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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771625/a-multifaceted-approach-to-rsv-vaccination
#1
Jorge C G Blanco, Marina S Boukhvalova, Trudy G Morrison, Stefanie N Vogel
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition, RSV infections occur throughout different ages, thus, maintaining the virus in circulation, and increasing health risk to more susceptible populations such as infants, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. To date, there is no vaccine approved to prevent RSV infection or minimize symptoms of infection. Current clinical trials for vaccines against RSV are being carried out in four very different populations...
May 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755048/school-based-interprofessional-asthma-self-management-education-program-for-middle-school-students-a-feasibility-trial
#2
Ellen B Buckner, Donna J Copeland, Kristina S Miller, Timothy Op Holt
BACKGROUND: Asthma is the most common chronic disease among school-aged children under 18 years of age and is a major cause of morbidity, loss of school days, and increased hospitalizations. Asthma disproportionately affects low-income, minority youth in Alabama. The benefits of improving asthma control and self-management have significance for improving health, preventing disease, and reducing health disparities by addressing social, behavioral, environmental, economic, and medical determinants of health...
2018: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750026/validation-of-the-french-version-of-the-london-chest-activity-of-daily-living-scale-and-the-dyspnea-12-questionnaire
#3
Marc Beaumont, Francis Couturaud, Florence Jego, Romain Pichon, Catherine Le Ber, Loïc Péran, Christophe Rogé, David Renault, Swathi Narayan, Gregory Reychler
Introduction: Eighty percent of COPD patients experience dyspnea during activities of daily life (ADL). To the best of our knowledge, the Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea scale is the only validated scale designed to quantify dyspnea during ADL available in the French language. Two other instruments are only available in English versions: the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) scale that allows a specific evaluation of dyspnea during ADL and the Dyspnea-12 questionnaire that evaluates the affective (emotional) and sensory components of dyspnea in daily life...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745328/a-case-of-acute-intoxication-due-to-the-assumption-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-nps-u-47700-identification-in-urine-blood-and-pubic-hair-by-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#4
Donata Favretto, Vogliardi Susanna, Stocchero Giulia, Maietti Sergio, Tucci Marianna, Nalesso Alessandro, Snenghi Rossella
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: We report on a case of severe intoxication after insufflation of U-47700, a synthetic opioid that acts as a selective agonist of the µ-opioid receptor, several times more potent than morphine. A man in his 30s was found irresponsive in his apartment and was brought to the emergency department of a local hospital. A comatous state and severe respiratory depression were diagnosed. Anamnesis revealed that the patient could have taken the substance named "U-47700", bought in the Internet...
May 9, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742914/depression-is-a-major-determinant-of-both-disease-specific-and-generic-health-related-quality-of-life-in-people-with-severe-copd
#5
Sun Mi Jang, Ki Uk Kim, Hae Jung Na, Seung Eun Song, Sang Hee Lee, Haejung Lee, Yun Seong Kim, Min Ki Lee, Hye-Kyung Park
The quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) decreases significantly as the disease progresses; those with severe COPD are affected most. This article investigates predictors of the disease-specific and generic health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with severe COPD. This multicentre prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 80 patients with severe COPD. At enrolment, all patients completed a disease-specific instrument, the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and a generic instrument, the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36)...
January 1, 2018: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742220/humidification-and-heating-of-inhaled-gas-in-patients-with-artificial-airway-a-narrative-review
#6
Gustavo Adrián Plotnikow, Matias Accoce, Emiliano Navarro, Norberto Tiribelli
Instrumentation of the airways in critical patients (endotracheal tube or tracheostomy cannula) prevents them from performing their function of humidify and heating the inhaled gas. In addition, the administration of cold and dry medical gases and the high flows that patients experience during invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation generate an even worse condition. For this reason, a device for gas conditioning is needed, even in short-term treatments, to avoid potential damage to the structure and function of the respiratory epithelium...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738345/the-esophageal-atresia-quality-of-life-questionnaires-feasibility-validity-and-reliability-in-sweden-and-germany
#7
Michaela Dellenmark-Blom, Jens Dingemann, Stefanie Witt, Julia H Quitmann, Linus Jönsson, Vladimir Gatzinsky, John E Chaplin, Monika Bullinger, Sofie Flieder, Benno M Ure, Carmen Dingemann, Kate Abrahamsson
OBJECTIVES: Esophageal atresia (EA) is a rare malformation characterized of discontinuity of the esophagus, concurrent with or without a tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). We report the validity and reliability of a condition-specific quality of life (QOL) tool for EA/TEF children, the age-adapted EA-QOL-questionnaires, when used in Sweden and Germany. METHODS: 124 families of children with EA/TEF participated in the study; 53 parents completed the EA-QOL-questionnaire for children aged 2-7 years; 62 children/71 parents the EA-QOL-questionnaire for children 8-17 years...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717676/lung-and-heart-sounds-analysis-state-of-the-art-and-future-trends
#8
Ana L Padilla-Ortiz, David Ibarra
Lung sounds, which include all sounds that are produced during the mechanism of respiration, may be classified into normal breath sounds and adventitious sounds. Normal breath sounds occur when no respiratory problems exist, whereas adventitious lung sounds (wheeze, rhonchi, crackle, etc.) are usually associated with certain pulmonary pathologies. Heart and lung sounds that are heard using a stethoscope are the result of mechanical interactions that indicate operation of cardiac and respiratory systems, respectively...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713032/a-molecular-multi-gene-classifier-for-disease-diagnostics
#9
Randolph Lopez, Ruofan Wang, Georg Seelig
Despite its early promise as a diagnostic and prognostic tool, gene expression profiling remains cost-prohibitive and challenging to implement in a clinical setting. Here, we introduce a molecular computation strategy for analysing the information contained in complex gene expression signatures without the need for costly instrumentation. Our workflow begins by training a computational classifier on labelled gene expression data. This in silico classifier is then realized at the molecular level to enable expression analysis and classification of previously uncharacterized samples...
April 30, 2018: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701364/clinical-utility-of-frailty-scales-for-the-prediction-of-postoperative-complications-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Vânia Rocha, Filipe Marmelo, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Daniel Moreira-Gonçalves
INTRODUCTION: Frailty can be defined as a biological syndrome of reduced reserve and resistance to stressful events. Evidence suggests that this syndrome is linked to adverse outcomes in various surgical populations. Several instruments have been developed to measure frailty, however there is no consensus about which one is the most useful in the surgical population. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the utility of different frailty scales in the prediction of postoperative complications in older surgical population...
July 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696166/design-rationale-and-feasibility-of-a-multidimensional-experimental-protocol-to-study-early-life-stress
#11
M Dillwyn Bartholomeusz, Philip S Bolton, Robin Callister, Virginia Skinner, Deborah Hodgson
There is a rapidly accumulating body of evidence regarding the influential role of early life stress (ELS) upon medical and psychiatric conditions. While self-report instruments, with their intrinsic limitations of recall, remain the primary means of detecting ELS in humans, biological measures are generally limited to a single biological system. This paper describes the design, rationale and feasibility of a study to simultaneously measure neuroendocrine, immune and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to psychological and physiological stressors in relation to ELS...
September 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686950/neonatal-outcomes-following-delivery-in-water-evaluation-of-safety-in-a-district-general-hospital
#12
Phil J Peacock, Stanley T Zengeya, Lesley Cochrane, Maxine Sleath
Introduction Giving birth in water has increased in popularity over recent years, with potential benefits in terms of maternal comfort and decreased rates of instrumental delivery. Some concerns have been raised about possible adverse neonatal outcomes, including hypothermia and respiratory distress. There is not currently, however, a clear consensus in the literature. This study sought to assess the safety of delivering in water for low-risk vaginal deliveries in a District General Hospital in the United Kingdom...
February 20, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686303/mitochondrial-dna-induces-foley-catheter-related-bladder-inflammation-via-toll-like-receptor-9-activation
#13
Carlos A Puyo, Alexander Earhart, Nicholas Staten, Yuan Huang, Alana Desai, Henry Lai, Ramakrishna Venkatesh
Bladder instrumentation engages the innate immune system via neutrophil activation, promoting inflammation and pain. Elevated levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been associated with tissue damage and organ dysfunction. We hypothesized that local bladder trauma induced by a Foley catheter (FC) will result in mtDNA release, migration of neutrophils into the bladder lumen, and activation of the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway leading to bladder tissue damage. We randomized 10 swine into two groups receiving uncoated, or chloroquine/N-Acetylcysteine (CQ/NAC)-coated FCs...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683781/laboratory-evaluation-of-a-low-cost-real-time-aerosol-multi-sensor
#14
Robert J Vercellino, Darrah K Sleeth, Rodney G Handy, Kyeong T Min, Scott C Collingwood
Exposure to occupational aerosols are a known hazard in many industry sectors and can be a risk factor for several respiratory diseases. In this study, a laboratory evaluation of low-cost aerosol sensors, the Dylos DC1700 and a modified Dylos known as the Utah Modified Dylos Sensor (UMDS), was performed to assess the sensors' efficiency in sampling respirable and inhalable dust at high concentrations, which are most common in occupational settings. Dust concentrations were measured in a low-speed wind tunnel with 3 UMDSs, collocated with an aerosol spectrometer (Grimm 1...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676798/afferent-neural-feedback-overrides-the-modulating-effects-of-arousal-hypercapnia-and-hypoxemia-on-neonatal-cardio-respiratory-control
#15
Kathleen J Lumb, Jennifer M Schneider, Thowfique Ibrahim, Anita Rigaux, Shabih U Hasan
KEY POINTS: Evidence at whole animal, organ-system, and cellular and molecular levels suggests that afferent volume feedback is critical for establishment of adequate ventilation at birth. Due to the irreversible nature of vagal ablation studies to date, it was difficult to quantify the roles of afferent volume input, arousal and changes in blood gas tensions on neonatal respiratory control. During reversible perineural vagal block, profound apneas, and hypoxemia and hypercarbia were observed necessitating termination of perineural blockade...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673899/it-s-about-time-cesarean-sections-and-neonatal-health
#16
Ana María Costa-Ramón, Ana Rodríguez-González, Miquel Serra-Burriel, Carlos Campillo-Artero
Cesarean sections have been associated in the literature with poorer newborn health, particularly with a higher incidence of respiratory morbidity. Most studies suffer, however, from potential omitted variable bias, as they are based on simple comparisons of mothers who give birth vaginally and those who give birth by cesarean section. We try to overcome this limitation and provide credible causal evidence by using variation in the probability of having a c-section that is arguably unrelated to maternal and fetal characteristics: variation by time of day...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671615/patient-reported-outcomes-for-the-detection-quantification-and-evaluation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-exacerbations
#17
Alex J Mackay, Konstantinos Kostikas, Lindsey Murray, Fernando J Martinez, Marc Miravitlles, Gavin Donaldson, Donald Banerji, Francesco Patalano, Jadwiga A Wedzicha
An exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an acute worsening of respiratory symptoms, accompanied by a variable degree of physiological deterioration. The traditional assessment of an exacerbation consists of the reporting of symptoms directly by the patient to a clinician and subsequent clinical assessment. It would be valuable to also gather symptom reports directly from patients and thus patient-reported outcome (PRO) tools should be ideally suited to the evaluation of COPD exacerbations...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662977/handheld-skin-printer-in-situ-formation-of-planar-biomaterials-and-tissues
#18
Navid Hakimi, Richard Cheng, Lian Leng, Mohammad Sotoudehfar, Phoenix Qing Ba, Nazihah Bakhtyar, Saeid Amini-Nik, Marc G Jeschke, Axel Günther
We present a handheld skin printer that enables the in situ formation of biomaterial and skin tissue sheets of different homogeneous and architected compositions. When manually positioned above a target surface, the compact instrument (weight <0.8 kg) conformally deposits a biomaterial or tissue sheet from a microfluidic cartridge. Consistent sheet formation is achieved by coordinating the flow rates at which bioink and cross-linker solution are delivered, with the speed at which a pair of rollers actively translate the cartridge along the surface...
April 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658183/determining-the-accuracy-and-reliability-of-indirect-calorimeters-utilizing-the-methanol-combustion-technique
#19
Sepideh Kaviani, Dale A Schoeller, Eric Ravussin, Edward L Melanson, Sarah T Henes, Lara R Dugas, Ronald E Dechert, George Mitri, Paul F M Schoffelen, Pim Gubbels, Asa Tornberg, Stephen Garland, Marco Akkermans, Jamie A Cooper
BACKGROUND: Several indirect calorimetry (IC) instruments are commercially available, but comparative validity and reliability data are lacking. Existing data are limited by inconsistencies in protocols, subject characteristics, or single-instrument validation comparisons. The aim of this study was to compare accuracy and reliability of metabolic carts using methanol combustion as the cross-laboratory criterion. METHODS: Eight 20-minute methanol burn trials were completed on 12 metabolic carts...
April 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649792/comparison-of-different-compression-to-ventilation-ratios-2-1-3-1-and-4-1-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-a-porcine-model-of-neonatal-asphyxia
#20
Matteo P Pasquin, Po-Yin Cheung, Sparsh Patel, Min Lu, Tze-Fun Lee, Michael Wagner, Megan O'Reilly, Georg M Schmölzer
BACKGROUND: High-quality chest compression is essential during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However, the optimal compression to ventilation ratio (C:V) that should be used during neonatal CPR to optimize coronary and cerebral perfusion while providing adequate ventilation remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that different C:V ratios (e.g., 2: 1 or 4: 1) will reduce the time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in severely asphyxiated piglets...
April 12, 2018: Neonatology
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