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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075196/typhlitis-neutropenic-enterocolitis-in-patients-with-acute-leukemia-a-review
#1
Rodrigo Portugal, Marcio Nucci
Typhlitis is an abdominal complication of cancer chemotherapy, affecting mostly patients receiving intensive chemotherapeutic regimens with high potential to induce mucosal damage, such as patients with acute leukemia. Despite being relatively frequent, there are no randomized trials or high-quality cohort studies addressing important aspects of the diagnosis and management of the disease. Areas covered: In this review we discuss the gaps in the literature, acknowledging that the evidences for recommendations regarding the management of typhlitis are mostly expert opinion...
February 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031207/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-of-pulmonary-delivery-of-colistin-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-a-mouse-lung-infection-model
#2
Yu-Wei Lin, Qi Tony Zhou, Soon-Ee Cheah, Jinxin Zhao, Ke Chen, Jiping Wang, Hak-Kim Chan, Jian Li
Colistin is often administered by inhalation and/or parenteral route for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa However, limited pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data are available to guide the optimization of dosage regimens of inhaled colistin. In the present study, PK of colistin in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and plasma was determined following intra-tracheal delivery of a single dose of colistin solution in neutropenic lung-infected mice...
December 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013453/pk-pd-target-attainment-with-ceftolozane-tazobactam-using-monte-carlo-simulation-in-patients-with-various-degrees-of-renal-function-including-augmented-renal-clearance-and-end-stage-renal-disease
#3
Alan J Xiao, Luzelena Caro, Myra W Popejoy, Jennifer A Huntington, Ravina Kullar
INTRODUCTION: Ceftolozane/tazobactam is an antibacterial agent with potent in vitro activity against Gram-negative pathogens, including many extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Because ceftolozane/tazobactam is primarily excreted renally, appropriate dose adjustments are needed for patients with renal impairment. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the probability of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment for patients with varying degrees of renal function, including augmented renal clearance (ARC) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with hemodialysis...
December 24, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013359/comparison-of-engraftment-following-different-stem-cell-mobilization-modalities-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma-treated-with-a-uniform-induction-regimen-containing-bortezomib-cyclophosphamide-and-dexamethasone
#4
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Noam Benyamini, Irit Avivi, Eldad J Dann, Tsila Zuckerman, Noa Lavi, Tami Katz
Bortezomib-based induction followed by autologous stem cell transplantation is a common treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). Stem cell (SC) mobilization with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone has become an alternative to G-CSF combined with chemotherapeutic agents. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of the two mobilization modalities following induction with a uniform regimen containing bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (VCD). We retrospectively evaluated results of SC mobilization using either G-CSF alone or combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide (HD-CY) in MM patients after VCD induction...
March 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999023/global-prevalence-of-carbapenem-resistance-in-neutropenic-patients-and-association-with-mortality-and-carbapenem-use-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Elda Righi, Anna Maria Peri, Patrick N A Harris, Alexander M Wailan, Mariana Liborio, Steven W Lane, David L Paterson
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are recognized as a cause of difficult-to-treat infections associated with high mortality. OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review of currently available data on distribution, characteristics and outcome associated with carbapenem-resistant bloodstream infections in adult neutropenic patients. METHODS: Included studies were identified through Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases between January 1995 and April 2016...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981493/conversion-surgery-post-intraperitoneal-paclitaxel-and-systemic-chemotherapy-for-gastric-cancer-carcinomatosis-peritonei-are-we-ready
#6
Dexter Yak Seng Chan, Nicholas Li-Xun Syn, Rachel Yap, Janelle Niam Sin Phua, Thomas I Peng Soh, Cheng Ean Chee, Min En Nga, Asim Shabbir, Jimmy Bok Yan So, Wei Peng Yong
Peritoneal metastasis is common in gastric cancer. It is difficult to treat and carries a poor prognosis. Intraperitoneal (IP) delivery of chemotherapy can attain a higher drug exposure in the peritoneal cavity but with reduced systemic toxicity. Therefore, we hypothesized that IP paclitaxel with systemic chemotherapy would be clinically beneficial for gastric cancer with peritoneal metastases. Patients with unresectable and/or recurrent gastric adenocarcinoma with peritoneal dissemination and/or positive peritoneal washing cytology were recruited...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904098/relationship-between-pk-pd-of-cefepime-and-clinical-outcome-in-febrile-neutropenic-patients-with-normal-renal-function
#7
Yoshiko Yamashita, Hidekazu Kamiyama, Asuka Yamamoto, Hiroki Kanoh, Yoshimitsu Yuhki, Akira Ueda, Yukari Kawamoto, Yoshikazu Gotoh, Satoshi Yamamoto
 The efficacy of cefepime (CFPM) is known to depend on the ratio of the time that the serum levels exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to the dosing interval (%T>MIC). The objective of this study was to clarify the relation between %T>MIC and clinical outcome of CFPM, and to identify the optimal dosage regimen. We investigated the outcome of CFPM treatment for febrile neutropenia (FN) patients with normal renal function. Treatment success was defined as the completion of FN therapy with CFPM only...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817239/modified-docetaxel-cisplatin-and-fluorouracil-therapy-as-the-first-line-treatment-for-patients-with-recurrent-metastatic-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-cancer-a-retrospective-study
#8
Nebi Serkan Demirci, Sercan Aksoy, Nuriye Yıldırım Özdemir, Gökmen Umut Erdem, Melike Ozcelik, Eda Tanrikulu, Tülay Eren, Yakup Bozkaya, Süleyman Sahin, Fatma Başol, Suheyla Aytac Aslan, Nurullah Zengin, İbrahim Güllü
AIM: Modified docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (mDCF) therapy has been shown to be a well tolerated and highly effective regimen for metastatic gastric carcinoma. Herein we investigated the effectiveness of the mDCF combination as the first-line treatment in patients with recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). METHODS: A total of 80 patients with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC who were treated with mDCF between 2009 and 2015 were enrolled into this study...
December 8, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793737/benzylpenicillin-plus-an-aminoglycoside-versus-meropenem-in-neutropenic-lymphoma-and-leukaemia-patients-with-a-suspected-bacterial-infection-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
D Torfoss, T Fladhagen, H Holte, L Brinch, F H Schjesvold, Y Fløisand, E Nyquist, J Dalgaard, P Meyer, A K Lehmann, J Hammerstrøm, T Skjelbakken, E A Høiby, L Sandvik, S Kvaløy
OBJECTIVES: In Norway, initial treatment of febrile neutropenia (FN) has traditionally been benzylpenicillin plus an aminoglycoside. Internationally, FN is often treated with a broad-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic. We aimed to compare these two regimens in a prospective, randomized, trial in patients with lymphoma or leukaemia with an expected period of neutropenia ≥7 days, and a suspected bacterial infection. METHODS: Adult neutropenic patients with lymphoma or leukaemia, and a suspected bacterial infection, were randomized for treatment with benzylpenicillin plus an aminoglycoside or meropenem...
March 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771837/bacteremia-during-neutropenic-episodes-in-children-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-with-ciprofloxacin-and-penicillin-prophylaxis
#10
Worawut Choeyprasert, Suradej Hongeng, Usanarat Anurathapan, Samart Pakakasama
Bacteremia during neutropenic episodes is a cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We have used oral ciprofloxacin and penicillin V, from the start of the conditioning regimen until engraftment, for the prophylaxis of bacterial infection. The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of and risk factors for breakthrough bacteremia during neutropenic episodes in autologous and allogeneic HSCT patients. There were 215 patients enrolled, with a median age of 8...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742208/pharmacodynamic-and-pharmacokinetic-profiling-of-delafloxacin-in-a-murine-lung-model-against-community-acquired-respiratory-tract-pathogens
#11
Abrar K Thabit, Jared L Crandon, David P Nicolau
Increasing antimicrobial resistance in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) pathogens has contributed to infection-related morbidity and mortality. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and -negative organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to define the pharmacodynamic profile of delafloxacin against CAP pathogens using a neutropenic murine lung infection model. Five S. pneumoniae, 2 methicillin-susceptible S...
November 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671063/pharmacodynamics-of-ceftolozane-combined-with-tazobactam-against-enterobacteriaceae-in-a-neutropenic-mouse-thigh-model
#12
M J Melchers, E Mavridou, A C van Mil, C Lagarde, J W Mouton
Ceftolozane is a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin and is combined with tazobactam to broaden the activity of ceftolozane against strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). We determined the pharmacodynamics (PD) of the combination in the neutropenic mouse thigh model to determine the optimal exposure of tazobactam. Treatment of CD-1 neutropenic mice was started 2 h after infection with ceftolozane every 2 h (q2h) alone or in combination with tazobactam at different dosing frequencies for 24 h, and the number of CFU in the thighs was determined before and after treatment...
December 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648294/phase-ii-study-of-neo-adjuvant-chemotherapy-for-locally-advanced-gastric-cancer
#13
Alex Yuang-Chi Chang, Kian Fong Foo, Wen-Hsin Koo, Simon Ong, Jimmy So, Daniel Tan, Khong Hee Lim
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves survival of locally advanced gastric cancer patients. However, benefit is limited and the best regimen remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective of this prospective, multicenter phase 2 study was to evaluate the pathological complete response rate (PCR) with 2 cycles of docetaxel and capecitabine. METHODS: To be eligible, patients had to have histologically documented gastric cancer, a ECOG performance status 0 or 1, T3or4 Nany M0 staging after oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), CT scan of thorax and abdomen, and negative laparoscopic examination and peritoneal washing...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640002/comparison-of-two-dose-levels-of-cyclophosphamide-for-successful-stem-cell-mobilization-in-myeloma-patients
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Nils Winkelmann, Max Desole, Inken Hilgendorf, Thomas Ernst, Herbert G Sayer, Christa Kunert, Lars-Olof Mügge, Andreas Hochhaus, Sebastian Scholl
INTRODUCTION: Even in the era of proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs, the autologous stem cell transplantation after high-dose melphalan continues to represent a standard approach for myeloma patients in first-line therapy. Different mobilization chemotherapies before stem cell apheresis have been published while cyclophosphamide at a dose level of up to 4 g/m(2) has been evaluated and is commonly applied. In contrast, lower dose levels of cyclophosphamide (e.g., 1.5 g/m(2)) did not result in a sufficient collection of stem cells...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590107/a-phase-i-ii-study-of-escalating-doses-of-bortezomib-in-conjunction-with-high-dose-melphalan-as-a-conditioning-regimen-for-salvage-autologous-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-transplantation-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma
#15
Noa Biran, Scott D Rowley, David H Vesole, Shijia Zhang, Michele L Donato, Joshua Richter, Alan P Skarbnik, Andrew Pecora, David S Siegel
Escalating doses of bortezomib with high-dose melphalan was evaluated as as a conditioning regimen for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM). MM patients with less than a partial remission (PR) (or 50% reduction) compared to their pretransplantation paraprotein parameters after a prior ASCT with melphalan conditioning, or who were in relapse after a prior autologous transplantation, were eligible for study. Bortezomib was dose escalated in steps of 1, 1...
August 31, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575541/phase-ii-study-of-propylene-glycol-free-melphalan-combined-with-carmustine-etoposide-and-cytarabine-for-myeloablative-conditioning-in-lymphoma-patients-undergoing-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation
#16
Amanda F Cashen, Theresa Fletcher, Connie Ceriotti, Feng Gao, Armin Ghobadi, Ravi Vij, Keith Stockerl-Goldstein, John DiPersio, Camille Abboud
The lyophilized formulation of melphalan has several limitations based on its marginal solubility, limited stability after reconstitution, and the requirement to reconstitute it in propylene glycol (PG). PG-free melphalan (Evomela; Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Irvine CA) overcomes these limitations by using the solubilizing agent Captisol (Ligand Pharmaceuticals, Inc., LaJolla CA) to improve the stability of the reconstituted melphalan and avoid the potential toxicities of PG. This phase II study investigated the safety and efficacy of high-dose PG-free melphalan when included in the carmustine, etoposide, and cytarabine (BEAM) regimen for adult patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)...
August 26, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502729/dose-dense-fec-followed-by-docetaxel-versus-docetaxel-plus-cyclophosphamide-as-adjuvant-chemotherapy-in-women-with-her2-negative-axillary-lymph-node-positive-early-breast-cancer-a-multicenter-randomized-study-by-the-hellenic-oncology-research-group-horg
#17
D Mavroudis, A Matikas, N Malamos, P Papakotoulas, S Kakolyris, I Boukovinas, A Athanasiadis, N Kentepozidis, N Ziras, P Katsaounis, E Saloustros, V Georgoulias
BACKGROUND: Sequential administration of anthracycline and taxane is the current standard of care adjuvant regimen for node-positive early breast cancer. Due to long-term toxicity concerns, anthracycline-free regimens have been developed. We compared a sequential dose-dense anthracycline and taxane regimen with the anthracycline-free regimen of docetaxel and cyclophosphamide. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this randomized, non-inferiority, phase III trial, women with HER2-negative invasive breast cancer and at least one positive axillary lymph node were randomized to receive either epirubicin (75 mg/m(2)), 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m(2)) and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m(2)) every 2 weeks for four cycles, followed by four cycles of docetaxel (75 mg/m(2)) every 2 weeks with prophylactic G-CSF support (FEC → D) or docetaxel (75 mg/m(2)) and cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m(2)) every 21 days for six cycles (TC)...
October 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470601/ciprofloxacin-versus-colistin-prophylaxis-during-neutropenia-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-two-parallel-patient-cohorts-treated-in-a-single-center
#18
Michele Pohlen, Julia Marx, Alexander Mellmann, Karsten Becker, Rolf M Mesters, Jan-Henrik Mikesch, Christoph Schliemann, Georg Lenz, Carsten Müller-Tidow, Thomas Büchner, Utz Krug, Matthias Stelljes, Helge Karch, Georg Peters, Hans U Gerth, Dennis Görlich, Wolfgang E Berdel
Patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia are at high risk for bacterial infections during therapy-related neutropenia. However, the use of specific antibiotic regimens for prophylaxis in afebrile neutropenic acute myeloid leukemia patients is controversial. We report a retrospective evaluation of 172 acute myeloid leukemia patients who received 322 courses of myelosuppressive chemotherapy and had an expected duration of neutropenia of more than seven days. The patients were allocated to antibiotic prophylaxis groups and treated with colistin or ciprofloxacin through 2 different hematologic services at our hospital, as available...
October 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456399/response-to-docetaxel-and-cisplatin-induction-chemotherapy-of-locally-advanced-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-multicenter-non-comparative-open-label-interventional-pilot-study
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
V Noronha, C Goswami, S Patil, A Joshi, V M Patil, V Murthy, S Arya, S Juvekar, S Goud, K Prabhash
BACKGROUND: Docetaxel, cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil is an efficacious induction regimen but is more toxic than cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil. This study aimed to determine whether docetaxel and cisplatin without 5-fluorouracil maintains efficacy while decreasing toxicity. METHODS: A multicenter non-comparative pilot study of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck was performed. Patients received primary therapy comprising three cycles of 75 mg/m2 docetaxel and 75 mg/m2 cisplatin followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy...
September 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431641/-a-pancreatic-cancer-patient-in-whom-pegfilgrastim-prophylaxis-did-not-prevent-severe-neutropenia-caused-by-the-folfirinox-regimen
#20
Takayoshi Kiba, Yuko Saito, Chiaki Otomo, Miho Sato, Takayoshi Meguro
Recently, newer agents in regimens such as FOLFIRINOX have shown promising activity, being superior to gemcitabine as a single agent for unresectable pancreatic cancer patients with good performance status. Herein, we report a case of pancreatic cancer treated with the FOLFIRINOX regimen and pegfilgrastim prophylaxis as second-line treatment in a patient who failed this regimen. He previously received gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel combination chemotherapy as first-line treatment. It was reported that grade 3-4 neutropenia frequently occurred in many patients receiving the FOLFIRINOX regimen...
July 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
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