hyun Hwang, Sang Il Choi, Mi Hong Choi, Si Won Lee, Eun Jung Ko, Young Ju Choi, Hyeon Seok Eom
Cryptococcus spp. other than Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii were previously considered saprophytes and thought to be non-pathogenic to humans. However, opportunistic infections associated with non-neoformans and non-gattii species, such as Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus albidus, have increased over the past four decades. We experienced a case of cryptococcosis caused by non-neoformans and non-gattii spp. in a 47-year-old female with refractory acute myeloid leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation...
January 16, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264853/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-minocycline-against-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-a-neutropenic-murine-pneumonia-model
#3
Jian Zhou, Kimberly R Ledesma, Kai-Tai Chang, Henrietta Abodakpi, Song Gao, Vincent H Tam
Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is increasingly more prevalent in nosocomial infections. Although in vitro susceptibility of A. baumannii to minocycline is promising, the in vivo efficacy of minocycline has not been well established. In this study, the in vivo activity of minocycline was evaluated in a neutropenic murine pneumonia model. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between minocycline exposure and bactericidal activity using 5 A. baumannii isolates with a broad range of susceptibility (MIC ranged from 0...
March 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264844/in-vivo-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-profiles-of-antofloxacin-against-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-neutropenic-murine-lung-infection-model
#4
Yu-Feng Zhou, Meng-Ting Tao, Wei Huo, Xiao-Ping Liao, Jian Sun, Ya-Hong Liu
Antofloxacin is a novel broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone under development for the treatment of infections caused by a diverse group of bacterial species. We explored the pharmacodynamic (PD) profile and targets of antofloxacin against seven Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates using a neutropenic murine lung infection model. Plasma and bronchopulmonary pharmacokinetic studies were conducted at single subcutaneous doses of 2.5, 10, 40 and 160 mg/kg. Mice were infected intratracheally with K. pneumoniae and treated using 2-fold increasing total doses of antofloxacin ranging from 2...
March 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075196/typhlitis-neutropenic-enterocolitis-in-patients-with-acute-leukemia-a-review
#5
Rodrigo Portugal, Marcio Nucci
Typhlitis is an abdominal complication of cancer chemotherapy, affecting mostly patients receiving intensive chemotherapeutic regimens with high potential to induce mucosal damage, such as patients with acute leukemia. Despite being relatively frequent, there are no randomized trials or high-quality cohort studies addressing important aspects of the diagnosis and management of the disease. Areas covered: In this review we discuss the gaps in the literature, acknowledging that the evidences for recommendations regarding the management of typhlitis are mostly expert opinion...
February 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031207/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-of-pulmonary-delivery-of-colistin-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-a-mouse-lung-infection-model
#6
Yu-Wei Lin, Qi Tony Zhou, Soon-Ee Cheah, Jinxin Zhao, Ke Chen, Jiping Wang, Hak-Kim Chan, Jian Li
Colistin is often administered by inhalation and/or the parenteral route for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa However, limited pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data are available to guide the optimization of dosage regimens of inhaled colistin. In the present study, PK of colistin in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and plasma was determined following intratracheal delivery of a single dose of colistin solution in neutropenic lung-infected mice...
March 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013453/pk-pd-target-attainment-with-ceftolozane-tazobactam-using-monte-carlo-simulation-in-patients-with-various-degrees-of-renal-function-including-augmented-renal-clearance-and-end-stage-renal-disease
#7
Alan J Xiao, Luzelena Caro, Myra W Popejoy, Jennifer A Huntington, Ravina Kullar
INTRODUCTION: Ceftolozane/tazobactam is an antibacterial agent with potent in vitro activity against Gram-negative pathogens, including many extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Because ceftolozane/tazobactam is primarily excreted renally, appropriate dose adjustments are needed for patients with renal impairment. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the probability of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment for patients with varying degrees of renal function, including augmented renal clearance (ARC) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with hemodialysis...
March 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013359/comparison-of-engraftment-following-different-stem-cell-mobilization-modalities-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma-treated-with-a-uniform-induction-regimen-containing-bortezomib-cyclophosphamide-and-dexamethasone
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Noam Benyamini, Irit Avivi, Eldad J Dann, Tsila Zuckerman, Noa Lavi, Tami Katz
Bortezomib-based induction followed by autologous stem cell transplantation is a common treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). Stem cell (SC) mobilization with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone has become an alternative to G-CSF combined with chemotherapeutic agents. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of the two mobilization modalities following induction with a uniform regimen containing bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD). We retrospectively evaluated results of SC mobilization using either G-CSF alone or combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide (HD-CY) in MM patients after VCD induction...
March 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999023/global-prevalence-of-carbapenem-resistance-in-neutropenic-patients-and-association-with-mortality-and-carbapenem-use-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Elda Righi, Anna Maria Peri, Patrick N A Harris, Alexander M Wailan, Mariana Liborio, Steven W Lane, David L Paterson
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are recognized as a cause of difficult-to-treat infections associated with high mortality. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review of currently available data on distribution, characteristics and outcome associated with carbapenem-resistant bloodstream infections in adult neutropenic patients. METHODS: Included studies were identified through Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases between January 1995 and April 2016...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981493/conversion-surgery-post-intraperitoneal-paclitaxel-and-systemic-chemotherapy-for-gastric-cancer-carcinomatosis-peritonei-are-we-ready
#10
Dexter Yak Seng Chan, Nicholas Li-Xun Syn, Rachel Yap, Janelle Niam Sin Phua, Thomas I Peng Soh, Cheng Ean Chee, Min En Nga, Asim Shabbir, Jimmy Bok Yan So, Wei Peng Yong
Peritoneal metastasis is common in gastric cancer. It is difficult to treat and carries a poor prognosis. Intraperitoneal (IP) delivery of chemotherapy can attain a higher drug exposure in the peritoneal cavity but with reduced systemic toxicity. Therefore, we hypothesized that IP paclitaxel with systemic chemotherapy would be clinically beneficial for gastric cancer with peritoneal metastases. Patients with unresectable and/or recurrent gastric adenocarcinoma with peritoneal dissemination and/or positive peritoneal washing cytology were recruited...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904098/relationship-between-pk-pd-of-cefepime-and-clinical-outcome-in-febrile-neutropenic-patients-with-normal-renal-function
#11
Yoshiko Yamashita, Hidekazu Kamiyama, Asuka Yamamoto, Hiroki Kanoh, Yoshimitsu Yuhki, Akira Ueda, Yukari Kawamoto, Yoshikazu Gotoh, Satoshi Yamamoto
 The efficacy of cefepime (CFPM) is known to depend on the ratio of the time that the serum levels exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to the dosing interval (%T>MIC). The objective of this study was to clarify the relation between %T>MIC and clinical outcome of CFPM, and to identify the optimal dosage regimen. We investigated the outcome of CFPM treatment for febrile neutropenia (FN) patients with normal renal function. Treatment success was defined as the completion of FN therapy with CFPM only...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817239/modified-docetaxel-cisplatin-and-fluorouracil-therapy-as-the-first-line-treatment-for-patients-with-recurrent-metastatic-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-cancer-a-retrospective-study
#12
Nebi Serkan Demirci, Sercan Aksoy, Nuriye Yıldırım Özdemir, Gökmen Umut Erdem, Melike Ozcelik, Eda Tanrikulu, Tülay Eren, Yakup Bozkaya, Süleyman Sahin, Fatma Başol, Suheyla Aytac Aslan, Nurullah Zengin, İbrahim Güllü
AIM: Modified docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (mDCF) therapy has been shown to be a well tolerated and highly effective regimen for metastatic gastric carcinoma. Herein we investigated the effectiveness of the mDCF combination as the first-line treatment in patients with recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). METHODS: A total of 80 patients with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC who were treated with mDCF between 2009 and 2015 were enrolled into this study...
December 8, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793737/benzylpenicillin-plus-an-aminoglycoside-versus-meropenem-in-neutropenic-lymphoma-and-leukaemia-patients-with-a-suspected-bacterial-infection-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
D Torfoss, T Fladhagen, H Holte, L Brinch, F H Schjesvold, Y Fløisand, E Nyquist, J Dalgaard, P Meyer, A K Lehmann, J Hammerstrøm, T Skjelbakken, E A Høiby, L Sandvik, S Kvaløy
OBJECTIVES: In Norway, initial treatment of febrile neutropenia (FN) has traditionally been benzylpenicillin plus an aminoglycoside. Internationally, FN is often treated with a broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic. We aimed to compare these two regimens in a prospective, randomized, trial in patients with lymphoma or leukaemia with an expected period of neutropenia ≥7 days, and a suspected bacterial infection. METHODS: Adult neutropenic patients with lymphoma or leukaemia, and a suspected bacterial infection, were randomized for treatment with benzylpenicillin plus an aminoglycoside or meropenem...
March 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771837/bacteremia-during-neutropenic-episodes-in-children-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-with-ciprofloxacin-and-penicillin-prophylaxis
#14
Worawut Choeyprasert, Suradej Hongeng, Usanarat Anurathapan, Samart Pakakasama
Bacteremia during neutropenic episodes is a cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We have used oral ciprofloxacin and penicillin V, from the start of the conditioning regimen until engraftment, for the prophylaxis of bacterial infection. The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of and risk factors for breakthrough bacteremia during neutropenic episodes in autologous and allogeneic HSCT patients. There were 215 patients enrolled, with a median age of 8...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742208/pharmacodynamic-and-pharmacokinetic-profiling-of-delafloxacin-in-a-murine-lung-model-against-community-acquired-respiratory-tract-pathogens
#15
Abrar K Thabit, Jared L Crandon, David P Nicolau
Increasing antimicrobial resistance in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) pathogens has contributed to infection-related morbidity and mortality. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and -negative organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to define the pharmacodynamic profile of delafloxacin against CAP pathogens using a neutropenic murine lung infection model. Five S. pneumoniae, 2 methicillin-susceptible S...
November 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671063/pharmacodynamics-of-ceftolozane-combined-with-tazobactam-against-enterobacteriaceae-in-a-neutropenic-mouse-thigh-model
#16
M J Melchers, E Mavridou, A C van Mil, C Lagarde, J W Mouton
Ceftolozane is a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin and is combined with tazobactam to broaden the activity of ceftolozane against strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). We determined the pharmacodynamics (PD) of the combination in the neutropenic mouse thigh model to determine the optimal exposure of tazobactam. Treatment of CD-1 neutropenic mice was started 2 h after infection with ceftolozane every 2 h (q2h) alone or in combination with tazobactam at different dosing frequencies for 24 h, and the number of CFU in the thighs was determined before and after treatment...
December 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648294/phase-ii-study-of-neo-adjuvant-chemotherapy-for-locally-advanced-gastric-cancer
#17
Alex Yuang-Chi Chang, Kian Fong Foo, Wen-Hsin Koo, Simon Ong, Jimmy So, Daniel Tan, Khong Hee Lim
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves survival of locally advanced gastric cancer patients. However, benefit is limited and the best regimen remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective of this prospective, multicenter phase 2 study was to evaluate the pathological complete response rate (PCR) with 2 cycles of docetaxel and capecitabine. METHODS: To be eligible, patients had to have histologically documented gastric cancer, a ECOG performance status 0 or 1, T3or4 Nany M0 staging after oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), CT scan of thorax and abdomen, and negative laparoscopic examination and peritoneal washing...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640002/comparison-of-two-dose-levels-of-cyclophosphamide-for-successful-stem-cell-mobilization-in-myeloma-patients
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Nils Winkelmann, Max Desole, Inken Hilgendorf, Thomas Ernst, Herbert G Sayer, Christa Kunert, Lars-Olof Mügge, Andreas Hochhaus, Sebastian Scholl
INTRODUCTION: Even in the era of proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs, the autologous stem cell transplantation after high-dose melphalan continues to represent a standard approach for myeloma patients in first-line therapy. Different mobilization chemotherapies before stem cell apheresis have been published while cyclophosphamide at a dose level of up to 4 g/m(2) has been evaluated and is commonly applied. In contrast, lower dose levels of cyclophosphamide (e.g., 1.5 g/m(2)) did not result in a sufficient collection of stem cells...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590107/a-phase-i-ii-study-of-escalating-doses-of-bortezomib-in-conjunction-with-high-dose-melphalan-as-a-conditioning-regimen-for-salvage-autologous-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-transplantation-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma
#19
Noa Biran, Scott D Rowley, David H Vesole, Shijia Zhang, Michele L Donato, Joshua Richter, Alan P Skarbnik, Andrew Pecora, David S Siegel
Escalating doses of bortezomib with high-dose melphalan was evaluated as as a conditioning regimen for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM). MM patients with less than a partial remission (PR) (or 50% reduction) compared to their pretransplantation paraprotein parameters after a prior ASCT with melphalan conditioning, or who were in relapse after a prior autologous transplantation, were eligible for study. Bortezomib was dose escalated in steps of 1, 1...
August 31, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575541/phase-ii-study-of-propylene-glycol-free-melphalan-combined-with-carmustine-etoposide-and-cytarabine-for-myeloablative-conditioning-in-lymphoma-patients-undergoing-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation
#20
Amanda F Cashen, Theresa Fletcher, Connie Ceriotti, Feng Gao, Armin Ghobadi, Ravi Vij, Keith Stockerl-Goldstein, John DiPersio, Camille Abboud
The lyophilized formulation of melphalan has several limitations based on its marginal solubility, limited stability after reconstitution, and the requirement to reconstitute it in propylene glycol (PG). PG-free melphalan (Evomela; Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Irvine CA) overcomes these limitations by using the solubilizing agent Captisol (Ligand Pharmaceuticals, Inc., LaJolla CA) to improve the stability of the reconstituted melphalan and avoid the potential toxicities of PG. This phase II study investigated the safety and efficacy of high-dose PG-free melphalan when included in the carmustine, etoposide, and cytarabine (BEAM) regimen for adult patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)...
August 26, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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